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Full text of "Vermont Fire Sprinkler Code"

V er mont 

Fire & Building Safety C ode 

2005 




VERMONT DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC SAFETY 

DIVISION OF FIRE SAFETY 

OFFICE OF THE FIRE MARSHAL AND FIRE ACADEMY 

vtfiresafety.org 



Effective Date October 22,2005 



2005 Vermont Fire & Building Safety Code 
Introduction 

Since 1972 the State of Vermont has adopted nationally recognized safety standards to 
protect the public from fire and explosion hazards and establish standards for fire safety. 
Standards for boiler safety have been in place even longer. Vermont is able to benefit from the 
research and fire safety experience from experts across the nation in every area of expertise by 
using nationally recognized safety standards in this Code. The national standards are amended 
only when necessary to address conditions specific to Vermont, stay within the limits set by law 
or to clarify interpretations of certain sections. 

The 2005 Vermont Fire & Building Safety Code establishes the process to obtain a 
construction or operating permit, lists the codes and standards that are adopted and describes the 
process used to evaluate and grant a variance or exemption from the Code. The annexes to this 
Code are designed to help people understand the state laws related to fire, explosion, hazardous 
materials, structural safety and carbon monoxide, and enable people to understand and take 
advantage of the flexibility built into this Code for historic buildings. 

This Code establishes separate minimum standards for new and existing buildings, and 
existing buildings that are used for a new purpose. This Code recognizes the need to protect the 
public when the use of a building changes putting more people at risk or introducing new 
hazards to a building. But, this Code is also written to facilitate the adaptive reuse of buildings 
recognizing certain limitations of existing buildings. This Code has less restrictive requirements 
for low risk occupancies and promotes the use of alternative solutions for safety. 

The Life Safety Code (NFPA 1 01 ) is the most widely used standard adopted under this 
Code and applies to all buildings and premises regulated under this Code. The Life Safety Code 
regulates construction, fire protection and occupancy features necessary to minimize danger to 
life from fire and to allow escape from fire and non-fire emergencies. 

The Uniform Fire Code (NFPA 1) applies to new and existing conditions including 
general fire safety provisions, fire protection including sprinkler systems, fire department access 
to buildings and special material and process fire hazards. The Uniform Fire Code functions as a 
guide to determine what other specialty codes and state amendments apply to a building, 
premise, or condition. 

The International Building Code (IBC) applies to new construction and structural 
requirements. It is used to determine the allowable size of new construction, structural design 
features such as the snow load, and to ensure compliance with the performance requirements of 
other adopted standards. 

The National Board Inspection Code (NBIC) is focused on the installation, maintenance 
and inspection of boilers and pressure vessels. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 
(ASME) standards referenced in section 3 (b) regulates the design and manufacture of boilers 
and pressure vessels. Prior to this adoption of this Code there had been a separate set of rules for 
boilers and pressure vessels. By combining the boiler rules with the fire prevention rules there 
will be a simplified administrative process and better coordination for inspections regarding 
heating systems. 

Information on how to contact the Division of Fire Safety and obtain copies of the 
adopted codes are in Annex V at the end of this Code. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Introduction 



Section 1. Title, Intent and Authority... page 4 

Section 2. Adoption of Nationally Recognized Standards... page 4 

Fire Prevention Code, NFPA 1, amendments to the 2003 edition... page 4 
Certificate of Fitness - Classifications, Qualifications... page 4 
Amendments to the 2002 edition of NFPA 13 and NFPA 25... page 7 
Information Regarding Explosives and Fireworks... page 9 
Amendments to the 2001 edition of NFPA 58... page 10 
Life Safety Code, NFPA 101, amendments to the 2003 edition... page 10 
National Board Inspection Code, amendments to the 2004 edition... page 14 
International Building Code, amendments to the 2003 edition... page 14 
Cross-Reference to Adopted Standards... page 14 
Section 3. Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspection... page 16 
Section 4. Application for a Construction Permit... page 18 
Certification of Construction Documents., page 18 
Section 5. Variance, Exemption, and Reconsideration... page 19 
Section 6. Municipal Enforcement and Coordination... page 20 
Section 7. Effective Dates and Severability... page 20 

Annex I - Sections of Vermont Law Pertaining to the Vermont Fire & Building Safety Code 

Definition of Public Building... page 21 

Definition of Historic Building... page 22 

Construction Permit Fee... page 23 

Cooperative Municipal Inspection Agreements... page 25 

Reports to the Fire Marshal... page 27 

Explosives and Fireworks... page 28 
Annex II -Excerpts from the Architects and Professional Engineers Licensing Laws... page 29 
Annex III - Smoke & Carbon Monoxide Detector Law for Single- Family Owner Occupied 

Dwellings... page 31 
Annex IV - Information for Historic Buildings... page 32 
Annex V - Contact Information... page 34 
Annex VI - Index by Topic and Occupancy... page 35 
Annex VII - Snow Load Information... page 37 



Section 1. 

Title, Intent and Authority 

(a) These rules are adopted under 20 V.S.A. 
Chapter 173, Subchapter 2 "Fire Safety 
Division", Subchapter 3 "Fire Hazards and 
Dangerous Substances", Subchapter 5 "Boilers 
and Pressure Vessels" and Chapter 177 
"Explosives and Fireworks", and shall be known 
and cited as the Vermont Fire & Building Safety 
Code - 2005. It is the intent of these rules to 
provide for the public safety as directed by these 
sections of the law. 

(b) This Code shall be administered and 
enforced by the Commissioner of Public Safety 
and staff members of the Division of Fire Safety 
that are hereby designated to enforce this Code 
and utilize discretionary authority regarding the 
details of the application of this Code. Hereafter 
the Commissioner, or designated representative, 
or in the case of a cooperative municipal 
inspection agreement, the approved inspector(s), 
are designated as the Authority Having 
Jurisdiction (AHJ). For the purpose of NFPA 1 
section 1.13, Certificates of Fitness, the 
Commissioner and staff members of the 
Division of Fire Safety are designated as the 
AHJ. 

(c) The AHJ may establish priorities for 
enforcing these rules and standards based on the 
relative risk to people and property. 

Section 2. 

Adoption of Nationally Recognized Standards 

The following nationally recognized safety 
standards, as amended herein, are adopted for 
the purpose of making rules regarding the 
safeguarding of people and property in case of 
fire, explosion, hazardous materials, dangerous 
structural conditions and the generation of 
carbon monoxide. 

This Code has been designed to minimize 
any conflict or difference between standards. 
Where there is a conflict between an adopted 
code and its referenced code or standard the 
adopted code shall apply. Where there is a 
conflict between the Life Safety Code (NFPA 
101) and another code or standard the Life 
Safety Code shall apply. Where there is conflict 
between the Uniform Fire Code (NFPA 1) and 
the International Building Code or the National 
Board Inspection Code the Uniform Fire Code 



shall apply. Where one code or standard has a 
requirement and another code or standard does 
not have a requirement the code or standard with 
a requirement shall apply. When there is a 
conflict between a general requirement and a 
specific requirement the specific requirement 
shall apply. 

(a) National Fire Protection Association, 
standard NFPA 1, Uniform Fire Code, 2003 
edition, including those standards referenced in 
Chapter 2 that shall be considered part of this 
Code. 

-delete- section 1.8 Duties and Powers of the Incident 
Commander 

-delete & replace- section 1.10 Appeals: Requests for 
variances, exemptions and reconsideration of the 
interpretation of this Code, shall be made and 
processed in accordance with Section 5 of this Code. 

-delete & replace- section 1.13.1 Certificate of 
Fitness: A certificate of fitness is required for all 
individuals performing activities related to fire or life 
safety based on the qualifications as follows: 

(1) Use of explosive materials - A current explosive 
license issued in accordance with Title 20 V.S.A. 3072 
by the Vermont State Police is required for the use of 
explosive materials in Vermont. 

(2) Blasting operations - A current explosive license 
issued in accordance with Title 20 V.S.A. 3072 by the 
Vermont State Police is required for blasting 
operations in V ermont. 

(3) Fireworks displays - (Reserved) 

(4) Inspection, servicing or recharging of portable 
fire extinguishers -(Reserved) 

(5) Design, installation, inspection, servicing or 
recharging of fixed fire extinguishing systems - A 
current certificate from the National Institute for 
Certificate in Engineering Technologies (NICET) for 
fire suppression; or training by the manufacturer of 
fire suppression systems acceptable to the authority 
having jurisdiction. Eight hours of related instruction 
is required for certificate renewal. 

(6) Design, installation, inspection, maintenance and 
testing of fire alarm and detection systems and 
equipment - A current master electrician, journeyman 
electrician or type S journeyman commercial fire 
alarm license, issued in accordance with Title 26 
V.S.A. chapter 15. Eight hours of related instruction is 
required for certificate renewal. [72:4.3.3 is deleted 
and replace by this section] 

(7) (a) Delivery of liquid propane (LP) gas - 
Successful completion of the LP gas Certified 
Employee Training Program (CETP) books 1.0, 2.2 
and 2.4. [re-lighting a pilot light after an interruption 
of service is permitted under this certification] 



(b) Plant Operations for LP gas - Successful 
completion of CETP books 1.0, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 & 3.4 

(c) Design & Selection of LP gas Vapor 
Distribution System - Successful completion of 
CETP books 1.0 & 4.1. 

(d) Preparing & Installing of LP gas Vapor 
Distribution Components - Successful completion 
of CETP books 1.0 & 4.2 

(e) LP gas Transfer Systems operations - 
Successful completion of CETP books 1.0 & 5.0 

(f) Installation, Inspection and Service of LP gas 
Appliances - Successful completion of CETP books 
1.0, 4.2, 6.0 and 7.0. Eight hours of related 
instruction is required for certificate renewal 
including at least two hours regarding the prevention 
of CO leakage and the procedure for safety 
inspection of an existing appliance - NFPA 54 
(annex H). 

(g) The installation, inspection and service of both 
natural fuel gas systems and equipment, and LP 
gas systems and equipment - Successful completion 
of the AGA course of study including "The 
Fundamentals of Combustion, Gas Appliance 
Venting, Electricity, Gas Controls, and Gas 
Appliances" and CETP books 1.0 and 4.2. Eight 
hours of related instruction is required for certificate 
renewal including at least two hours regarding the 
prevention of CO leakage and the procedure for 
safety inspection of an existing appliance - NFPA 54 
(annex H). 

(h) Installation, inspection and service of natural 
fuel gas systems and equipment - Successful 
completion of the American Gas Association (AGA) 
course of study including "The Fundamentals of 
Combustion, Gas Appliance Venting, Electricity, Gas 
Controls, and Gas Appliances". Eight hours of 
related instruction is required for certificate renewal 
including at least two hours regarding the prevention 
of CO leakage and the procedure for safety 
inspection of an existing appliance - NFPA 54 
(annex H) 

(i) Installation, inspection and service of oil burning 
equipment - A Silver certificate from the National 
Oilheat Research Alliance (NORA). Eight hours of 
related instruction is required for certificate renewal 
including at least two hours regarding the prevention 
of CO leakage and the procedure for inspection, 
(j) LIMITED installation, repair and maintenance of 
oil burning equipment not including placing a new 
unit in service - A Bronze certificate from NORA. 
Eight hours of related instruction is required for 
certificate renewal including at least two hours 
regarding the prevention of CO leakage and the 
procedure for inspection. 

(8) Cleaning, maintenance and evaluation of 
chimneys - A current certificate from the Chimney 
Safety Institute of America. 

(9) Installation, inspection or servicing of range 
hood systems - (Reserved) 

(10) Calculations and design, for fire sprinkler and 
standpipe systems, including private underground 



and aboveground fire mains and fire pumps - A 
current level III certificate, or higher, for automatic 
fire sprinkler systems from NICET or a fire 
protection engineer license issued in accordance with 
Title 26 V.S.A. chapter 20. A person with a 
certificate of fitness under this section shall also be 
permitted to install, maintain, repair and test fire 
sprinkler and standpipe systems under section 1.13.1 

(11). 

(11) Installation, maintenance, repair and testing 
for fire sprinkler and standpipe systems, including 
private underground and aboveground fire mains and 
fire pumps - Completion of an approved fire 
sprinkler apprentice program or meeting the testing 
requirements established by the AHJ. Fifteen hours 
of related instruction is required for certificate 
renewal. 

(12) LIMITED installation, maintenance, inspection 
and testing for domestic fire sprinkler systems with 
not more than 6 sprinklers for any isolated hazard 
area in accordance with 101:9.7.1.2 or an automatic 
fire sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 13D, 
Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in 
One and Two Family Dwellings and Manufactured 
Homes, including multipurpose piping systems - 
Documented competency and experience acceptable 
to the AHJ. Eight hours of related instruction is 
required for certificate renewal. 

(13) Installation, maintenance, repair and testing for 
emergency generators - Documented competency 
and experience through training by the manufacturer 
or acceptable by the AHJ. Eight hours of related 
instruction is required for certificate renewal. 

[Information on the periodic inspection & tests of fire 
protection systems is found in NFPA 1 amended 
section 4.5.8.4] 

-add- section 1.13.4.1 Experience & Training: The 
AHJ may accept successful completion of 
appropriate examination or certification other then 
those listed in this section when the examination or 
certification demonstrates an equivalent level of 
experience and training. 

-add- section 1.13.8.1 Documentation for Renewal: 

An application for renewal shall include: 

(1) Documentation of having completed the required 
hours of approved related instruction regarding this 
Code during the previous certificate period, and 

(2) A completed and signed tax certification form in 
accordance with Title 32 V.S.A. 31 13, and 

(3) A completed and signed child support 
certification form in accordance with Titlel5 V.S.A. 
section 795. 

-add- section 1.13.12.4 Due Process: A person who 
has a certificate of fitness revoked or suspended shall 
be given written notification and the opportunity for 
a hearing following due process. 



-add referenced standards- section 2.2 Referenced 

Publications: the following standards are added to 

section 2.2; 

NFPA 53, Recommended Practice on Materials, 

Equipment and Systems in Oxygen-Enriched 

Atmospheres, 1999 Edition. 

NFPA 73, Residential Safety Code, as adopted by the 

Vermont Electrician's Licensing Board. 

NFPA 92A, Recommended Practice for Smoke 

Control Systems, 1996 edition. 

NFPA 92B, Guide for Smoke Management Systems 

in Malls, Atria and Large Areas, 2002 edition 

NFPA 101A, A guide on Alternative Approaches to 

Life Safety 2001 edition. 

NFPA 291, Recommended Practice for Fire Flow 

Testing and Marking of Hydrants, 2002 Edition. 

NFPA 601, Standard for Security Services in Fire 

Loss, Loss Prevention, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 720, Standard for the Installation of Carbon 

Monoxide Warning (CO) Equipment in Dwelling 

Units, 2005 edition. 

NFPA 820 Standard for Fire Protection in 

Wastewater Treatment and Collection Facilities, 

1999 edition. 

NFPA 914, Code for Fire Protection of Historic 

Structures, 2001 edition 

-delete & replace in part - section 2.2 Reference 

Publications: 

Any reference to NFPA 5000, Building Construction 

and Safety Code, 2003 Edition, shall be to the 

International Building Code, 2003 edition, as 

amended in this code 

-cross-reference - section 3.3.138.11 Health Care 
Occupancy to section 101:3.3.152.7 as amended 

-cross-reference - section 3.3.138.22 Residential 
Board & Care Occupancy to 101.3.3.152.13 as 
amended 



1.13. Inspections and tests shall be conducted at least 
annually and cover all intervals of testing frequency 
for the system. Annual testing by a technically 
qualified person does not relieve the owner of the 
responsibility of maintenance, inspection and testing 
at more frequent intervals as required by this code. A 
technically qualified person shall file a written 
inspection report with the AHJ within 14 days of 
completion of each inspection. 

-add- section 4.5.8.5 Identification of fire 
protection systems: A fire protection system 
identification number, provided by the AHJ, shall be 
affixed to the control panel, control valve or riser of 
the fire protection system to provide a unique 
identification number for the fire protection system. 

-add- section 4.5.8.6 Proof of Inspection: Proof of 
inspection, approved by the AHJ shall be affixed by a 
technically qualified person to the control panel, 
control valve or riser of the fire protection system 
after the required inspection has been completed as 
evidence of that inspection. The proof of inspection 
fee for fire suppression, alarm, detection and any 
other fire protection systems shall be $10.00. 

-add- section 10.13.4 Truss Construction: All 
buildings containing truss construction assemblies 
shall be provided with signage permanently affixed at 
a height 4 feet above the ground located at the left 
side of the main entrance door on the address side of 
the building, at the location of the remote fire alarm 
annunciation panel or at the fire department 
connection for the fire sprinkler system. The sign 
shall be triangular in shape measuring 12 inches 
horizontally and 6 inches vertically and of 
contrasting color to the background containing the 
letter "F" for the truss floor assemblies, the letter "R" 
for truss roof assemblies and "FR" for truss floor and 
roof assemblies. 



-add- section 4.5.2.1 Historic Buildings: NFPA 914, 
Code for Fire Protection of Historic Structures, 2001 
edition, provides guidance to the AHJ in exercising 
the discretionary authority granted in section 4.5.2. 

-add- section 4.5.7.3 Place of Assembly: A place of 
assembly that changes ownership, or increases the 
occupant load, shall not be occupied or used until a 
permit for use and occupancy has been issued by the 
authority having jurisdiction 

-delete & replace- section 4.5.8.4 Periodic 
Inspection and Test of Fire Protection Systems: 
Inspections and tests of fire sprinkler (other than 
multipurpose piping systems), suppression, 
emergency electrical generation, alarm, detection and 
any other fire protection systems, devices and 
equipment shall be conducted for the owner by a 
technically qualified person who has obtained the 
required certificate of fitness according to section 



-delete & replace- Section 10.11.1 Permits for Open 
Fires & Burning: A permit is not required for an open 
fire where a permit has been obtained from the Town 
Forest Fire Warden in accordance with Title 10 
V.S.A. chapter 83; 2645. 

-add- section 10.15.1.1 Combustible Vegetation: In 

other than Health Care, Detention and Correctional 
occupancies, combustible vegetation, including 
natural cut Christmas trees otherwise prohibited 
under table 10.15.1 shall be permitted when located 
in areas protected by an approved automatic fire 
sprinkler system. 

-delete- section 10.18.1 Permits for Parade Floats 
-cross-reference - section 11.1.2 Electrical 
Installations to 101:9.1.2 as amended 

[Information regarding natural fuel gas- section 
11.4: The Department of Public Service regulates the 



transportation of natural and other gas by pipeline. 
For additional information contact the Vermont 
Department of Public Service at (802) 828-2811] 

-add- section 11.5.1.4.2 Interruption or 
Discontinuance of Gas Service: Whenever service 
to a customer is discontinued one of the following 
must be complied with: 

(a) The valve that is closed to prevent the flow of 
gas to the customer must be provided with a 
locking device or other means designated to 
prevent the opening of the valve by persons 
other than those authorized by the operator. 

(b) A mechanical device or fitting that will prevent 
the flow of gas must be installed in the service 
line or in the meter assembly. 

(c) The customer's piping must be physically 
disconnected from the gas supply and the open 
pipe ends sealed, [reference 54:4.2.1 & 4.2.2] 

-add- section 11.5.1.4.3 Change in LP Gas 
Delivery Service: The building owner, tenant or 
responsible party shall obtain a safety inspection that 
meets or exceeds NFPA 54 annex H, for gas 
utilization equipment in accordance with section 
1.13, when new fuel delivery service is provided. 
[reference 54:8.1.2] 

-add- section 11.5.1.4.4 Room Heater Installations: 
Unvented room heaters and unvented fireplaces 
shall not be used in any building or structure 
regulated under this code. [54:9.23.1 is deleted & 
replaced by this subsection. It is not the intent of this 
section to prohibit heaters defined under NFPA 54 
sections3.3.67, Direct Gas-Fired Makeup Air Heater, 
3.3.130, Industrial Air Heaters, Direct Gas-Fired 
Non-Recirculating, or 3.3.131, Industrial Air 
Heaters, Direct Gas-Fired Recirculating, used for 
large well ventilated areas.] 

-add- section 11.5.1.4.5 Water Heater Installations: 
Water heaters installed in bedrooms or bathrooms 
shall be of the direct vent type. [54:9.28 .1 .1 is 
deleted & replaced by this subsection] 

-add- section 13.3.1.2.1 Approval of NFPA 13D 
Sprinkler Systems: 

For all sprinkler systems designed in accordance with 
13D, the technically qualified person certified under 
section 1.13 shall perform all required acceptance 
tests as required for NFPA 13R sprinkler systems, 
perform a water flow test for the most remote area, 
complete the Contractor's Material and Test 
Certificate! s), and forward the certificate(s) to the 
AHJ prior to asking for approval of the installation. 
Where the AHJ desires to be present during the 
conducting of acceptance tests, the installer shall 
provide the AHJ 15 day notification of the time and 
date of the testing. [1 3D -.4.3 is deleted & replaced by 
this subsection] 



-add- section 13.3.1.2.2 Arrangement of Fire 
Department Connections: All new & existing fire 
department connections shall be arranged so that 
water from the fire department connection shall reach 
the sprinkler system regardless of any manually 
closed control valve. [NFPA 13:8.16.2.4.3 and 
8.16.2.4.4 are amended by this section.] 

-add- section 13.3.1.3.1 Fire Department 
Connections for Existing Sprinkler Systems: 

Where there is no fire department connection for an 
existing NFPA 13 or 13R sprinkler system, or the 
threads do not meet NFPA 13 section 6.8, it shall be 
listed as a deficiency under NFPA 25: 5.1.1 by the 
technically qualified person conducting the annual 
inspection and corrected by the owner or occupant in 
accordance with NFPA 25: 4.1.4. 

-add- section 13.3.1.3.2 Backflow Prevention for 
Existing Sprinkler Systems: A backflow prevention 
device shall not be added to an existing fire sprinkler 
system that reduces the water supply or water 
pressure to a point lower than the minimum sprinkler 
system design. Sprinkler calculations verifying the 
modified sprinkler design shall be submitted to the 
AHJ. 

-add- section 13.3.2.1.1 Sprinkler Protection for 
Elevator Hoistways: Sprinkler protection for 
elevator hoistways shall be in accordance with NFPA 
13 as amended in this section for 13:8.14.5: 

8.14.5.1 Sidewall spray sprinklers shall be 
installed at the bottom of each elevator hoistway not 
more than 2' above the floor of the pit. 

8.14.5.2 section deleted 

8.14.5.3 Automatic sprinklers are not required 
for machine rooms constructed of noncombustible 
construction with the required fire protection rating. 

8.14.5.4 Upright or pendent spray sprinklers 
shall be installed at the top of elevator hoistways. 
Automatic sprinklers at the top of hoistways shall be 
of ordinary or intermediate temperature rating. 

8.14.5.5 In other than high rise buildings the 
sprinkler required at the top of the elevator hoistway 
by 8.14.5.4 shall not be required where the hoistway 
for passenger elevators is noncombustible and the car 
enclosure materials meet the requirements of ASM E 
A 17.1, Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators. 

8.14.5.6 For the purpose of this section elevator 
hoistways serving 3 stories or less, and machine 
rooms, shall be considered noncombustible where 
constructed of independent metal framework and 
material meeting the definition for limited 
combustible material under 101:3.3.135.2. 

-cross-reference- section 13.3.2.14.2 Sprinkler 
Systems in New Apartment Buildings with Direct 
Access to 101:30.3.5.2 

-add- section 13.6.1.2.1 Portable Fire Extinguishers 
for One and Two Family Dwellings: Portable fire 



extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with 
section 13.6 in dwelling units regulated under NFPA 
101:24 

-cross-reference- section 13.7.1.4.9.2.1 Power for 
Smoke Alarms to 101:9.6.2.10.2 as amended 

-cross-reference- section 13.7.1.4.11.2 Means of 
Emergency Forces Notification by Fire Alarm to 
101:9.6.4.2 as amended 

-add- section 14.4.1.1 Snow Removal: All portions 
of the means of egress, including outside stairs and 
fire escapes, shall be kept clear of any accumulation 
of snow and ice at all times that the building is 
occupied. For multi- family dwellings with direct exit 
access to the outside and one and two family 
dwellings snow and ice shall be removed as soon as 
practicable. 

-cross-reference- section 14.10.2 Impediments to 
Egress to 101:7.1.10.1.1 

-delete- section 16.6.1 Permits for Torch Applied 
Roofing Systems 

-delete- section 16.7.1.2 Permits for the Placement of 
Tar Kettles 

-delete- section 16.8 Asbestos Removal: [The 
Vermont D epartment of Health regulates the removal 
of asbestos containing materials, as well as the 
training for persons who remove asbestos containing 
materials. For additional information, contact the 
Vermont Department of Health, Health Protection 
Division (1-800-439-8550).] 

-delete- Chapter 17 Wildland Urban Interface 

-delete- section 19.1.1 Commercial Rubbish- 
Handling Operations Permit 

-add- section 20.1.4.6.5 Means of Egress 
Inspection, Bars & Nightclubs: The building owner 
or agent shall inspect all means of egress in assembly 
occupancies identified as bars, dance halls, 
discotheques, nightclubs or where festival seating is 
used, to ensure all means of egress are maintained 
free of obstructions, and correct any deficiencies 
found, prior to each opening of the building to the 
public. A record, available to the AHJ, shall be kept 
of all inspections, deficiencies found, and actions 
taken to correct them. 

-cross-reference- section 20.2.3.1.2(1) Emergency 
Egress and Relocation Drills in Schools to 
101:14.7.2.2(1) 

-add- section 20.4.2.7 Alcohol-based Hand-rub 
Solutions: Alcohol-based Hand- rub solutions shall be 



permitted in health care occupancies when used and 
stored in accordance with the following: 

(1) The maximum individual dispenser fluid capacity 
shall be 0.3 gallons (1.2 liters) for dispensers in 
rooms, corridors and areas open to corridors. 

(2) The location of dispensers in corridors shall be 
minimized. 

(3) Where multiple dispensers are necessary the 
minimum horizontal spacing between dispensers 
shall be 4 ft. 

(4) Dispensers shall not be installed over or directly 
adjacent to an ignition source. 

(5) Storage of quantities greater than 5 gallons shall 
be in accordance with NFPA 30, Flammable & 
Combustible Liquids Code. 

-delete & replace- sections 20.9.2.2, 20.10.2 & 
20.11.2 Unvented Fuel-fired Heaters: Unvented fuel- 
fired heaters shall not be used. [ 101: 30.5.2.2; 
31.5.2.2; 26.5.2.2 and 24.5.1.2 are deleted and 
replaced by this section] 

-delete- section 22.2 Automobile Wrecking Yard 
Permit 

-delete & replace- section 25.1.2 Permits for 
Membrane Structures, Tents and Canopies: 

Permits for an air- supported membrane structure, tent 
or canopy in excess of 1200 sq. ft. shall comply with 
1.12.19. 

-add- section 29.1.3 Ventilation for Occupied Spaces 
Adjacent or Accessory to Parking Structures: In 
addition to ventilation requirements under 88A:5.3 
for enclosed parking structures, all connecting spaces 
or contained spaces such as offices, waiting areas, 
ticket booths and similar areas shall be maintained at 
a positive pressure, {see section 7 for transition 
effective date) 

-delete- section 41.1.5 Permits for Welding, Cutting 
& other Hot Work 

-delete & replace- section 42.2.3.3.2 Aboveground 
Storage Tanks for Fuel Dispensing: All aboveground 
storage tanks involved with fuel dispensing shall 
meet all applicable requirements of Chapter 2 and 3 
of NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids 
Code. All aboveground tanks storing Class I liquids 
shall be fire resistant tanks in accordance with 
Section 42.2.3.4.2. 
[30A-.4.3.2 is deleted & replaced by this section] 

-delete & replace- section 42.2.3.3.2.4 Location of 
Aboveground Tanks for Fuel Dispensing: Tanks 
involved with fuel dispensing storing Class I liquids 
shall be located in accordance with Table 
42.2.3.3.2.4. Tanks containing other liquids regulated 
under this chapter shall be permitted to be located 
with minimum separation requirements % of the 



distances in Table 42.2.3.3.2.4. [30A-.4.3.2.4 is 
deleted & replaced by this section] 

-add- section 42.2.5.2.1.1 Lighting: Adequate 
lighting shall be provided for all fuel dispensing 
locations. 

-add- section 50.1.1.1 Isolated Cooking Operations: 

The requirements for the hood, grease removal 
devices, duct and fixed fire extinguishing system may 
be modified by the AHJ for cooking operations in 
free standing tents, mobile units or other small 
buildings located greater than 30' from grandstands 
or other public buildings and occupied by employees 
only, when the clearance to combustibles, safety 
controls, portable fire extinguishers, staff training, 
fuel use, storage and shut- off, and electrical shut off 
for equipment are in compliance with this Code. 

-delete & replace- section 51.1.2.1 Permits for 
Industrial Ovens and Furnaces: Permits for new 
installations, alterations or extensions to existing 
equipment shall comply with 1.12.19. 

-add- section 53.4.1.1 Permits for Mechanical 
Refrigeration: A permit is not required for an existing 
facility that is in compliance with reporting 
requirements under the V ermont Community Right to 
Know Law, Title 20 V.S.A. Chapter 1. 

-add- section 60.1.6.1.1 Permits for Hazardous 
Materials: A permit is not required for an existing 
facility that is in compliance with reporting 
requirements under the V ermont Community Right to 
Know Law, Title 20 V.S.A. Chapter 1. 

[Information regarding chapter 65 Explosives and 
Fireworks- A license is required to possess, 
purchase, store, use, transport, give, transfer or sell 
explosives. For license applications or additional 
information contact the Division of State Police at 
(802)244-8781. 

The Division of Fire Safety regulates the 
safekeeping, storage, use, manufacturing, sale, 
handling, and other disposition of explosive material 
under this Code. The Division of Fire Safety also 
regulates the construction, manufacturing, storage, 
handling and use of fireworks for supervised public 
displays and pyrotechnic special effects under this 
Code. 

It is unlawful for any person to offer for sale, sell 
at retail or wholesale, possess, use or explode any 
fireworks except as permitted for a supervised public 
display of fireworks. 

A permit for a supervised public display of 
fireworks may be obtained from the Chief of the Fire 
Department, or in towns where there is no Fire 
Department from the board of selectman, where it is 
determined the display would not be hazardous to 
property or endanger the public. Application for a 



permit must be made at least 15 days in advance of 
the public fireworks display. 

Sparklers less than 14 inches long with no more than 
20 grams of pyrotechnic mixture and novelty 
sparkling items limited to snakes, party poppers, 
glow worms, smoke devices, string poppers, 
snappers, or drop pops with no more than 0.25 
grains of explosive mixture, that are in compliance 
with United States Consumer Product Safety 
Commission regulations, are legal for sale and use in 
Vermont] 

-delete & replace - section 65.2.3 Permits for Public 
Fireworks Displays: A permit for a supervised 
public display of fireworks shall be obtained from the 
chief of the fire department, or in towns where there 
is no fire department the board of selectmen, after 
determining the display would not be hazardous to 
property or endanger the public. 

-delete & replace- section 65.11.1.1 Consumer 
Fireworks: The sale, handling and storage of 
consumer fireworks, including sparklers permitted 
for sale in Vermont, in both new and existing 
buildings, structures and facilities shall comply with 
NFPA 1124 and section 65.11. 

-delete & replace- section 65.11.1.3.1 Exempt 
Amounts of Consumer Fireworks: 

Consumer fireworks retail sales facilities or stores 

where the fireworks and sparklers are in packages in 

accordance with the U. S. Consumer Product Safety 

Commission and where the total quantity of 

consumer fireworks and sparklers in the building 

does not exceed 125 lb (net) of pyrotechnic 

composition shall be exempt from the following 

sections: 

-65.11.3[1124:7.3] Permits 

-65.11.4[ii24:7.4] Construction 

-65.11. b.l[l 124:7. 5.1] Automatic Sprinkler System 

-65.11. 5.3[H24: 7.5.3] FireAlarms 

-65.11. 5A[1124:7.5A] Smoke Control 

-65. 11. 1[1 124:7.7] Separation distances 

-add- section 66.1.5.1 Permits for Flammable & 
Combustible Liquids: A permit is not required for an 
underground storage tank regulated by the Agency 
of Natural Resources, Department of Environmental 
Conservation, according to NFPA 30. [The Agency of 
Natural Resources, Department of Environmental 
Conservation (DEC) regulates petroleum and 
chemical Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) that 
are 10 percent or more beneath the surface of the 
ground. All USTs are required to be registered with 
the Agency except for: (a) Tanks less than 1100 
gallons containing fuel oil (#2-#6) which is used for 
on premises heating and domestic hot water, and (b) 
farm and residential tanks less than 1100 gallons 
containing motor fuel which is used for 
noncommercial purposes. In addition, certain 



registered USTs are required to have permits for 
their operation and are subject to other operational 
standards. All USTs are subject to closure (removal) 
requirements upon being taken permanently out of 
service. For additional information contact the 
Vermont DEC at (802) 241-3888.] 

-add- section 69.1.1.4 Record of Installation for LP 

Gas Containers: Installers shall maintain a record of 
all installations for which a permit is not required by 
section 69.1.1.3, but not including replacing of 
portable cylinders, available for inspection by the 
AHJ. 

- add- section 69.3.2.6.5 LP Gas, Container Valves: 
Containers over 4,000 gallon (15.2m 3 ) water capacity 
shall be equipped as required in section 58:2.3.3.2(b) 
(1) & (2). Internal valves with pneumatic shut-offs, 
or other approved safely designs, shall be required 
for new installations. [58 :2.3. 3. 2(b) is amended by 
this section] 

-delete & replace- section 69.3.2.4.2 LP Gas 
Systems, Protection from Damage: Where physical 
damage to LP Gas containers or systems of which 
they are a part, from vehicles is a possibility, physical 
protective barriers shall be provided to protect 
against such damage. [58:3.2.4.2 is deleted & 
replaced by this section] 

-add- section 69.3.2.4.2.1 Underground LP Gas 
Systems, Protection from Damage: Where 
containers are installed underground within 10' of 
where vehicular traffic can be expected, physical 
protective barriers shall be provided for the fitting 
housing, housing cover, tank connections, and 
piping, to protect against vehicular damage. All 
other underground containers shall be provided with 
a reflective marker or other readily visible marker 
acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction, at 4' in 
height to mark the location of the housing cover. 
[58: 3. 2. 9. 1(c) is deleted & replaced by this 
subsection] 

-delete & replace- Section 70.1.2.1 Permits for 
Oxidizers and Organic Peroxides: A permit is not 
required for an existing facility that is in compliance 
with reporting requirements under the Vermont 
Community Right to Know Law, Title 20 V.S.A. 
Chapter 1. 

(b) National Fire Protection Association standard 
NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, 2003 edition, 
including those standards referenced in Chapter 2, 
that shall be considered part of this Code. 

-delete & replace in part- section 2.2 National 
Electrical Code & Residential Electrical Safety Code: 
Any reference to NFPA 70 and 73 in this Code shall 



be to the edition adopted by the Vermont Electricians 
Licensing Board. 

-delete & replace in part - section 2.2 Reference 
Publications: Any reference to NFPA 5000, Building 
Construction and Safety Code, 2003 Edition, shall be 
to the International Building Code, 2003 edition, as 
amended in this code 

-delete & replace in part- section 2.3.4 Safety Code 
for Elevators: Any reference to ASME 17.1 or 17.3 
in this Code shall be to the edition adopted by 
Vermont Elevator Safety Review Board. 

-delete & replace- section 3.3.152.7 Definition of 
Health Care Occupancy: An occupancy used for 
purposes of medical or other treatment or care of 
three or more persons where such occupants are 
mostly incapable of self-preservation due to age, 
physical or mental disability, or because of security 
measures not under the occupant's control. 

-delete & replace- section 3.3.152.13 Definition of 
Residential Board & Care Occupancy: A building 
or portion thereof that is used for lodging or boarding 
of three or more residents, not related by blood or 
marriage to the owners or operators, for the purpose 
of providing personal care services. 

-add- section 7.1.10.1.1 Clearance for Inclined Lifts 
on Stairways: Where a platform or chair lift is 
installed on an exit stair in an existing building the 
minimum clear width on the stair when the inclined 
lift is in the down position shall be 

- 18" when the stair serves fewer than 10 people 

- 22" where the stair serves fewer than 50 people 

as required by this Code when the stair 
serves 50 or more people 
Where a platform or chair lift is installed on an exit 
stair in a new building the minimum clear width on 
the stair when the inclined lift is in the down position 
shall be as required by this Code. 

-delete & replace- section 7.2.2.6.5 Outside Stairs, 
Accumulation of Snow, Ice or Water: New outside 
stairs and landings, other than the primary entrance, 
shall be designed to minimize the accumulation of 
snow, ice and water by a roof or other approved 
means, [cross reference to 1:14.4.1.1] 

-cross-reference- amendments to NFPA 54, Fuel Gas 
Code, and NFPA 58, LP Gas Code, 1: 11.5.1.4 

-add- section 7.12.3 Boiler Room Exits: Two means 
of egress shall be provided for boiler rooms 
exceeding 500 sq. ft. floor area and containing one or 
more boilers having a fuel capacity of 1,000,000 
BTU/HR or more. Each elevation shall be provided 
with at least two means of egress, each to be 
remotely located from the other. A platform at the top 



10 



of a single boiler is not considered an elevation. 
[reference NBIC 1-2341] 

-delete & replace- section 9.1.2 Electrical Systems: 

All electrical wiring and equipment shall installed 
and maintained in accordance with NFPA 70, 
National Electrical Code and NFPA 73, Residential 
Safety Code, as adopted by the Electricians' 
Licensing Board. 

-delete & replace- section 9.6.2.10.2 Power for 
Smoke Alarms: All newly installed smoke alarms in 
one & two family dwellings, multiple unit dwellings, 
lodging or rooming houses, hotels and dormitories 
shall be directly wired to a non- dedicated electrical 
branch circuit for the building and by battery. 

- delete & replace- section 9.6.4.2 Means of 
Emergency Forces Notification: Where fire 
department notification is required by another 
Section of this Code, the fire alarm system shall be 
arranged to transmit the alarm automatically via the 
most acceptable means available and in accordance 
with NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm Code. 

Listed in order by the most acceptable to the 
least acceptable means of notification: 

(1) Fire Department Master or Radio Box. 

(2) Leased direct line to the Fire Department. 

(3) Leased direct line to the Police Department or 
dispatching agency for the Fire Department. 

(4) Approved Central Station - UUFX 
providing protective signaling services. 

(5) Approved Central Station - CVSU 
providing monitoring services. 

(6) Proprietary system. 

(7) Recognized remote station. 

(8) Digital dialer connected to approved 
remote station. 

(9) Listed commercial digital dialer. 
[1:13.7.1.4.11.2 is deleted & replaced by this 
subsection] 

-cross-reference- section 9.7.1 Back Flow Prevention 
for Existing Sprinkler Systems to 1:13.3.1.3.2 

-delete & replace- section 9.7.4.1 Portable Fire 
Extinguishers: Portable fire extinguishers shall be 
located, installed, inspected and maintained in 
accordance with NFPA 1 section 13.6. 

-add- section 9.9.1 Carbon Monoxide Detection: 

Where required by another section of this Code 
carbon monoxide alarms (detectors) shall be installed 
in accordance with NFPA 720, Standard for the 
Installation of Carbon Monoxide Warning (CO) 
Equipment in Dwelling Units, 2005 edition. NFPA 
720 covers the selection, application, installation, 
location, testing and maintenance of carbon 
monoxide warning equipment in all buildings in 



which people sleep, [section 720:1.1.2 is amended by 
this section] 

-add- section 9.9.2 Power for Carbon Monoxide 

Alarms: All newly installed carbon monoxide alarms 
(detectors) in multiple unit dwellings, lodging or 
rooming houses, hotels and dormitories, or other 
buildings in which people sleep, shall be directly 
wired to a non- dedicated electrical branch circuit for 
the building and by battery. Carbon monoxide 
detectors in existing one- two family dwellings shall 
be permitted to be powered by any approved source. 
[for existing construction see section 7 for transition 
effective date] 

-add- section 12.3.5.4 New Assembly Occupancies: 
In addition to the fire sprinkler requirements of 
101:12.1.6 & 101:12.3.5 all assembly occupancies 
where the occupant load exceeds 100, identified as 
bars, dance halls, discotheques, nightclubs or where 
festival seating is used, shall be protected throughout 
by an approved, supervised, automatic fire sprinkler 
system. 

-cross-reference- section 13.1 Permit for Place of 
Assembly with Change of Ownership to 1:4.5.7.3 

-add- section 13.3.5.4 Existing Assembly 
Occupancies: In addition to the fire sprinkler 
requirements of 101:13.1.6 & 101:13.3.5 all 
assembly occupancies where the occupant load 
exceeds 100, identified as bars, dance halls, 
discotheques, nightclubs or where festival seating is 
used, shall be protected throughout by an approved, 
supervised, automatic fire sprinkler system (see 
section 7 for transition effective date) 

[Bars, dance halls, discotheques, nightclubs and the 
use of festival seating (where no seating other than 
the floor is provided for the audience) are 
characterized by some or all of the following: a high 
density of people, alcohol consumption, late 
operating times, live or recorded entertainment, 
dance areas, low lighting levels and stage or 
platform areas for performing. A theater or opera 
house with fixed seating is not classified under this 
section] 

-delete & replace- section 14.7.2.2(1) Emergency 
Egress and Relocation Drills: Not less than one 
emergency egress and relocation drill, in accordance 
with the school's emergency preparedness plan, shall 
be conducted every month the facility is in session. 

-delete & replace- section 15.2.1.2 Student Occupied 
Space: Rooms normally occupied by preschool, 
kindergarten or first grade students shall be located 
on a level of exit discharge, unless otherwise 
permitted by 15.2.1.4. Rooms with 4 or fewer 
students, where the ratio of students to teachers or 
aides does not exceed 2:1 at any time, are not 
considered normally occupied by students in regards 
to this section. 



11 



-delete & replace- section 15.7.2.2(1) Emergency 
Egress and Relocation Drills: Not less than one 
emergency egress and relocation drill, in accordance 
with the school's emergency preparedness plan, shall 
be conducted every month the facility is in session. 

-add - section 16.3.4.6 Carbon Monoxide 
Detection in New Daycare: Carbon Monoxide 
alarms (detectors) shall be installed in accordance 
with section 9.9.1 and 9.9.2 in the immediate vicinity 
of each separate sleeping area. 

-add - section 17.3.4.6 Carbon Monoxide 
Detection in Existing Daycare: Carbon Monoxide 
alarms (detectors) shall be installed in accordance 
with section 9.9.1 and 9.9.2 in the immediate vicinity 
of each separate sleeping area. 

-add - section 18.3.4.6 Carbon Monoxide 
Detection in New Health Care: Carbon Monoxide 
alarms (detectors) shall be installed in accordance 
with section 9.9.1 and 9.9.2 in each nursing station. 

-add - section 19.3.4.6 Carbon Monoxide 
Detection in Existing Health Care: Carbon 
Monoxide alarms (detectors) shall be installed in 
accordance with section 9.9.1 and 9.9.2 in each 
nursing station. 

-delete & replace- section 19.3.5.1 Existing Health 

Care: Existing health care facilities shall be 
protected throughout by an approved supervised 
automatic fire sprinkler system installed in 
accordance with section 9.7. 

-add - section 22.3.4.5 Carbon Monoxide 
Detection in New Detention and Correctional 
Facilities: Carbon Monoxide alarms (detectors) shall 
be installed in accordance with section 9.9.1 and 
9.9.2 in control rooms used by the facility. 

-delete- section 22.4.4 Renovations for Existing Non- 
sprinklered Detention and Correctional Facilities 

-add - section 23.3.4.5 Carbon Monoxide 
Detection in Existing Detention and Correctional 
Facilities: Carbon Monoxide alarms (detectors) shall 
be installed in accordance with section 9.9.1 and 
9.9.2 in control rooms used by the facility. 

-delete and replace- section 23.3.5.2 Existing 
Detention & Correctional: Existing detention & 
correctional facilities classified as Use Condition II, 
III, IV or V shall be protected throughout by an 
approved supervised automatic fire sprinkler system 
installed in accordance with section 9.7. 

-add- section 24.1.1.1.1 One & Two Family 
Dwellings used for Transient Lodging: A building 
that provides sleeping accommodations for a total of 



more than 6 people on a transient basis shall be 
classified as a lodging or rooming house or a hotel or 
dormitory under this code. 

-add- section 24.2.2.3.1 Existing Means of Escape: 
The clear opening of an existing means of escape 
{escape window) under 24.2.2.3 (C) shall be 
permitted to be not less than 5.0 square feet. 

-add- section 24.2.5.7 Stair riser heights and tread 

depths: Maximum riser heights of 7 3 A in. and 
minimum tread depths of 10 in. shall be permitted in 
new construction. 

-add - section 24.3.4.4 Carbon Monoxide 
Detection, One-Two Family Dwellings: Carbon 
Monoxide alarms (detectors) shall be installed in 
accordance with section 9.9.1 and 9.9.2 outside of 
each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity 
of the bedrooms. An additional carbon monoxide 
alarm (detector) shall be installed in any sleeping 
room that contains a fuel- burning appliance. 

[Manufactured housing that is built on a chassis to 
conform to the Housing and Urban Development 
(HUD) Standard are preempted by that federal 
standard and not subject to additional requirements 
under this Code. Manufactured housing built to the 
HUD standard has an identification plate. Smoke 
detectors installed in accordance with NFPA 501:5.8 
are considered in compliance with Title 9 V.S.A. 
Chapter 77. An owner may contact the U.S. 
Department of Housing and Urban Development 
(HUD) in Washington, D.C. at 1-800-927-2891 or 
the Consumer Assistance Program of the Vermont 
Office of Attorney General at 1-800-649-2424 for 
additional information.] 

-delete & replace- section 24.5.1.2 Unvented Fuel- 
fired Heaters: Unvented room heaters and unvented 
fireplaces shall not be used. 

-add- section 24.6 Subdivision of Building Spaces 
in One-Two Family Dwellings: New one- two 
family dwellings shall be provided with dwelling unit 
separation in accordance with 30.3.7. 

-add- section 26.1.1.1.1 Small Lodging & Rooming 

Houses: A building that provides sleeping 
accommodations for a total of 6 or fewer persons, 
and is occupied by the proprietor, may be classified 
as a one and two family dwelling by the AHJ. 

-add - section 26.3.3.5.4 Carbon Monoxide 
Detection, Lodging & Rooming: Carbon Monoxide 
alarms (detectors) shall be installed in accordance 
with section 9.9.1 and 9.9.2 outside of each separate 
sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the 
bedrooms. An additional carbon monoxide alarm 
(detector) shall be installed in any bedroom that 
contains a fuel- burning appliance. 



12 



-delete- section 26.3.5.2 Exception for Automatic 
Sprinkler Protection for New Lodging & Rooming 
Houses with Direct Access 

-delete & replace- section 26.5.2.2 Unvented Fuel- 
fired Heaters: Unvented room heaters and unvented 
fireplaces shall not be used. 

-add - section 28.3.4.6 Carbon Monoxide 
Detection in New Hotels & Dormitories: Carbon 
Monoxide alarms (detectors) shall be installed in 
accordance with section 9.9.1 and 9.9.2 in any 
section of corridor or common area that is in the 
immediate vicinity of sleeping rooms, or where there 
is no corridor, in each sleeping room. An additional 
carbon monoxide alarm (detector) shall be installed 
in any sleeping room that contains a fuel- burning 
appliance. 

-delete - section 28.3.5.2 Exception for Automatic 
Sprinkler Protection for New Hotels & Dormitories 
with Direct Access 

add- section 29.3.4.4 Detection for Existing Hotels & 
Dormitories: A corridor smoke detection system in 
accordance with section 9.6 shall be installed in 
existing hotels & dormitories other than those 
protected throughout by an approved supervised 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
section 9.7. 

-add - section 29.3.4.6 Carbon Monoxide 
Detection in Existing Hotels & Dormitories: 

Carbon Monoxide alarms (detectors) shall be 
installed in accordance with section 9.9.1 and 9.9.2 in 
any section of corridor or common area that is in the 
immediate vicinity of sleeping rooms, or where there 
is no corridor, in each sleeping room. An additional 
carbon monoxide alarm (detector) shall be installed 
in any sleeping room that contains a fuel- burning 
appliance. 

-delete & replace- section 30.3.4.5.2 Smoke Alarms 
in Sleeping Rooms: Approved smoke alarms shall be 
provided in each sleeping room in accordance with 
9.6.2.10. 

-add - section 30.3.4.6 Carbon Monoxide 
Detection, New Apartment Buildings: Carbon 
Monoxide alarms (detectors) shall be installed in 
accordance with section 9.9.1 and 9.9.2 outside of 
each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity 
of the bedrooms. An additional carbon monoxide 
alarm (detector) shall be installed in any bedroom 
that contains a fuel- burning appliance. 

-delete & replace- section 30.5.2.2 Unvented Fuel- 
fired Heaters: Unvented room heaters and unvented 
fireplaces shall not be used. 



-add - section 31.3.4.6 Carbon Monoxide 
Detection, Existing Apartment Buildings: Carbon 
Monoxide alarms (detectors) shall be installed in 
accordance with section 9.9.1 and 9.9.2 outside of 
each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity 
of the bedrooms. An additional carbon monoxide 
alarm (detector) shall be installed in any bedroom 
that contains a fuel- burning appliance. 

-delete & replace- section 31.5.2.2 Unvented Fuel- 
fired Heaters: Unvented room heaters and unvented 
fireplaces shall not be used. 

-add- section 32.1.1.2 Assisted Living Facilities: In 

addition to the requirements of this chapter a facility 
licensed under the Department of Aging & 
Disabilities Rules for Assisted Living Residences 
shall comply with the following: 

(1) All facilities shall be fully sheathed (15 min. fire 
rating) in addition to having complete automatic fire 
sprinkler protection. 

(2) Emergency lighting shall be provided for the 
means of egress and in the vicinity of doors equipped 
with delayed egress locks. 

(3) & (4) (reserved) 

(5)The fire alarm system shall provide emergency 
forces notification. 

(6) All automatic fire sprinkler systems shall be 
electronically supervised. 

(7) (reserved) 

(8) Corridors for large facilities shall not be less than 
48". 

(9) Subdivision of building spaces in accordance 
with 101:18.2.2.5 shall be provided in common areas 
of large facilities using the same criteria as used for 
limited care facilities (15 square feet per resident). 

-add - section 32.1.1.2.1 Carbon Monoxide 
Detection in New Residential Care: Carbon 
Monoxide alarms (detectors) shall be installed in 
accordance with section 9.9.1 and 9.9.2 in any 
section of a corridor or common area that is in the 
immediate vicinity of sleeping rooms. 

-delete & replace- section 32.2.3.5.1 New 
Residential Board & Care: All new residential 
board & care facilities shall be protected throughout 
by an approved supervised automatic fire sprinkler 
system installed in accordance with section 9.7. 

-delete- section 32.2.3.5.2 Exception for Sprinkler 
Protection for New Small Board and Care Facilities 

-add - section 33.1.1.2.1 Carbon Monoxide 
Detection in Existing Residential Care: Carbon 
Monoxide alarms (detectors) shall be installed in 
accordance with section 9.9.1 and 9.9.2 in any 
section of corridor or common area that is in the 
immediate vicinity of sleeping rooms. 



13 



-delete & replace- section 33.2.3.4.3.1 Smoke 
Alarms in Sleeping Rooms: Approved smoke 
alarms shall be provided in each sleeping room in 
accordance with 9.6.2.10. 

-delete- section 33.2.3.4.3.5 Exception for Smoke 
Alarms in Residential Care with Sprinkler Protection 

-delete- section 33.2.3.4.3.6 Exception for Smoke 
Alarms in Residential Care with Sprinkler Protection 
- Battery Operated 

-add- section 38.2.4.2.1 Single exit for New Small 

Business: A single exit shall be permitted to be- 
unenclosed in two- story buildings when the travel 
distance does not exceed 75' and all areas opening to 
the exit access stairs are provided with smoke alarms- 
in accordance with 9.6.2.10. 

-add- section 38.3.1.1(3) Protection of Vertical- 
Opening in New Small Business: Unenclosed 
vertical openings shall be permitted to be unenclosed- 
in two- story buildings when the travel distance does 
not exceed 75' and all areas opening to the exit 
access stairs are provided with smoke alarms in 
accordance with 9.6.2.10. 

-add- section 39.2.4.2.1 Single Exit for Existing 
Small Business: A single exit shall be permitted to- 
be unenclosed in two- story buildings when the travel 
distance does not exceed 75' and all areas opening to 
the exit access stairs are provided with smoke alarms 
in accordance with 9.6.2.10. 

-add- section 39.3.1.1 (4) Exception for Protection 
of Vertical Openings for Existing Small Business: 

Exit access stairs shall be permitted to be unenclosed 
in two- story buildings when the travel distance does 
not exceed 75' and all areas opening to the exit 
access stairs are provided with smoke alarms in 
accordance with 9.6.2.10. 

(c) National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel 
Inspectors, National Board Inspection Code, 

Part RA - RE, Appendix 1-9 and A-K, 2004 edition 

-delete & replace- section I-3724(a) Low Water 
Cutoff: Each automatically fired low pressure hot 
water boiler shall have an automatic low-water fuel 
cutoff which has been designed for hot water service, 
and it shall be so located as to automatically cut off 
the fuel supply when the surface of the water falls to 
the level established in I- 3724(b). 

(d) International Code Council, International 
Building Code (IBC), 2003 edition, including 
those standards referenced in Chapter 35 to the 
prescribed extent of each reference by adopted 
sections of the IBC. The IBC is adopted to the extent 
necessary to ensure compliance with the performance 



requirements of this Code and the intent of this Code 
regarding safeguarding of people and property in 
case of fire, explosion, dangerous structural 
conditions and the generation of carbon monoxide. 

-delete- chapter 1 Administration except for section 
106.3.4 and the following sections: 

-delete & replace- section 101.4 Referenced Codes: 
Where referenced under the IBC any reference to the: 

* ICC Electrical Code, shall be to the National 
Electrical Code, NFPA 70, as adopted by the 
Electricians Licensing Board 

* International Fuel Gas Code, shall be to the 
National Fuel Gas Code, NFPA 54, 2002 edition, as 
adopted under this Code 

* International Mechanical Code, shall be to the 
Uniform Fire Code, NFPA 1, 2003 edition, including 
NFPA 90A, as adopted under this Code 

* International Plumbing Code shall be as adopted 
by the Plumbers Examining Board 

* International Property Maintenance Code, shall 
be to the Uniform Fire Code, NFPA 1, 2003 edition 
and the Life Safety Code, NFPA 101, 2003 edition, 
as adopted under this Code 

* International Fire Code, shall be to the Uniform 
Fire Code, NFPA 1, 2003 edition, as adopted under 
this Code 

* International Energy Code, shall be to the 
Vermont Guidelines for Energy Efficient 
Construction, as published by the Vermont 
Department of Public Service, and shall only apply to 
new state- funded buildings or additions 

* International Residential Code, or to R-3 
Occupancy Classification for one & two family 
dwellings, shall be to the Life Safety Code, NFPA 
101, 2003 edition as adopted under this Code 

-delete & replace- section 105 Construction Permits: 
Permits shall be obtained in accordance with section 
4 of the Vermont Fire & Building Safety Code 

-delete & replace- section 308.2 Group 1-1, 
Residential Board & Care Facilities: Assisted Living 
Facilities and similar use: Residential care facilities, 
assisted living facilities and similar use in which 
three or more clients receive care shall be classified 
and regulated in accordance with the Life Safety 
Code, NFPA 101, and the IBC, chapter 16. 

-delete & replace- section 308.5 Day Care Facilities: 
Day care facilities in which four or more clients 
receive care shall be classified and regulated in 
accordance with the Life Safety Code, NFPA 101, 
and the IBC, chapter 16. 

-delete & replace- section 310.1 R-3 Detached one & 
two Family Dwellings: Detached one & two family 
dwellings shall be classified and regulated in 
accordance with the Life Safety Code, NFPA 101. 



14 



-delete & replace- section 415.9.1 Protection of 
Semiconductor Fabrication Facilities: In addition 
to requirements set elsewhere in this code 
semiconductor fabrication facilities shall be in 
accordance with the Uniform Fire Code, NFPA 1, 
and NFPA 318. 

- Construction Correlation Table - 

96 NBC 03IBC 101/1 NFPA 



1A 
IB 


none 
IA 


1(443) 
1(332) 


2A 
2B 
2C 


IB 

IIA 

IIB 


11(222) 
11(111) 
11(000) 


3A 
3B 


i — i i — i 
i — i i — i 
i — i i — i 

dd > 


111(211) 
111(200) 



5A 
5B 



IV 

VA 
VB 



IV(2HH) 

V(lll) 
V(000) 



-delete & replace- section 506.2.2 Open Space for 
Area Increase: Such open space shall be either on the 
same lot or dedicated for public use, clear and 
unobstructed at all times, usable for fire department 
operations and accessed from a street or fire 
department access road in accordance with NFPA 1: 
chapter 18. 

-add- section 507.10 Open Space for Unlimited Area 
Buildings: Open space required under section 507 
shall be either on the same lot or dedicated for public 
use, clear and unobstructed at all times, usable for 
fire department operations and accessed from a street 
or fire department access road in accordance with 
NFPA 1: chapter 18. 

-delete & replace- section 705 Fire Walls: The 

design and construction of new firewalls shall be in 
accordance with NFPA 1:12.3 and NFPA 221. The 
minimum fire resistance ratings of firewalls located 
in a building with a complete automatic sprinkler 
system shall be two hours and the minimum fire 
resistance ratings of firewalls located in a building 
without a complete automatic sprinkler system shall 
be three hours. 



-delete & replace- chapter 8 Interior Finishes: 
Interior finishes shall be in accordance with the Life 
Safety Code, NFPA 101, as adopted under this Code. 

-delete & replace- chapter 10 Means of Egress: 
Means of Egress shall be in accordance with the Life 
Safety Code, NFPA 101, as adopted under this Code. 

-delete & replace- chapter 11 Accessibility: All new 
construction and alterations shall be in accordance 
with the "Accessibility in Public Buildings - Rules 
for New Construction and for Alterations to Existing 
Buildings" as adopted by the Vermont Access Board 
and 20 V.S.A. 2907 regarding residential 
construction. 

-delete- chapter 12 Interior Environment except for 
section 1209 Access to Unoccupied Spaces 

-delete- & replace- chapter 13 Energy Efficiency: 

New state- funded buildings or additions shall be 
designed in accordance with the Vermont Guidelines 
for Energy Efficient Construction, as published by 
the Vermont Department of Public Service. [The 
Department of Public Service provides technical 
assistance and expert advice regarding the energy 
standard requirements for new construction. This 
includes criteria that builders may use in lieu of 
computer or systems analysis of the building. For 
additional information contact the Vermont 
Department of Public Service at 1-888-373-2255.] 

-add- section 1608.2.1 Local Snow Load: The 

Minimum Ground Snow Load Map and the Average 
Yearly Snowfall Map shall be used in determining 
the ground snow load. [The snow load map is 
located in the Annex to this Code] 

-add- section 1608.3.6 Minimum Snow Load: The 

resultant flat roof snow load on a roof with a slope 
equal to or less than 5 degrees shall not be less than 
40 pounds/square foot. 

-delete & replace- sections 2111 through 2113: 
Masonry Fireplaces, Heaters and Chimneys: Masonry 
fireplaces, heaters and chimneys shall be in 
accordance with the Standard for Chimneys, 
Fireplaces, Vents and Solid Fuel- Burning 
Appliances, NFPA 211, as adopted under this Code 

-delete & replace- chapter 27 Electrical: Electrical 
components, equipment and systems shall be in 
accordance with the National Electrical Code, NFPA 
70, as adopted by the Electricians' Licensing Board 

-delete & replace- chapter 28 Mechanical Systems: 

Mechanical equipment and systems shall be installed 
in accordance with the Uniform Fire Code, NFPA 1, 
including NFPA 90A as adopted under this Code. 



15 



-delete & replace- chapter 29 Plumbing Systems: 
Plumbing work is regulated under the International 
Plumbing Code as adopted by the Plumbers 
Examining Board. 

-delete & replace- chapter 30 Elevators and 
Conveying Systems, except sections 3002.1, 
Hoistway Enclosure Protection, 3004, Hoistway 
Venting and 3006, Machine Room Enclosure: 
Elevator and conveyance work is regulated under the 
Elevator Safety Rules as adopted by the Elevator 
Safety Review Board. 

-delete- section 3108 Radio and television Towers 

-delete- section 3109 Swimming Pool Enclosure and 
Safety Devices 

-delete- chapter 32 Encroachments into the Public 
Right- of- Way 

-delete ^replace - chapter 33 Safeguards During 
Construction: Safety during construction shall be in 
accordance with the Standard for Safeguarding 
Construction, Alteration and Demolition Operations, 
NFPA 241, as adopted under this Code. 

-delete & replace- chapter 34 Existing Buildings: 

Existing buildings shall be in accordance with section 
3403.2, the Life Safety Code and the Uniform Fire 
Code. An existing building plus additions shall 
comply with the height and area provisions of 
Chapter 5. 

Section 3. 

Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspection 

(a) A boiler is defined as a closed vessel in 
which water is heated, steam is generated, steam 
is super heated, or any combination thereof, 
under pressure or vacuum by the direct 
application of heat from the combustion of fuel 
or from electricity. The term includes a fired unit 
for the heating or vaporizing of liquids other 
than water where the unit is separate from a 
processing system and is complete within itself. 
An unfired pressure vessel is defined as a 
container of pressure obtained from an external 
source that exceeds 15 psi. This section shall 
apply to all boilers, and pressure vessels 
identified in the National Board Inspection Code 
except: 

(1) A boiler or pressure vessel located on a 
common carrier subject to regulations under the 
Surface Transportation Board, Department of 
Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration 
or Nuclear Regulatory Commission. 



(2) Pressure containers that are integral parts or 
components of rotating or reciprocating 
mechanical devices such as pumps, compressors, 
turbines, generators, engines and hydraulic or 
pneumatic cylinders where the primary design 
consideration and /or stress is derived from the 
functional requirements of the device. 

(3) Hot water heaters and portable water 
storage tanks with a heat input of less than 
200,000 BTU/HR, water temperature less than 
210 degrees (F) and less than 120 gallons 
aggregate water capacity. Units otherwise 
exempted under this section shall be equipped 
with approved pressure/temperature safety relief 
devices in accordance with NBIC I 3837. 

(4) Steam cleaners or coil type boilers without 
steam space where water flashes into steam 
when manually released through a nozzle for 
cleaning machinery, equipment, etc.; when the 
water capacity is less than 6 gallons and the 
water temperature less than 350 degrees (F). 
Units otherwise exempted under this section 
shall be equipped with approved 
pressure/temperature safety relief devices in 
accordance with NBIC. 

(b) All boilers and pressure vessels shall be 
manufactured, constructed and assembled in 
accordance with the appropriate American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) 
standards, or equivalent standard recognized by 
the National Board of Boiler & Pressure Vessel 
Inspectors, in place at the time of manufacture. 
The manufacturer of a boiler or pressure vessel 
shall register the type of unit with the National 
Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors. 

(c) The owner or person installing a boiler or 
pressure vessel shall report to the AHJ the 
location, type, capacity, age and date of 
installation of any boiler or pressure vessel. 

(d) Prior to being placed in service any boiler 
or pressure vessel shall be inspected by a 

commissioned inspector. When the boiler or 
pressure vessel is found to be in compliance 
with this Code the commissioned inspector shall 
attach an identification number, approved by the 
AHJ, and an initial inspection certificate issued 
by the AHJ. The inspection certificate shall be 
posted at the site of operation. The identification 
number, initial inspection by a commissioned 
inspector and operating certificate shall not be 
required for boilers designed to heat individual 
dwelling units in buildings containing less than 
6 dwelling units. 



16 



(e) The periodic inspection of boilers and 
pressure vessels shall be performed by a 
commissioned inspector at intervals listed in this 
section. A commissioned inspector may require 
additional external (an inspection made when a 
boiler or pressure vessel is fully intact so all 
safety features can be inspected) or internal (an 
inspection made when a boiler or pressure vessel 
is shut down and handholes, manholes or other 
inspection openings are opened for inspection of 
the interior) inspections when unsafe conditions 
or operations are observed or suspected. The 
AHJ may order the owner or user to stop 
operation of a boiler or pressure vessel operating 
in violation of this Code. 

(1) Each high pressure power boiler in which 
steam is generated at a pressure of more than 15 
pounds per square inch shall be inspected both 
internally and externally while not under 
pressure on an annual basis, and externally, 
while under pressure, approximately six months 
from the internal inspection. 

(2) Each low-pressure hot water heating boiler 
installed to operate at pressures not to exceed 
160 pounds per square inch and/or temperatures 
not exceeding 250 degrees (F), and each steam 
heating boiler operating at a pressure not 
exceeding 15 pounds per square inch, shall be 
inspected externally, and internally where 
construction permits, every two years. An 
inspection shall not be required for boilers 
designed to heat individual dwelling units in 
buildings containing less than 6 dwelling units. 

(3) Each pressure vessel greater than 5 cubic feet 
and operating with a relieving pressure greater 
than 125 pounds per square inch shall be 
inspected externally, and internally where 
construction permits, every three years. An 
internal inspection is not required for a rubber 
lined pressure vessel. 



(g) An employee of an insurance company, 
licensed to insure boilers and pressure vessels in 
Vermont, who has obtained a Vermont 
commission, and/or the insurance company, 
licensed to insure boilers and pressure vessels in 
Vermont shall: 

(1) Inspect all boilers and pressure vessels 
insured by the insurance company in accordance 
with this Code and at time frames established 
under this Code. 

(2) Report the results of all inspections to the 
AHJ within 30 days of the inspection in a format 
approved by the AHJ. 

(3) Notify the AHJ of new boilers or pressure 
vessels insured, insurance cancelled or not 
renewed or refused within 30 days. 

(4) Participate in training as may be directed by 
the AHJ. 

(5) Not engage in the sale of, or have any 
interest in, any appliance or device related in 
any way to the construction, operation or 
maintenance of boilers and pressure vessels 
covered under this Code. 

(h) The owner, user or commissioned inspector 
shall immediately report any accident, 
incident or explosion involving a boiler or 
pressure vessel that involves personal injury to 
the AHJ at 1-800-347-0488 and secure the scene 
to prevent any change that would hamper the 
investigation of the incident. Where the 
accident, incident or explosion does not involve 
personal injury the report shall be made within 
48 hours. 

(i) The insurance company of record shall pay a 
fee of $20.00 to the Division of Fire Safety for 
each inspection certificate or periodic 
inspection sticker 



(f) An employee of an insurance company, 
licensed to insure boilers and pressure vessels in 
Vermont, shall obtain a current Vermont 
commission to inspect boilers and pressure 
vessels prior to conducting any inspections. A 
current certification from the National Board of 
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors is required 
to obtain a Vermont commission. A Vermont 
commission may be revoked or suspended for 
violation or misrepresentation of responsibilities 
established under this Code. A person who has a 
Vermont commission revoked or suspended 
shall be given written notification and the 
opportunity for a hearing following due process. 



Section 4. 

Application for a Construction Permit 

(a) The owner, or a designated representative, of 
a building or premises shall obtain a 
construction permit before beginning any 
construction, addition, alteration, demolition or 
installation of fixed building equipment at the 
building site unless specifically waived by the 
AHJ. 

(b) To obtain a construction permit the applicant 
shall: 



17 



(1) Complete a Construction Permit Application 
form and submit it along with the required 
construction permit fee to the Division of Fire 
Safety regional office. 

(2) Provide construction documents relating to 
the construction work and equipment under 
consideration unless specifically waived by the 
AHJ based on the size, use, occupancy or 
complexity of the work. 

(3) For buildings where the applicant is 
requesting special consideration for a historic 
building, documentation shall be included on 
the historic designation of the building, 
including identification and evaluation of 
historic adjacent structures and site elements 
such as sheds, walkways, and fencing; historic 
construction features such as sheathing, facade 
or roofing materials, chimneys, skylights, 
cornices or molding, windows or doors, 
wainscoting, cabinets and finishes; and historic 
spaces such as archways, lobbies or rooms 
which are important to the understanding and 
application of the building. 

(c) The construction documents shall include 
an express certification that the design meets 
or exceeds this code as indicated in the 
following sections. Construction documents 
stamped and signed by an architect or 
professional engineer consistent with the 
professional licensing and registration laws of 
Vermont meets the intent of this section without 
additional certification. 

(1) For new state- funded buildings and 
additions; certification indicating compliance 
with the "Vermont Guidelines for Energy 
Efficient Commercial Construction" as 
published by the Department of Public Service. 

(2) For new buildings and additions; 
certification indicating the building is designed 
to prevent normally anticipated unstable or 
dangerous structural conditions. 

(d) Plans required under this Code shall be 
drawn to scale, using customary inch- pound 
units and English language, and shall be 
sufficiently clear, comprehensive, detailed and 
legible when submitted to the AHJ so that, 
together with any accompanying specifications 
and data, the AHJ can readily determine whether 
or not the proposed building, addition, or 
alteration, and all proposed building equipment 
will conform to this Code. 

(e) The AHJ shall review the application for a 
construction permit and the construction 



documents where applicable and shall issue a 
permit, a conditional permit with specific terms 
and conditions, or deny the application. The 
AHJ may require additional information before 
issuing, or denying the application for a 
construction permit. Any conditions of the 
permit or reasons for denial of the permit shall 
be transmitted to the applicant in writing. 

(f) The AHJ may provide consultation or 
preliminary plan review for proposed 
construction to identify high priority code issues 
when deemed warranted by the significance or 
complexity of the project. 

(g) A construction permit shall expire if the 
work authorized under the permit is not 
commenced, or is suspended or abandoned, for a 
time period of 12 months. 

(h) Construction permit fees are established by 
the Vermont Legislature under Title 20 V.S.A. 
section 2731. The current construction permit 
fees are available on the Division's website or 
by contacting any office of the Division. 

(1) The Commissioner or designated 
representative may rebate up to $2,000 of the 
construction permit fee paid the department 
toward the cost of a qualified fire sprinkler 
system installed in an existing building in a 
designated downtown area. 

(2) In the case of abandonment or 
discontinuance of a building project involving a 
construction permit fee greater than $150 the 
construction permit fee may be refunded, upon 
written request to the AHJ, prorated on 
construction work, services, reviews and 
inspections conducted prior to such 
abandonment. Such request shall be received 
within 12 months of the date that the 
construction permit was issued. 

(3) The AHJ may refuse to issue a construction 
or occupancy permit if the owner or a designated 
representative owes the Department fees or 
penalties. 

(j) The AHJ shall be authorized to require the 
owner to engage, and designate on the 
construction permit application, a registered 
design professional who shall act as the design 
professional in responsible charge in 
accordance IBC 106.3.4, who shall be responsible 
for reviewing and coordinating submittal 
documents prepared by others for compatibility 
with the approved design of the building. 



18 



(k) The AHJ shall be authorized to order all, or 
part of, work regulated under this Code to stop 
when the work is unsafe or being performed 
contrary to the provisions of this Code. 

Section 5. 

Variance, Exemption and Reconsideration 

(a) The Commissioner may grant a variance 
approving a different solution to compliance that 
meets the intent of this code, or may exempt a 
portion of a building, or equipment including 
non-standard boilers and pressure vessels, from 
the requirements of this Code. It is the policy of 
the Commissioner that whenever possible the 
determination of a variance or exemption 
request be made by the Regional Managers or 
Chief Fire Prevention Officer. 

(b) In order for a variance or exemption request 
to be reviewed the owner or designated 
representative shall submit: 

1. Evidence that the proposed or existing 
building or premises is not in 
compliance with this Code. 

2. Evidence, letters, statements, test results, 
construction documents, computations, 
chemical and physical properties or 
other supporting information as 
prepared by licensed or certified 
professionals that is required to justify 
the request. 

3. Evidence that strict compliance with the 
Code would entail practical difficulty, 
unnecessary hardship or otherwise 
found unwarranted. 

4. Evidence that any such variance or 
exemption secures the public safety and 
health and that the methods, means or 
practices proposed provide equal 
protection of the public safety and 
health. 

(c) Review of the variance or exemption request 
shall consider evidence that the code or standard 
from which the variance or exemption is sought 
has not been promulgated as a rule or standard 
under the Vermont Occupational Safety and 
Health Act. 

(d) The determination on the variance or 
exemption request shall be made in writing to 



the applicant and shall advise the applicant of 
the reconsideration process as contained in 
Section (e). 

(e) The Director may reconsider an 
interpretation or decision made by a designated 
representative pursuant to this Section. To 
request reconsideration the owner or designated 
representative shall submit a written request 
including: 

1. Evidence the proposed or existing 
building or premises is not in 
compliance with this Code. 

2. Evidence, letters, statements, test results, 
construction documents or other 
supporting information as required to 
justify the request. 

3. Evidence that the true intent of the Code 
has been incorrectly interpreted, or the 
provisions of the Code do not fully 
apply; or the decision is unreasonable or 
arbitrary as it applies to alternatives or 
new materials. 

(f) The request for reconsideration shall be 
submitted no later than 30 days after receiving 
the variance or exemption decision. 

(g) A request for variance, exemption, or 
reconsideration shall not relieve a person from 
complying with this Code, permit or occupancy 
requirements, unless the Commissioner 
expressly authorizes an extension of compliance 
period pending review of the request. 

(h) A request for a variance relating to access to 
a public building for people with disabilities 
shall be referred for decision to the Access 
Board established under Title 20 V.S.A. chapter 
174. 

(i) A request for a variance from this Code for 
historical buildings that is not resolved under 
section 5(a) shall be determined by the Historic 
Variance Appeals Board as established by 20 
V.S.A.2732. 

Section 6, 

Municipal Enforcement and Coordination 

(a) Each municipality shall provide information 
regarding building permits issued by the 
municipality to the AHJ upon request. 



19 



(b) The Commissioner may assign the 
responsibility for the enforcement of all or part 
of these rules to municipalities that meet the 
qualifications established in 20 V.S.A. sections 
2736 and 2884. 

(c) Any fire, building or similar code standards 
adopted by any municipality shall be consistent 
with the standards adopted under this Code. 

Section 7. 
Effective Dates and Severability 

(a) (a) These rules shall take effect October 22, 
2005 and shall be known as the Vermont Fire & 
Building Safety Code -2005. 

(b) (b) To achieve an orderly transition for 
compliance with these rules: 

- NFPA 1 section 29.1.3 shall take effect 
October 1,2006 

- NFPA 101 section 9.9.2 shall take effect 
October 1,2007 

- NFPA 101 section 13.3.5.4 shall take 
effect October 1, 2007 where the 
occupant load exceeds 300 

- NFPA 101 section 13.3.5.4 shall take 
effect October 1, 2009 where the 
occupant load exceeds 100 

(c) This Code shall not require changes in the 
construction documents or construction of a 
building or portions of a building for which a 
construction permit has been issued and 
construction has started within 90 days of the 
effective date of this Code, or as otherwise 
approved by the AHJ, provided that the building 
or portions of the building meet or exceed the 
requirements for existing buildings under this 
Code. 

(d) In the event any part or provision of these 
rules is held to be illegal, this shall not have the 



effect of making void or illegal any of the other 
parts or provisions of these rules. Under section 
2 of this code certain Vermont amendments have 
been cross-referenced for clarity and ease of use. 
Failure to cross-reference an amendment does 
not affect the enforcement of that amendment. 

(e) Upon adoption of the Vermont Fire & 
Building Safety Code - 2005 the "Vermont Fire 
Prevention and Building Code - 1999" and the 
"1990 Vermont Boiler & Pressure Vessel Rules" 
are repealed. 



Annex I - Excerpts from Vermont Law Pertaining to the Vermont Fire & 
Building Safety Code 

Chapter 173: PREVENTION AND INVESTIGATION OF FIRES 



§ 2729. G eneral provisions 



20 



(a) A person shall not build or cause to be built any structure that is unsafe or likely to be unsafe to 
other persons or property in case of fire or generation and leakage of carbon monoxide. 

(b) A person shall not maintain, keep or operate any premises or any part thereof, or cause or permit to 
be maintained, kept, or operated, any premises or part thereof, under his or her control or ownership in 
a manner that causes or is likely to cause harm to other persons or property in case of fire or 
generation and leakage of carbon monoxide. 

(c) On premises under a person's control, excluding single family owner-occupied houses and 
premises, that person shall observe rules adopted under this subchapter for the prevention of fires and 
carbon monoxide leakage that may cause harm to other persons or property. 

(d) Any condominium or multiple unit dwelling using a common roof, or row houses so-called, or 
other residential buildings in which people sleep, including hotels, motels, and tourist homes, 
excluding single family owner-occupied houses and premises, whether the units are owned or leased 
or rented, shall be subject to the rules adopted under this subchapter and shall be provided with one or 
more carbon monoxide detectors, as defined in 9 V.S.A. section 2881(3), properly installed according 
to the manufacturer's requirements.. 

§ 2730. Definitions 

(a) As used in this subchapter, "public building" means: 

(1)(A) a building owned or occupied by a public utility; hospital; school; house of worship; 
convalescent center or home for the aged, infirm, or disabled; nursery; kindergarten; or day care; 

(B) a building in which two or more persons is employed, or occasionally enter as part of their 
employment or are entertained, including private clubs and societies; 

(C) a cooperative or condominium; [ A condominium is described as a building or complex in which units of 
property, such as apartments, are owned by individuals and common parts of the property, such as the grounds 
and building structure, are owned jointly by the unit owners. A unit in such a complex.] 

(D) a building in which people rent accommodations, whether overnight or for a longer term; 

(E) a restaurant, retail outlet, office or office building, hotel, tent, or other structure for public 
assembly, including outdoor assembly, such as a grandstand; 

(F) a building owned or occupied by the state of V ermont, a county, a municipality, a village, or any 
public entity, including a school or fire district. 

(2) Use of any portion of a building in a manner described in this subsection shall make the entire 
building a "public building" for purposes of this subsection. For purposes of this subsection, a 
"person" does not include an individual who is directly related to the employer and who resides in the 
employment- related building. 

(b) The term "public building" does not include: 

(1) an owner- occupied single family residence, unless used for a purpose described in subsection (a) of 
this section; 

(2) a family residence registered as a day care home under chapter 35 of Title 33, or specifically 
exempted from registration by subdivision 3502(b)(1) of Title 33; 

(3) farm buildings on a working farm or farms. For purposes of this subchapter and subchapter 3 of 
this chapter, the term "working farm or farms" means farms with fewer than the equivalent of 10 full- 
time employees who are not family members and who do not work more than 26 weeks a year. In 
addition, the term means a farm or farms: 

(A) whose owner is actively engaged in farming; or 

(B) if the farm or farms are owned by a partnership or a corporation, one which includes at least one 
partner or principal of the corporation who is actively engaged in farming; 

21 



(C) where the farm or farms are leased, the lessee is actively engaged in farming. The term "farming" 
means: 

(i) the cultivation or other use of land for growing food, fiber, Christmas trees, maple sap, or 
horticultural and orchard crops; 

(ii) the raising, feeding, or management of livestock, poultry, equines, fish, or bees; 

(iii) the production of maple syrup; 

(iv) the operation of greenhouses; 

(v) the on-site storage, preparation, and sale of agricultural products principally produced on the farm. 
Notwithstanding this definition of farming, housing provided to farm employees other than family 
members shall be treated as rental housing and shall be subject to the provisions of this chapter. In 
addition, any farm building which is open for public tours and for which a fee is charged for those 
tours shall be considered a public building. 

(4) a single family residence with an accessory dwelling unit as permitted under subdivision 
4406(4)(D) of Title 24. [reference 24 vsa 4412(E) An accessory dwelling unit is an efficiency or one- 
bedroom apartment that is clearly subordinate to a single-family dwelling, and has facilities and 
provisions for independent living, including sleeping, food preparation, and sanitation, and does not 
exceed 30 percent of the total habitable floor area of the single- family dwelling.] 

(c) For the purpose of this subchapter, subchapter 3 of this chapter, and chapter 174 of Title 20, the 
words "premises," "building," and "structure," or any part thereof shall mean "public building" as 
defined in this section. 

[Buildings classified as public buildings and owned by a federal agency are not exempt from state and 
municipal codes but there are limitations on how this Code is applied. 40 U.S.C.A, section 3312 
requires that a federal agency consult with local code officials, submit plans for review and permit 
inspection of the construction project. The federal agency is required to give due consideration to any 
recommendations made by the local code official and build in compliance with nationally recognized 
building, electrical, fire, life safety and plumbing codes. A federal agency is exempt from any fees and 
no enforcement action can be brought against the federal agency for failure to comply with the law.] 

(d) "Historic building" or "historic structure" means any structure which has been listed in the 
National Register of Historic Places or the state register of historic properties or which has been 
determined to be historically significant by the Vermont advisory council on historic preservation or 
which meets the standards adopted by the division for historic preservation pursuant to subsection 
723(a) of Title 22. 

(e) The phrase "damage or destroy the historic architectural integrity of the historic building or 
structure" means to have an undue adverse impact on historically significant features of the historic 
architectural integrity of the building. 

§ 2731. Rules; inspections; variances 

(a) The commissioner is authorized to adopt rules regarding the construction of buildings, 
maintenance, and operation of premises, and prevention of fires and removal of fire hazards, and to 
prescribe standards necessary to protect the public, employees, and property against harm arising out 
of or likely to arise out of fire. 

(b) The commissioner shall conduct inspections of premises to assure that the rules adopted under this 
subchapter are being observed and may establish priorities for enforcing these rules and standards 
based on the relative risks to persons and property from fire of particular types of premises. The 
commissioner may also conduct inspections to assure that buildings are constructed in accordance with 
approved plans and drawings. 

(c) The following fire prevention and building code fees are established: 
(1) The permit application fee for a construction plan approval shall be: 



22 



(A) based on $4.50 per each $1,000.00 of the total valuation of the construction work proposed to be 
done for renovation to buildings constructed before 1983, but in no event shall the permit application 
fee exceed $135,000.00; 

(B) based on $5.50 per each $1,000.00 of the total valuation of the construction work proposed to be 
done for all other buildings, but in no event shall the permit application fee exceed $135,000.00. 

(2) When an inspection is required due to the change in use of a public building, the fee shall be 
$25.00. 

(3) The proof of inspection fee for fire suppression, alarm, detection, and any other fire protection 
systems shall be $10.00. 

(d) The commissioner shall make all practical efforts to process permits in a prompt manner. The 
commissioner shall establish time limits for permit processing as well as procedures and time periods 
within which to notify applicants whether an application is complete. 

(e) The commissioner may grant variances or exemptions from rules adopted under this subchapter 
where strict compliance would entail practical difficulty, unnecessary hardship, or is otherwise found 
unwarranted, provided that: 

(1) any such variance or exemption secures the public safety and health; and 

(2) any petitioner for such a variance or exemption can demonstrate that the methods, means, or 
practices proposed to be taken in lieu of compliance with the rule or rules provide, in the opinion of 
the commissioner, equal protection of the public safety and health as provided by the rule or rules; and 

(3) the rule or rules from which the variance or exemption is sought has not also been adopted as a rule 
or standard under subchapters 4 and 5 of chapter 3 of Title 21; and 

(4) any such variance or exemption does not violate any of the provisions of chapters 3 and 20 of Title 
26 or any rules adopted thereunder. 

(f) The commissioner shall, in state- funded buildings or new additions to state- funded buildings on 
which construction is begun after June 30, 2001, meet the standards contained in "The Vermont 
Guidelines for Energy Efficient Commercial Construction" as published in its most recent edition by 
the department of public service. 

(h) A building owner or contractor engaged in an older and historic renovation project may propose 
innovative, performance- based alternatives in lieu of strict fire and building code compliance. The 
commissioner shall consider such alternatives and shall accept those that provide equivalent protection 
of the public safety and health. A decision to accept or deny a proposed alternative shall be in writing 
and explain the reasons for accepting or denying the alternative. 

(i)(l) The department approves stamped architectural plans by issuing a plan review letter. If, upon 
final inspection, the department requires structural changes, additional life safety modifications, or 
state- mandated accessibility modifications, and the modifications or changes are not the result of 
design or construction changes by the owner, the owner or architect: 

(A) may apply for a variance or exemption as provided in subsection (e) of this section, section 2732 
of this title, and section 2902 of this title; and 

(B) if the variance or exemption request is denied, upon the completion of the structural changes or 
additional life safety, or state- mandated accessibility modifications, as the case may be, may apply to 
the commissioner for a reimbursement of some or all of the plan review fee paid for the project. 

(2) The decisions of the commissioner, pursuant to this subsection, shall be final. The commissioner 
shall adopt rules to carry out the provisions of this subsection. This subsection shall not apply to 
design or construction changes necessary to comply with an alternative method of life safety code or 
state- mandated accessibility compliance requested by the owner after the plan review. 

§ 2732. Historic variance appeals board; variances; exemptions 

23 



(a) An historic variance appeals board is created. The board shall consist of the following three 
members: the commissioner of public safety or designee, who shall be chair; the state historic 
preservation officer or designee; and a representative of the Vermont historic preservation community 
appointed by the governor. A board member who is not a state employee shall be entitled to 
compensation and expenses as provided by section 1010 of Title 32. 

(b) The board shall hear and determine all requests for variances or exemptions from the rules adopted 
by the commissioner under this subchapter for historic buildings and structures. A request for a 
variance or exemption may be granted where an applicant has demonstrated that strict compliance 
would entail practical difficulty, or unnecessary hardship, or would damage or destroy the historic 
architectural integrity of the historic building or structure, or is otherwise found unwarranted, provided 
that: 

(1) any such variance or exemption secures the public safety and health; 

(2) any petitioner for such a variance or exemption can demonstrate that the methods, means, or 
practices proposed to be taken in lieu of compliance with the rule or rules provide, in the opinion of 
the board, equal protection of the public safety and health as provided by rule or rules; 

(3) the rule or rules from which the variance or exemption is sought have not also been adopted as a 
rule or standard under subchapters 4 and 5 of chapter 3 of Title 21; and 

(4) any such variance or exemption does not violate any of the provisions of chapters 3 and 20 of Title 
26 or any rules adopted thereunder. 

(c) The board may permit a person seeking a variance or exemption to phase in compliance with the 
rules adopted under this subchapter in lieu of or in addition to granting the variance or exemption 
requested. The period of phased in compliance shall be reasonable but shall state a date by which 
compliance shall be achieved. 

(d) Any person seeking a variance or exemption for work involving an historic building shall file a 
written request with the commissioner. The request shall describe the rule or rules from which the 
variance or exemption is sought, the reasons why a variance or exemption is sought, and a description 
as to how any alternative means of protecting the public safety and health is to be provided. The board 
shall meet and consider such requests within 15 working days of the request being filed with the 
commissioner. In deciding whether to grant or deny the request, the board shall take testimony or 
receive information from the applicant or his or her representatives, and from fire safety division staff. 
A decision of the board based on a majority vote of those members present shall be binding. The board 
shall issue a written determination granting or denying, in whole or in part, any variance or exemption 
request, or permission to phase in compliance, within 60 days of hearing the request. If a grant is 
conditional, the condition shall be clearly stated in writing. Failure to act on a request within 60 days 
shall be deemed approval of the request, provided that the public safety and health is not imminently 
threatened. 

(e) The board may adopt, amend, or repeal procedural rules to carry out the provisions of this section. 

(f) The board is attached to the department of public safety for administrative purposes. 

(g) The board shall be subject to the requirements of subchapters 2 and 3 of chapter 5 of Title 1. 
§ 2733. Orders to repair, rehabilitate, or remove structure 

(a) W henever the commissioner finds that premises or any part of them does not meet the standards 
adopted under this subchapter, the commissioner may order it repaired or rehabilitated. If it is not 
repaired or rehabilitated within a reasonable time as specified by the commissioner in his or her order, 
the commissioner may order the premises or part of them closed, if by doing so the public safety will 
not be imperiled; otherwise he or she shall order demolition and removal of the structure, or fencing of 
the premises. Whenever a violation of the rules is deemed to be imminently hazardous to persons or 
property, the commissioner shall order the violation corrected immediately. If the violation is not 
corrected, the commissioner may then order the premises or part of them immediately closed and to 
remain closed until the violation is corrected. 



24 



(b) Whenever a structure, by reason of age, neglect want of repair, action of the elements, destruction, 
either partial or total by fire or other casualty or other cause, is so dilapidated, ruinous, decayed, filthy, 
unstable, or dangerous as to constitute a material menace or damage in any way to adjacent property, 
or to the public, and has so remained for a period of not less than one week, the commissioner may 
order such structure demolished and removed. 

(c) Orders issued under this section shall be served by certified mail with return receipt requested or in 
the discretion of the commissioner, shall be served in the same manner as summonses are served under 
the Vermont Rules of Civil Procedure promulgated by the supreme court, to all persons who have a 
recorded interest in the property recorded in the place where land records for the property are 
recorded, including owners, tenants, mortgagees, attaching creditors, lien holders, and public utilities 
or water companies serving the premises. 

§ 2734. Penalties 

(a) A person who violates any provision of this subchapter or any order or rule issued pursuant thereto 
shall be fined not more than $10,000.00. The state's attorney of the county in which such violation 
occurs shall prosecute the violation and may commence a proceeding in the superior court to compel 
compliance with such order or rule, and such court may make orders and decrees therein by way of 
writ of injunction or otherwise. 

(b) A person who fails to comply with a lawful order issued under authority of this subchapter in case 
of sudden emergency shall be fined not more than $20,000.00. A person who fails to comply with an 
order requiring notice shall be fined $200.00 for each day's neglect commencing with the effective 
date of such order or the date such order is finally determined if an appeal has been filed. 

(c) The commissioner may, after notice and opportunity for hearing, assess an administrative penalty 
of not more than $1,000.00 for each violation of this subchapter or any rule adopted under this 
subchapter. Penalties assessed pursuant to this subsection shall be based on the severity of the 
violation. An election by the commissioner to proceed under this subsection shall not limit or restrict 
the commissioner's authority under subsection (a) of this section. 

(d) V iolation of any rule adopted under this subchapter shall be prima facie evidence of negligence in 
any civil action for damage or injury which is the result of the violation. 

§ 2736. Municipal enforcement 

(a) The legislative body of a municipality may appoint one or more trained and qualified officials and 
may establish procedures to enforce rules and standards adopted under subsection 2731(a) of this title. 
After considering the type of buildings within the municipality, if the commissioner determines that 
the training, qualifications and procedures are sufficient, he or she may assign responsibility to the 
municipality for enforcement of some or all of these rules and standards. The commissioner may also 
assign responsibility for enforcement of the rules of the access board adopted under section 2902 of 
this title. The commissioner shall provide continuing review, consultation, and assistance as may be 
necessary. The assignment of responsibility may be revoked by the commissioner after notice and an 
opportunity for hearing if the commissioner determines that the training, qualifications, or procedures 
are insufficient. The assignment of responsibility shall not affect the commissioner's authority under 
this subchapter. 

(b) If a municipality assumes responsibility under subsection (a) of this section for performing any 
functions that would be subject to a fee established under subsection 2731(a) of this title, the 
municipality may establish and collect reasonable fees for its own use, and no fee shall be charged for 
the benefit of the state. 

(c) Subject to rules adopted under section 2731 of this title, municipal officials appointed under this 
section may enter any premises in order to carry out the responsibilities of this section. The officials 
may order the repair, rehabilitation, closing, demolition, or removal of any premises to the same extent 
as the commissioner may under section 2732 of this title. 

(d) Upon a determination by the commissioner that a municipality has established sufficient 
procedures for granting variances and exemptions, such variances and exemptions may be granted to 
the same extent authorized under subsection 2731(b) of this title. 

25 



(e) The results of all activities conducted by municipal officials under this section shall be reported to 
the commissioner periodically upon request. 

(f) Nothing in this section shall be interpreted to decrease the authority of municipal officials under 
other laws, including laws concerning building codes and laws concerning housing codes 

Current cooperative municipal inspection agreements include: 

Barre - Responsibility for the enforcement of the Code for existing one-two family dwellings. 

Bellows Falls - Responsibility for the enforcement of the Code for all existing public buildings except federally 

certified health care facilities, high-rise buildings, state owned buildings, and the testing and reporting of fire 

protection systems by technically qualified people. 

Bennington - Responsibility for the enforcement of the Code for all new & existing public buildings except 

federally certified health care facilities, high-rise buildings, state owned buildings, and the testing and 

reporting of fire protection systems by technically qualified people. 

BratUeboro - Responsibility for the enforcement of the Code for all existing public buildings except federally 

certified health care facilities, high-rise buildings, state owned buildings, and the testing and reporting of fire 

protection systems by technically qualified people. 

Burlington - Responsibility for the enforcement of the Code for all new and existing public buildings except 

federally certified health care facilities, state owned buildings, and the testing and reporting of fire protection 

systems by technically qualified people. 

Hartford - Responsibility for the enforcement of the Code for all new and existing public buildings except 

federally certified health care facilities, state owned buildings, and the testing and reporting of fire protection 

systems by technically qualified people. 

Winooski - Responsibility for the enforcement of the Code for existing public buildings with selected uses. 



§ 2737. Building permits 

Each municipality shall provide to the commissioner upon request information regarding building 
permits issued by the municipality. 

§ 2799. Definitions 

As used in this subchapter: 

(1) "Explosive material" includes "explosives/ 1 "explosive material/' "blasting agents/' and 
"detonators/ 1 as defined in section 841 of Title 18 of the United States Code, as amended at any time, 
and regulations promulgated thereunder. 

(2) "Flammable material" means, in addition to its ordinary meaning, motion picture film. 

(3) "Hazardous material" means any substance having such properties that it may spontaneously or 
acting under the influence of any thing contiguous or of any chemical or physical agency ignite or 
generate flammable or explosive vapors or gases to a dangerous extent. 

(4) "Petroleum product" includes without limitation liquid petroleum gas, explosive flammable gases, 
and flammable fluids, compounds, or tablets, derived in whole or in part from petroleum. 

§ 2800. Rules and standards 

The commissioner may adopt rules and standards for explosion prevention, fire prevention, and public 
safety with respect to the safekeeping, storage, use, manufacturing, sale, handling, transportation, and 
other disposition of explosive materials, flammable materials, hazardous materials, petroleum, and 
petroleum products. The commissioner may prescribe the location, materials, and construction of 
buildings and other facilities to be used for these purposes. 

§ 2801. Seizure of materials 



26 



Without warrant the commissioner, a member of the state police, a sheriff, a deputy sheriff, a police 
officer, or a constable may seize materials held by a person in violation of rules adopted under this 
subchapter and hold the same subject to the order of the court taking jurisdiction of the offense. 

§ 2802. Orders 

After an inspection, the commissioner may issue an appropriate order to remove or abate a condition 
dangerous to persons or property involving explosive materials, flammable materials, or hazardous 
materials. This order shall be served on the owner or occupant of the premises on which the condition 
exists. 

§ 2685. Record of fires 

The fire marshal shall keep in his office a record of every fire occurring in this state which causes 
serious injury to any person or loss or damage to property in excess of $200.00. He shall record all the 
facts concerning these fires, including statistics as to their extent and the damage caused thereby, and 
whether the losses were covered by insurance and, if so, in what amount. The record shall be made 
daily from the reports made to him under the provisions of this chapter. All such records shall be 
public, except information and testimony taken where arson is suspected. 



§ 2833. Reports to fire marshal 

(a) The chief of a volunteer or paid fire department or, if there is no fire department, the first selectman 
of a town, shall within five days of the occurrence of a fire within his jurisdiction which causes serious 
injury to any person or loss or damage to property which exceeds $200.00, forward a report of the fire 
to the state fire marshal on forms to be furnished by him. If the reporting officer has reason to believe 
that a fire is of suspicious origin, he shall report that fact to the state fire marshal immediately. No fee 
shall be paid or allowed any officer for rendering the report required by this subsection. 

(b) An officer referred to in subsection (a) of this section who wilfully neglects to comply with any of 
the requirements of this subchapter shall be fined not more than $100.00. 

§ 2881. General provisions 

(a) A person shall not install or maintain a boiler or pressure vessel which is unsafe or likely to be 
unsafe to other persons or property. 

(b) A person shall not operate, cause to be operated, or permit to be operated any boiler or pressure 
vessel under his or her control or ownership, in a manner which causes or is likely to cause harm to 
other persons or property. 

§ 2882. Rules 

The commissioner may adopt rules pertaining to boilers and pressure vessels, and standards to be 
observed, necessary for the safety and protection of the public, employees and property. All standards 
adopted by the commissioner shall conform to the codes of the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers and the National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors. The commissioner may 
provide for operating certificates to be issued before a boiler or pressure vessel may be used. 

§ 2883. Inspections by insurance companies 

The commissioner has authority to obtain specific information from boiler insurance companies, on 
forms furnished by them, which shall first be approved by the commissioner. The commissioner may 
authorize qualified inspectors in the employ of insurance companies to conduct inspections under his 
or her control and under such rules as the commissioner may prescribe. In case the inspection is made 
by such an inspector, no fee shall be charged, except a process fee of $20.00 for issuance of an 
operating certificate. 

§ 2884. Qualifications of inspectors 

All boiler inspectors, employed by the state and insurance companies, shall have passed the 
examination required by the National Board of Boiler and Pressure V essel Inspectors, and hold annual 
certification from such board. 

§ 2885. Penalties 

27 



The commissioner may assess penalties pursuant to section 2734 of this title against a person who 
violates this subchapter or any rule adopted under this subchapter 

Chapter 177 § 3131. Definitions 

The term "fireworks" means any combustible or explosive composition, or any substance or 
combination of substances, or article prepared for the purpose of producing a visible or an audible 
effect by combustion, explosion, deflagration or detonation, including blank cartridges, toy pistols, toy 
cannons, toy canes, or toy guns in which explosives are used, balloons that are propelled by 
explosives, firecrackers, torpedoes, sky rockets, Roman candles, cherry bombs, or other fireworks of 
like construction and any fireworks containing any explosive or flammable compound, or any tablets 
or other device containing any explosive substance, except sparklers. The term "fireworks" does not 
include toy pistols, toy canes, toy guns, or other devices in which paper caps containing 0.25 grains or 
less of explosive compound are used, providing they are so constructed that the hand cannot come in 
contact with the cap when in place for use, and toy pistol paper caps that contain less than 0.2 grains of 
explosive mixture. The term "fireworks" does not include fixed ammunition for firearms, or primers 
for firearms. The term "sparkler" means a sparkling item that is in compliance with the United States 
Consumer Product Safety Commission regulations and is one of the following: 

3132. Prohibitions; permits 

(a) Except as provided in this section, it shall be unlawful for any person, firm, co-partnership, or 
corporation to do any of the following: 

(1) Offer for sale, expose for sale, sell at retail or wholesale, or possess fireworks unless the person has 
been issued a permit by both the U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms and the municipality 
in which the person offers for sale and stores the fireworks. 

(2) Use, possess, or explode any fireworks unless the person has been issued a permit to display 
fireworks pursuant to subsection (c) of this section. 

(3) Transport fireworks except in interstate commerce. 

(4) Offer for sale or sell hand-held sparklers as described in subdivision 3131(1) of this title to a 
minor. 

(5) Offer for sale or sell sparklers that are not in compliance with the United States Consumer Product 
Safety Commission regulations. 

(b) The state fire marshal shall have power to adopt reasonable rules and regulations for granting 
permits for supervised public displays of fireworks by municipalities, fair associations, amusement 
parks, and other organizations or groups of individuals. 

(c) Any display for which a permit is issued shall be handled by a competent operator to be approved 
by the chiefs of police and fire departments of the municipality in which the display is to be held and 
shall be of a character, and so located, discharged or fired as, in the opinion of the chief of the fire 
department, or in a municipality with no fire department, the selectboard, after proper inspection, shall 
not be hazardous to property or endanger any person or persons. 

(d) Application for permits shall be made to the chief of the fire department, or in municipalities with 
no fire department, the selectboard, in writing, at least 15 days in advance of the date of the display. 
After the permit has been granted, sales, possessions, use and distribution of fireworks for the display 
shall be lawful for that purpose only. No permit granted under this section shall be transferable. 

§ 3136. Construction 

Being in the interest of public safety the provisions of this subchapter shall be liberally construed. 



Annex II - Excerpts from the Architects and Professional Engineering Licensing 
and Registration Laws 

28 



§ 121. Definitions 

(5) The "practice of architecture" means providing professional services such as consultation, 
investigation, evaluation, planning, designing (including structural design), or responsible supervision 
of construction in connection with any building or structure which has as its principal purpose human 
occupancy or habitation. 

§ 124. Construction; exemptions 

(a) This chapter shall not be construed to affect or prevent: 

(1) the practice of engineering by a professional engineer licensed under the laws of this state; 

(2) the preparation of working drawings, details and shop drawings by persons other than architects 
for use in connection with the execution of their work; 

(3) employees of those lawfully practicing as architects under the provisions of this chapter from 
acting under the instruction, control, or supervision of their employers; 

(4) supervision by builders or superintendents employed by such builders, of the construction or 
structural alteration of buildings or structures; 

(5) design and construction, and the provision of services related thereto, of the following if the 
structure is: 

(A) a detached single, two-family, three-family, or four-family dwelling, or a shed, storage building or 
garage incidental to that dwelling; 

(B) a farm building, including barns, silos, sheds or housing for farm equipment and machinery, 
livestock, poultry or storage; or 

(C ) a pre-engineered building, or a building, plans for which have been stamped or sealed by a 
licensed professional in the appropriate field. 

(b) The provisions of this section shall not be construed to permit any person not licensed as provided 
in this chapter to use the title architect, or any title, sign, card, or device to indicate that such person is 
an architect. 

(c) This chapter shall not be construed to limit or restrict in any manner the right of a practitioner of 
another profession or occupation from carrying on in the usual manner any of the functions incidental 
to that profession or occupation. 

§ 208. Seal 

Each licensee shall obtain a seal of such design as the board shall authorize and direct. Plans and 
specifications prepared by, or under the direct supervision of, a licensed architect shall be stamped 
with the licensee's seal. 

§ 1161. Definitions 

(2) "Professional engineering services" means any service or creative work, the adequate performance 
of which requires engineering education, training and experience in the application of special 
knowledge of the mathematical, physical and engineering sciences. This includes consultation, 
investigation, evaluation, planning and design of engineering works and systems, planning the use of 
land and water and accomplishing engineering surveys. Such services or work may be either for public 
or private purposes, and may be performed in connection with any utilities, structures, buildings, 
machines, equipment, processes, work systems, projects, and equipment systems of a mechanical, 
electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic or thermal nature, insofar as they involve safeguarding life, health or 
property. 

(6) "Professional engineer" means a person licensed under this chapter. 

§ 1163. Exemptions 

29 



(a) Persons exempt. Section 1162 of this title does not prohibit acts constituting the practice of 
engineering performed as a necessary part of the duties of: 

(1) An officer or employee of the federal government. 

(2) An officer or a full-time employee of the state. 

(3) An officer or full-time employee of a municipality. 

(4) Certain classes of licensed potable water supply and wastewater system designers, as designated by 
rule of the secretary of the agency of natural resources, who design supplies or systems with a design 
flow of up to 1,350 gallons per day and who are licensed under chapter 64 of Title 10. 

(5) An officer or employee of a corporation engaged in interstate commerce as defined in the act of 
Congress entitled "An Act to Regulate Commerce" approved February 4, 1887, as amended. 

(6) An officer or employee of a corporation in interstate communications as defined in the act of 
Congress entitled "Communications Act of 1934" or of a telephone company under the supervision 
and regulation of the department of public service. 

(7) A n employee of a professional engineer. 

(8) Students of engineering acting under the supervision of a professional engineer. 

(b) Other professions. Section 1162 does not prohibit acts constituting the practice of any other legally 
recognized profession or occupation, including the activity of site technicians licensed by the agency 
of natural resources. 

(b) Other professions. Section 1162 of this title does not prohibit acts constituting the practice of any 
other legally recognized profession or occupation. 

(c) Purposes exempt. Section 1162 does not prohibit any person from performing acts constituting the 
practice of engineering for the purpose of: 

(1) Designing or fabricating a manufactured product. 

(2) Designing or constructing a building which is not a public building as defined in Title 18. 

(3) Designing or constructing a building which contains only one, two or three dwelling units, or 
accessory outbuildings. 

(4) Construction of public works by a municipality. 

(5) Designing or constructing recreational trails and trail- related structures by a not-for-profit 
organization whose trails have been recognized by the agency of natural resources as part of the 
Vermont trails system; provided such organization purchases and maintains liability insurance in the 
amount required by law or under a contract with the state of Vermont, but in no event in an amount 
that is less than $100,000.00. 

(e) Temporary practice. Section 1162 does not prohibit a person who has become a resident of this 
state within the preceding six months from performing acts constituting the practice of engineering, 
provided that: 

(1) the person has filed an application for a license under this chapter; and 

(2) the person is licensed or registered as a professional engineer in another state which, in the opinion 
of the board, has licensing standards substantially equivalent to those applicable under this chapter. 

§ 1181a. Transient practice 

A person who is not a resident of this state may obtain a transient practice permit to perform acts 
constituting the practice of engineering, provided that: 

(1) the practice in this state does not exceed 30 days in any calendar year; and 

30 



(2) the person is licensed or registered as a professional engineer in another state which, in the opinion 
of the board, has regulatory standards substantially equivalent to those applicable under this chapter. 

§ 1188. Seal 

(a) Each licensee shall obtain a seal of a design authorized or approved by the board. The seal shall 
bear the licensee's name and the title "professional engineer." 

(b) Plans, specifications, plats and reports issued by a licensee shall be stamped with his seal and shall 
also be signed by the licensee. 

Annex III - Smoke & Carbon Monoxide Detection for Single-Family Owner 
Occupied Dwellings 

§ 2881. Definitions 

For the purpose of this chapter: 

(1) "Single- family dwelling" means any building or structure in which a family, families or households 
reside that contains sleeping facilities and is not otherwise classified as a "public building" as defined 
in section 20 V.S.A. section 2730 or as a "condominium" or "multiple unit dwelling" as defined in 
section 20 V.S.A. section 2729(d). 

(2) "Smoke detector" means a device that detects visible or invisible particles of combustion and 
sounds a warning alarm, is operated from a power supply, within the unit or wired to it from an outside 
source, and is approved or listed for the purpose by Underwriters Laboratory or by another nationally 
recognized independent testing laboratory. 

(3) "Carbon monoxide detector" means a device with an assembly that incorporates a sensor control 
component and an alarm notification that detects elevations in carbon monoxide levels and sounds a 
warning alarm, is operated from a power supply within the unit or wired to it from an outside source, 
and is approved or listed for the purpose by Underwriters Laboratory or by another nationally 
recognized independent testing laboratory. 

§ 2882. Installation 

(a) A person who constructs a single- family dwelling shall install one or more smoke detectors, and 
one or more carbon monoxide detectors in the vicinity of any bedrooms in the dwelling in accordance 
with the manufacturer's instructions. In a dwelling provided with electrical power, the detectors shall 
be powered by the electrical service in the building and by battery. 

(b) A single- family dwelling transferred by sale or exchange shall contain one or more smoke 
detectors, and one or more carbon monoxide detectors powered by the electrical service in the 
building or by battery, or by a combination of both, and installed in accordance with the 
manufacturer's instructions. 

(c) Nothing in this section shall require an owner or occupant of a single- family dwelling to maintain 
or use a smoke detector or a carbon monoxide detector after installation. 

§ 2883. Requirements for transfer of dwelling 

(a) The seller of a single- family dwelling, whether by sale or exchange, shall certify to the buyer at the 
closing of the transaction that the dwelling is provided with one or more smoke detectors and one or 
more carbon monoxide detectors in accordance with this chapter. This certification shall be signed and 
dated by the seller. 

(b) If the buyer notifies the seller within ten days by certified mail from the date of conveyance of the 
dwelling that the dwelling lacks a smoke detector or a carbon monoxide detector or that either detector 
is not operable, the seller shall comply with this chapter within ten days after notification. 



31 



(c) V iolation of this section or of the installation requirements of section 2882 shall not create a defect 
in title. 



Annex IV - Information for Historic Buildings 

Vermont has an unusually high proportion of older buildings. These buildings contribute substantially to the sense of 
community and place that makes Vermont unique. At the same time, these buildings may be particularly challenging to 
adaptively reuse. Owners of older and historic buildings should seek the assistance of experienced designers 
specializing in the preservation of these structures. Division for Historic Preservation and Division of Fire Safety staff 
will assist in using the features of this Code to preserve and enhance historic buildings. Clear and comprehensive 
information on the significant historic features needs to be provided to the Division to facilitate review. 

There are a number of codes that are part of this Code specifically written for existing and historic buildings; 

* NFPA 1, Fire Prevention Code, primarily addresses maintenance and the operation of buildings with performance 
guidelines for historic buildings. 

* NFPA 73, Residential Electrical Code, addresses electrical code requirements in existing residential units. 

* NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, principally addresses life safety issues and has specific chapters for existing buildings. 

* NFPA 909, Protection of Cultural Resources including Museums, Libraries and places of worship, brings together the 
design and implementation of fire protection plans designed to protect both people and property. 

*NFPA 914, Code for Fire Protection of Historic Structures, addresses the identification of existing conditions, planning 
and fire protection practices for historic buildings. 

The regional offices of the Division of Fire Safety are staffed with safety professionals who have training and 
experience in developing solutions to meet both safety and historic preservation concerns. If a solution to a problem has 
not been developed after plan review or inspection, the owner or designated representative should contact the regional 
manager for assistance. With more experience and resources to draw on the regional manager often will develop a 
solution without requesting a formal variance. 

For many buildings there are alternatives for certain code requirements that will provide an equivalent level of safety for 
the people using the building. To facilitate the review process for historic buildings, a fire safety plan should be 
developed. Guidance for that plan is found in Section 11.3.2 of NFPA 914 and Section 2.2 of NFPA 909. Additional 
flexibility is provided for historic buildings having the option to use the Alternative Approaches to Life Safety contained 
inNFPAlOlA. 

Fire Alarm and Detection Systems 

Fire alarm and detection systems provide early warning of a fire allowing for safe evacuation of the building and a 
prompt response of fire suppression activities. There are numerous types, styles and designs of fire alarm and detection 
equipment that provide options and flexibility for sympathetic installation in historic buildings. 
(See NFPA 914, Appendix F or NFPA 909, Appendix F for a general discussion of fire alarm systems and NFPA 101 
Section 9.6) 

Fire Extinguishing Systems 

Automatic fire sprinkler systems and other types of automatic fire extinguishing systems provide early warning of a fire 
allowing for safe evacuation of the building and provide prompt suppression of the fire using a minimal amount of 
water. Each sprinkler head has to be heated to a certain temperature by a fire before water is released. Most fires are 
extinguished by the operation of just one or two sprinkler heads due to the prompt response by the sprinkler system. 
The amount of water applied to a fire is much less than what would need to be applied by a fire hose line. 
(See NFPA 914, Appendix F or NFPA 909 Appendix F for a general discussion of fire extinguishing systems and NFPA 
101 Section 9.7) 



32 



Automatic fire sprinkler systems have an excellent record of success in saving both people and property. Because of the 
excellent experience of automatic fire sprinkler systems the Codes have fewer requirements for buildings that have 
automatic fire sprinkler systems. For example, the Codes would drop or "trade off" certain requirements for historic 
buildings that have an automatic fire sprinkler system. 

To promote the installation of fire sprinkler systems in existing buildings in designated downtown areas, a rebate of up 
to $2,000 of the construction permit fee is available to applicants where a complete fire sprinkler system is installed. 
The process for receiving the rebate includes providing documentation from the City or Town Clerk that the building is 
in a designated downtown area; completion of the fire sprinkler system in accordance with appropriate codes and final 
acceptance testing and approval of the fire sprinkler system. Vermont tax credits are also available for the installation of 
sprinkler systems and elevators in designated downtown areas, contact the Agency of Commerce & Community 
Development at 800-622-4553. 

Maintenance and Testing of Fire Protection Systems 

To help assure that fire protection systems will function properly when needed, all fire protection systems such as a fire 
alarm, sprinkler or kitchen hood exhaust systems are required to be tested periodically by a technically qualified person 
who is certified by the Division of Fire Safety. Upon completion of the test, the technically qualified person will affix 
an inspection sticker and notify the Division of Fire Safety of the results of the inspection. 

Use of Archaic Building Materials 

Building materials used within buildings are evaluated for "interior finish ratings" and "fire resistance ratings." 

1) Interior finish ratings include evaluations for flame spread, fuel contribution and smoke development. Interior finish 
ratings are classified as A, B or C. Common archaic finish material such as plaster, tile flooring, wood flooring and 
metal ceilings will normally meet the standards for interior finish. Wood trim and incidental finish which is less than 
10% of the aggregate wall and ceiling areas will also meet the standards for interior finish. Wood paneling which 
consists of more than 10% of the aggregate wall and ceiling areas will also meet the standards for interior finish in a 
number of historic buildings such as a bed and breakfast with 16 or fewer guests. However, in some buildings such as 
schools, the wood paneling would need to be treated with a fire retardant finish. The fire retardant finishes are available 
in both clear and solid color. The application of a fire retardant finish would not be required for wood paneling in a 
building provided with an automatic fire sprinkler system. 

2) Fire resistance ratings evaluate building walls, ceilings or doors for the amount of time that it would resist the passage 
of fire. Construction assemblies can be evaluated by standard tests, rating guidelines published by nationally recognized 
authorities or by engineering analysis. Many common archaic construction assemblies have substantial resistance 
ratings while other assemblies may need to be enhanced to meet fire resistance requirements. Fire resistance 
requirements are commonly found in the code for separation walls that separate a more hazardous area from the rest of 
the building, such as a boiler room or stairway walls which protect the means of egress from a building. The 
requirements for construction or wall assemblies with fire resistance ratings in a building are reduced or totally 
eliminated for existing buildings with an automatic fire sprinkler system. 

Field Guide for Historic Buildings 

The Field Guide is designed to be used by those involved at all levels in the alteration process of historic and older 
buildings, including: trades persons, planners, architects, engineers, and property owners. The purpose of the Field 
Guide is to illustrate and describe successful examples of code compliance that reconcile safety considerations with 
preservation goals. In addition to explaining the code requirements and listing sources for further referencing, this guide 
also encourages and outlines the early and continued cooperation between those directly involved in the project with 
local code and preservation officials. 



Annex V - Contact Information: 

The Division of Fire Safety's four regional offices are located in: 
Barre Rutland 

33 



McFarland State Office Bldg. 
5 Perry Street Suite 200 
Barre,VT 05641 
802.479.4434 
Fax: 802.479.4446 



Fourth Floor 

Asa Bloomer Build Suite 430 

88 Merchants Row 

Rutland, VT 05701 

802.786.5867 

Fax: 802.786.5872 



Springfield 

100 Mineral Street Suite 307Springfield, VT 05156 

802.885.8883 

Fax: 802.885.8885 

The Vermont Fire Academy is located at: 



Williston 

372 Hurricane Lane, Suite 102 
Williston, VT 05495-7151 
802.879.2300 
Fax: 802.879.2312 



317 Sanitarium Road 

Pittsford, VT 05763 

802.483.2755 

Toll Free 800.615.3473 

Fax: 802.483.2464 

The Division of Fire Safety Main Office is located at: 

1311 U.S. Route 302 -Berlin 

Suite 600 
Barre, Vermont 05641-2351 

802.479.7561 
Toll Free 800.640.2106 
Fax: 802.479.7562 



Codes and Standards Adopted and referenced under this Code are available at: 



National Fire Protection Association 
1 Batterymarch Park 
Quincy Mass 02169-9101 
1-800-344-3555 
www.nfpa.org/ 

American Society of Heating Refrigeration 
and Air Condition Engineers 
1791 Tullie Circle N.E. 
Atlanta, GA 30329 
404-636-8400 
www.ashrae.org/ 

American Society of Mechanical Engineers 

22 Law Drive, Box 2900 

Fairfield, NJ 07007 

1-800-843-2763 

www.asme.org/ 

American Society for Testing and Materials 
100 Barr Harbor Drive 
WestConshohockenPA 19428-2959 
610-832-9585 
www.astm.org/ 

American Welding Society, Inc. 



550 N.W.Lejunne Road 
P.O. Box 351040 
Miami FL 33135 
1-800-443-9353 
www.aws.com 

Compressed Gas Association, Inc. 
4221 Walney Road, 5 th Floor 
Chantilly, VA 20151-2923 
703-788-2700 
www.cganeLconVdefaulthtml 

International Code Council, Publications 
4051 West Flossmoor Road 
Country Club Hills 
Illinois, 60478-5795 
888-422-7233 



National Board of Boiler & Pressure Vessel Inspectors 

1055 Crupper Ave. 

Columbus, Ohio 43229-1183 

614r 888- 8320 

rauonalboardorg 

Petroleum Equipment Institute 



34 



P.O. Box 2380 
Tulsa OK 74101-2380 
1-918-494-9696 
www.pei.org 

Underwriters Laboratories Inc. 
333 Pfingsten Road 
Northbrook IL 60062 
847-272-8800 
www.ul.com/ 



Annex VI - 
Index by Topic & Occupancy 

Access for People With Disabilities 

Clearance for Stairway Lifts... page 10 
IBC Cross Reference... page 15 

Accessory Dwelling Unit, Definition... page 22 

Adoption of National Standards... page 4 

International Building Code (IBC)... page 14 
Life Safety Code (NFPA 101)... pagelO 
National Board Inspection Code... page 14 
Uniform Fire Code (NFPA 1)... page 4 

Architecture, Practice of 
Definition... page 29 
Exemptions... page 29 
Seal... page 30 

Assembly Occupancy 

Change of Ownership... page 6 
Nightclubs, Egress Inspection... page 8 
Nightclubs, Sprinkler Protection... page 11 

Assisted Living Occupancy... page 13 

Authority for Code... page 4 

Authority Having Jurisdiction, definition... page 4 

B oiler & Pressure Vessel 

ASME Standards... page 16 
Boiler Room Exits... page 11 
Inspection Certificate... page 17 
Inspection, Initial... page 16 
Inspection, Periodic... page 17 
Low Water Cutoff... page 14 
Report Incident or Explosion... page 17 

Business Occupancy 

Single Exit Exception... page 14 

Carbon Monoxide Detectors 

NFPA Standard 720... page 11 

Power Supply... page 11 

Power Supply, Date for Existing Buildings... page 20 

Location, Apartments... page 13 

Location, Correctional Facilities... page 12 

Location, Daycare... page 12 

Location, Healthcare... page 12 

Location, Hotels & Dormitories... page 13 

Location, Lodging & Rooming... page 13 



Location, Residential Care... page 13 

Location, One & Two Family... page 12 

Single Family Owner Occupied Dwellings... page 31 
Certificate of Fitness 

Both Natural & LP Gas Appliances... page 5 

Chimney Evaluation & Maintenance... page 5 

Delivery of LP Gas... page 5 

Design of LP Gas System... page 5 

Emergency Generators... page 5 

Fire alarm... page 4 

Fixed Fire Extinguishing Systems... page 4 

Installation of LP Gas Appliances... page 5 

Installation of LP Gas Systems... page 5 

Natural Fuel Gas Systems... page 5 

Oil Burning Eguipment... page 5 

Plant Operations for LP Gas... page 5 

Renewal... page 5 

Sprinkler Design... page 5 

Sprinkler, Limited & Domestic... page 5 

Sprinkler Installation... page 5 

Transfer Operations for LP Gas... page 5 
Certification of Plans... page 18 
Code Books, Ordering... page 34 
Combustible Vegetation, Christmas Trees... page 6 
Construction Classification Correlation Table... page 15 
Contact Information, Division of Fire Safety... page 34 
Cooking Operations, Exemptions... page 9 
Design Professional in Responsible Charge... page 19 
Electrical 

Electrical Codes Adopted... page 11 

IBC Cross Reference... page 16 
Elevator 

Hoistway Enclosure & Venting... page 16 

Sprinkler Protection of Hoistways... page 7 
Energy Efficiency... page 15 
Engineering, Professional Services 

Definition... page 30 

Exemptions... page 30 

Seal... page 31 

Transient Practice... page 31 
Existing Buildings... page 16 
Explosives & Fireworks 

General Information... page 9 

Permit for Public Fireworks Display... page 9 

Sparkler Information... page 9 

Sparkler, Sales and Storage... page 9 
Federal Building, Application of Code... page 22 
Fire Extinguishers, Portable... page 11 
Fire Protection Systems 

Identification Number... page 6 

Periodic Inspection & Test... page 6 

Proof of Inspection... page 6 

Proof of Inspection Fee... page 23 
FireWalls... page 15 
Fuel Dispensing 

Fire Resistant Tanks... page 8 
Gas, LP & Natural 

Change in LP Gas Service... page 7 

Discontinuance, Interruption of Service... page 7 

Pipeline Regulations... page 7 

Protection of LP Gas Containers... page 10 

Record of Installation... page 10 
Health Care Occupancy 

CO Detection, Location... page 12 

Definition... page 10 
Hotel & Dormitory Occupancy 

CO Detector, Location... page 13 



35 



Smoke Alarms in Sleeping Rooms... page 13 
Historic Building 

Archaic Building Materials... page 33 

Definition... page 22 

Documentation for Plans... page 18 

Information... page 32 

Reference to NFPA 914... page 6 
International Code Council Standards... page 14 
Lodging & Rooming Occupancy 

Classification, Small... page 12 

CO Detector, Location... page 13 
Manufactured Housing, Information... page 12 
Municipal Enforcement... page 25 

One & Two Family Occupancy 

CO Detection... page 12 

Dwelling Unit Separation... page 12 

IBC Cross Reference... page 15 

Stair Riser & Tread... page 12 
Penalties... page 25 
Permits 

Fee, Change in Use... page 23 

Fee, Construction Permit... page 23 

Tents, Membrane Structures... page 8 
Public Building, Definition... page 21 
Residential Care Occupancy 

CO Detector, Location... page 13 

Definition... page 10 

Smoke Alarms in Sleeping Rooms... page 14 

Sprinkler Protection... page 13 
Semiconductor Fabrication Facilities... page 15 
Smoke Alarms 

Power... page 11 

Single Family Owner Occupied Dwellings... page 31 
Snow Load... page 15 
Snow Removal... page 8 
Sprinkler Systems 



Backflow Prevention, Existing Systems... page 7 
FD Connections, Existing Systems... page 7 
Protection of Elevator Hoistways... page 7 
Protection of Nightclubs... page 11 

Stair, Riser & Tread, 1 & 2 Family... page 12 

Transient Lodging, Classification... page 12 

Underground Storage Tank Information... page 9 

Unvented Room Heaters... page 7 

Variance, Exemption, Reconsideration... page 19 

Water Heaters... page 16 

Window, Escape, Existing... 12 



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IMPORTANT NOTICES AND DISCLAIMERS CONCERNING NFPA DOCUMENTS 

Notice and Disclaimer of Liability Concerning the Use of NFPA Documents 

NFPA codes, standards, recommended practices, and guides, of which the document contained herein is one, are de- 
veloped through a consensus standards development process approved by the American National Standards Institute. 
This process brings together volunteers representing varied viewpoints and interests to achieve consensus on fire and 
other safety issues. While the NFPA administers the process and establishes rules to promote fairness in the develop- 
ment of consensus, it does not independently test, evaluate, or verify the accuracy of any information or the soundness 
of any judgments contained in its codes and standards. 

The NFPA disclaims liability for any personal injury, property or other damages of any nature whatsoever, whether 
special, indirect, consequential or compensatory, directly or indirectly resulting from the publication, use of, or reliance 
on this document. The NFPA also makes no guaranty or warranty as to the accuracy or completeness of any information 
published herein. 

In issuing and making this document available, the NFPA is not undertaking to render professional or other services 
for or on behalf of any person or entity. Nor is the NFPA undertaking to perform any duty owed by any person or entity 
to someone else. Anyone using this document should rely on his or her own independent judgment or, as appropriate, 
seek the advice of a competent professional in determining the exercise of reasonable care in any given circumstances. 

The NFPA has no power, nor does it undertake, to police or enforce compliance with the contents of this document. 
Nor does the NFPA list, certify, test or inspect products, designs, or installations for compliance with this document. 
Any certification or other statement of compliance with the requirements of this document shall not be attributable to 
the NFPA and is solely the responsibility of the certifier or maker of the statement. 

Important Notices and Disclaimers continued on inside back cover. 



10/03 



In recognition of those who suffered 

from the tragedies of September 11, 2001, 

this document is dedicated to all who 

have given their lives in an effort 

fo make this world a safer place. 



13-1 



Copyright © 2002, National Fire Protection Association, All Rights Reserved 

NFPA13 

Standard for the 

Installation of Sprinkler Systems 

2002 Edition 

This edition of NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, was prepared by the 
Technical Committee on Hanging and Bracing of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems, the 
Technical Committee on Private Water Supply Piping Systems, the Technical Committee on 
Sprinkler System Discharge Criteria, and the Technical Committee on Sprinkler System In- 
stallation Criteria, released by the Technical Correlating Committee on Automatic Sprinkler 
Systems, and acted on by NFPA at its May Association Technical Meeting held May 19-23, 
2002, in Minneapolis, MN. It was issued by the Standards Council on July 19, 2002, with an 
effective date of August 8, 2002, and supersedes all previous editions. 

This edition of NFPA 13 was approved as an American National Standard on July 19, 2002. 

Origin and Development of NFPA 13 

NFPA 13 represents the first standard published under the auspices of the NFPA Commit- 
tee on Automatic Sprinklers. Originally titled Rules and Regulations of the National Board of Fire 
Underwriters for Sprinkler Equipments, Automatic and Open Systems, the standard has been continu- 
ously updated to keep in step with change. 

Full information about the NFPA actions on various changes will be found in the NFPA 
Proceedings. The dates of successive editions are as follows: 1896, 1899, 1902, 1905, 1907, 
1908, 1912, 1913, 1915, 1916, 1917, 1919, 1920, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1926, 1927, 
1928, 1929. In 1930, a separate standard was published on Class B systems. This was integrated 
into the 1931 edition. Further revisions were adopted in 1934, 1935, and 1936. A two-step 
revision was presented in the form of a progress report in 1939 and finally adopted in 1940. 
Further amendments were made in 1947, 1950, 1953, 1956, 1958, 1960, 1961, 1963, 1964, 
1965, 1966, 1968, 1969, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1978, 1980, 1982, 1984, 1986, and 
1989. 

The 1991 edition incorporated an entire rewrite of the standard to make the overall 
format user friendly. Substantive changes were made to numerous terms, definitions, and 
descriptions, with additional refinements made in 1994. 

The centennial (1996) edition included a significant rework of the requirements pertain- 
ing to the application, placement, location, spacing, and use of various types of sprinklers. 
Other changes provided information on extended coverage sprinklers and recognized the 
benefits of fast-response sprinkler technology. 

The 1999 edition encompassed a major reorganization of NFPA's Sprinkler Project that 
included the establishment of a Technical Correlating Committee on Automatic Sprinkler 
Systems and four new sprinkler systems technical committees, the consolidation of NFPA's 
sprinkler system design and installation requirements, and the implementation of numerous 
technical changes. 

The scope of NFPA 13 was expanded to address all sprinkler system applications. The 1999 
edition contained information on the installation of underground pipe from NFPA 24 and 
sprinkler system discharge criteria for on-floor and rack storage of Class I, II, III, IV, and 
plastic commodities, rubber tires, baled cotton, and roll paper that were previously located in 
NFPA231, 231C, 231D, 231E, and 231F. Additionally, sprinkler system information for special- 
ized hazards from over 40 NFPA documents was either copied into NFPA 13 using NFPA's 
extract policy or specifically referenced. A new chapter was also added to address the struc- 
tural aspects of exposed and buried system piping. A table of cross-references to previous 
editions and material that was located in other NFPA documents was included at the end of 
the 1999 edition. 



1 3-2 INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



More specific changes included a new sprinkler identification marking system and the designation of sprinkler sizes 
by nominal K-factors. New criteria for the use of steel pipe in underground applications was added, as well as a new 
provision to guard against microbiologically influenced corrosion. Obstruction rules for specific sprinkler types and 
rules for locating sprinklers in concealed spaces were revised. New limitations were placed on the sprinkler sizes in 
storage applications, and criteria for the K-25 sprinkler was added. Additionally, the requirements for protecting 
sprinklers against seismic events also underwent significant revision. 

The 2002 edition of NFPA 13 has undergone style formatting and technical revisions. The style formatting was 
completed to comply with the NFPA Manual of Style and to reorganize many of the requirements in NFPA 13 into 
unique chapters. Editorially, NFPA 13 has eliminated all of the exceptions and reworded them as requirements where 
applicable, the mandatory references have been moved to Chapter 2, and all of the definitions are now located in 
Chapter 3. In reorganizing NFPA 13, several new chapters were created to consolidate requirements including the 
following: Chapter 10 contains all of the applicable requirements for underground piping including materials, instal- 
lation, and acceptance testing; Chapter 11 contains design approaches including pipe schedule, density/ area method, 
room design method, special design areas, residential sprinklers, exposure protection, and water curtains; Chapter 12 
contains the design approaches for the protection of storage including idle pallets, miscellaneous storage, storage less 
than 12 ft, palletized, solid pile, bin box, and shelf storage, rack storage less than 25 ft, rack storage greater than 25 ft, 
rubber tire, baled cotton, rolled paper, and special storage designs; Chapter 13 contains all of the design and installa- 
tion requirements from all of the various documents that have been extracted into NFPA 13. 

The 2002 edition made specific technical changes to address several key issues. Three major areas of irregular 
ceiling have been addressed including skylights, stepped ceilings, and ceiling pockets. The design requirements for 
ESFR sprinklers have been expanded to allow the user to choose the storage height and then the building height for 
any allowable arrangement. Design requirements for the protection of storage on solid shelves have been added. 
Requirements for the installation of residential sprinklers were added that parallel the requirements for other types of 
sprinklers. 

Prior editions of this document have been translated into languages other than English, including French and 
Spanish. 



2002 Edition 



COMMITTEE PERSONNEL 



13-3 



Technical Correlating Committee on Automatic Sprinkler Systems (AUT-AAC) 

John G. O'Neill, Chair 
Gage-Babcock & Associates Inc., VA [SE] 



Christian Dubay, Nonvoting Secretary 
NFPA, MA 



Jose R. Baz, International Engineered Systems, Limited, 
Inc., FL [M] 

Rep. NFPA Latin American Section 
Kerry M. Bell, Underwriters Laboratories Inc., IL [RT] 
Eric H. Cote, The RJA Group, Inc., MA [SE] 
Russell P. Fleming, National Fire Sprinkler Association, 
NY[M] 

Scott T. Franson, The Viking Corporation, MI [M] 
Joseph B. Hankins, Jr., FM Global, MA [I] 
James B. Harmes, Grand Blanc Fire Department, MI [E] 

Rep. International Association of Fire Chiefs 
Luke Hilton, LMG Property Engineering, FL [I] 
Roland J. Huggins, American Fire Sprinkler Association, 
Inc., TX [IM] 

Sultan M. Javeri, La Rose Des Vents, France [IM] 
Andrew Kim, National Research Council of Canada, 
Canada [RT] 



B. J. Lukes, Grinnell Fire Protection System Company 
Limited/Tyco, Canada [IM] 

Rep. Canadian Automatic Sprinkler Association 
Joseph W. Noble, Clark County Fire Department, NV [E] 

Rep. International Fire Marshals Association 
Eric Packard, Local 669 JATC Education Fund, MD [L] 

Rep. United Association of Journeymen and 

Apprentices of the Plumbing and Pipe Fitting Industry 

of the U.S. and Canada 
Chester W. Schirmer, Schirmer Engineering 
Corporation, NC [SE] 

John Nigel Stephens, LPC Centre for Risk Sciences, 
United Kingdom [I] 

Lynn K. Underwood, CNA Risk Management Property, 
IL[I] 



Alternates 



Donald "Don" D. Becker, RJC & Associates, Inc., MO [IM] 

(Alt. toRJ. Huggins) 
Randall S. Chaney, LMG Property Engineering, CA [I] 

(Alt. to L. Hilton) 
Raymond A. Grill, The RJA Group, Inc., VA [SE] 

(Alt. to E. H. Cote) 
Kenneth E. Isman, National Fire Sprinkler Association, 
NY[M] 

(Alt. to R. P. Fleming) 



George E. Laverick, Underwriters Laboratories Inc., 
IL [RT] 

(Alt. to K. M. Bell) 
Donato A. Pirro E., Electro Sistemas De Panama, S.A., 
Panama [M] 

(Alt. to J. R. Baz)) 
William E. Wilcox, FM Global, MA [I] 

(Alt. to J. B. Hankins, Jr.) 



Nonvoting 



Antonio C. M. Braga, FM Global, CA [I] 

Edward K. Budnick, Hughes Associates, Inc., MD [SE] 

Rolf H. Jensen, Belleair, FL 

(Member Emeritus) 
William E. Koffel, Koffel Associates, Inc., MD [SE] 

(Liaison from NFPA 101) 
Kenneth W. Linder, Industrial Risk Insurers, CT [I] 
Christopher T. Lummus, Insurance Services Office, Inc., 
TX [I] 



Daniel Madrzykowski, U.S. National Institute of 
Standards and Technology, MD [RT] 
Peter Papavasiliou, Engineering Professionals, Limited, 
IL [SE] 

J. William Sheppard, General Motors Corporation, MI [U] 
John J. Walsh, Local 669 JATC, MD [SE] 
(Member Emeritus) 



Christian Dubay, NFPA Staff Liaison 

Committee Scope: This Committee shall have overall responsibility for documents that pertain to the criteria 
for the design and installation of automatic, open, and foam-water sprinkler systems including the character 
and adequacy of water supplies and the selection of sprinklers, piping, valves, and all materials and accesso- 
ries. This Committee does not cover the installation of tanks and towers, or the installation, maintenance, 
and use of central station, proprietary, auxiliary, and local signaling systems for watchmen, fire alarm, and 
supervisory service, or the design of fire department hose connections. 



2002 Edition 



13-4 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Technical Committee on Hanging and Bracing of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems (AUT-HBS) 

Antonio C. M. Braga, Chair 
FM Global, CA [I] 



Samuel S. Dannaway, Secretary 
S. S. Dannaway Associates, Inc., HI [SE] 



James B. Biggins, Marsh Risk Consulting, IL [I] 

Richard W. Bonds, Ductile Iron Pipe Research 

Association, AL [M] 

Russell P. Fleming, National Fire Sprinkler Association, 

NY[M] 

Thomas J. Forsythe, Gage-Babcock & Associates, Inc., 

CA[SE] 

Luke Hilton, LMG Property Engineering, FL [I] 

Rep. Alliance of American Insurers 
Terry Hoist, Grinnell Fire Protection Systems Co., CA [M] 

Rep. National Fire Sprinkler Association 
Kraig Kirschner, AFCON, CA [M] 

Rep. American Fire Sprinkler Association, Inc. 
Philip D. LeGrone, Risk Management Solutions, Inc., 
TN [SE] 

Wayne M. Martin, Wayne Martin & Associates Inc. 
(WMA),CA[SE] 



Emil W. Misichko, Underwriters Laboratories Inc., IL [RT] 
Donald C. Moeller, The RJA Group, Inc., CA [SE] 
David S. Mowrer, HSB Professional Loss Control, TN [I] 
Randy R. Nelson, VFS Fire Protection Services, CA [IM] 

Rep. American Fire Sprinkler Association, Inc. 
Janak B. Patel, Bechtel Savannah River Company, GA [U] 
Michael A. Rothmier, UA Joint Apprenticeship 
Committee Local 669, CO [L] 

Rep. United Association of Journeymen and 

Apprentices of the Plumbing and Pipe Fitting Industry 

of the U.S. and Canada 
James Tauby, Mason Industries, Inc., NY [M] 
Jack Thacker, Allan Automatic Sprinkler Corporation of 
Southern California, CA [IM] 

Rep. National Fire Sprinkler Association 



Alternates 



Charles Bamford, Advanced Fire Protection Inc., WA [IM] 

(Alt. to R. R. Nelson) 
Randall S. Chaney, LMG Property Engineering, CA [I] 

(Alt. to L. Hilton) 
Sheldon Dacus, Security Fire Protection Company, TN [IM] 

(Alt. to J. Thacker) 
Russell G. Hoeltzel, Marsh Risk Consulting, CA [I] 

(Alt. to J. B. Biggins) 
B.J. Lukes, Grinnell Fire Protection System Company 
Limited/Tyco, Canada [M] 

(Alt. to T. Hoist) 
J. Scott Mitchell, American Fire Sprinkler Association, 
Inc., TX [M] 

(Alt. to K. Kirschner) 



Eric Packard, Local 669 JATC Education Fund, MD [L] 

(Alt. to M. A. Rothmier) 
James J. Urban, Underwriters Laboratories Inc., IL [RT] 

(Alt. to E. W. Misichko) 
AUyn J. Vaughn, The RJA Group, Inc., NV [SE] 

(Alt. to D. C. Moeller) 
George Von Gnatensky, Toko, Incorporated, CA [M] 

(Alt. to R. P. Fleming) 
William E. Wilcox, FM Global, MA [I] 

(Alt. to A. CM. Braga) 
David M. Gough, Industrial Risk Insurers, CT [I] 

(Voting Alt. to IRI Rep.) 



Christian Dubay, NFPA Staff Liaison 

Committee Scope: This Committee shall have primary responsibility for those portions of NFPA 13 that 
pertain to the criteria for the use and installation of components and devices used for the support of water- 
based fire protection system piping including protection against seismic events. 



2002 Edition 



COMMITTEE PERSONNEL 



13-5 



Technical Committee on Private Water Supply Piping Systems (AUT-PRI) 



J. William Sheppard, Chair 

General Motors Corporation, MI [U] 

Rep. NFPA Industrial Fire Protection Section 



Robert M. Gagnon, Secretary 
Gagnon Engineering, MD [SE] 



James B. Biggins, Marsh Risk Consulting, IL [I] 

Richard W. Bonds, Ductile Iron Pipe Research 

Association, AL [M] 

Phillip Brown, American Fire Sprinkler Association, Inc., 

TX [IM] 

Richard Brown, Brown Sprinkler Corporation, KY [IM] 

Rep. National Fire Sprinkler Association 
August F. DiManno, Jr., Fireman's Fund Insurance 
Company, NY [I] 

William C. Gearhart, University of Pennsylvania, PA [IM] 
David M. Gough, Industrial Risk Insurers, CT [I] 
Luke Hilton, LMG Property Engineering, FL [I] 

Rep. Alliance of American Insurers 
Gerald Kelliher, Westinghouse Savannah River Co., SC [U] 
Marshall A. Klein, Marshall A. Klein and Associates, Inc., 
MD [SE] 



John Lake, Marion County Fire/Rescue, FL [E] 
James M. Maddry, James M. Maddry, RE., GA [SE] 
Emil W. Misichko, Underwriters Laboratories Inc., IL [RT] 
David S. Mowrer, HSB Professional Loss Control, TN [I] 
Robert A. Panero, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, 
CA[U] 

Rep. Edison Electric Institute 
Sam (Sat) Salwan, Environmental Systems Design Inc., 
IL [SE] 
James R. Schifiliti, Fire Safety Consultants, Inc., IL [IM] 

Rep. Illinois Fire Prevention Association 
James W. Simms, The RJA Group, Inc., CA [SE] 
Robert Spaulding, FM Global, MA [I] 
Michael J. Stelzer, ABB Lummus Global, Inc., TX [SE] 
Lynn K. Underwood, CNA Risk Management Property, 
IL[I] 



Alternates 



Tariq Bsharat, National Fire Sprinkler Association, 
NY[IM] 

(Alt. to R. Brown) 
David M. Hammerman, Marshall A. Klein and Associates, 
Inc., MD [SE] 

(Alt. to M.A.Klein) 
Joseph B. Hankins, Jr., FM Global, MA [I] 

(Alt. to R. Spaulding) 
Robert D. Stephens, Industrial Risk Insurers, CA [I] 

(Alt. to D. M. Gough) 



Lawrence Thibodeau, Hampshire Fire Protection 
Company Inc., NH [IM] 

(Alt. to P. Brown) 
James J. Urban, Underwriters Laboratories Inc., IL [RT] 

(Alt. to E. W. Misichko) 
Peter R. Yurkonis, The RJA Group, Inc., IL [SE] 

(Alt. to J. W. Simms) 



Nonvoting 



Kenneth J. Carl, Baldwin, NY [SE] 
(Member Emeritus) 



Geoffrey N. Perkins, 

Australia 



Bassett Consulting Engineers, 



Christian Dubay, NFPA Staff Liaison 

Committee Scope: This Committee shall have primary responsibility for documents on private piping systems 
supplying water for fire protection and for hydrants, hose houses, and valves. The Committee is also respon- 
sible for documents on fire flow testing and marking of hydrants. 



2002 Edition 



13-6 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Technical Committee on Sprinkler System Discharge Criteria (AUT-SSD) 



Edward K. Budnick, Chair 
Hughes Associates, Inc., MD [SE] 



Charles Bauroth, LMG Property, TX [I] 

Rep. Alliance of American Insurers 
Kerry M. Bell, Underwriters Laboratories Inc., IL [RT] 
Michael H. Blumenthal, Rubber Manufacturers 
Association, DC [M] 

Robert B. Combs, Marsh USA, Inc., WA [I] 
Thomas G. Deegan, The Viking Corporation, MI [M] 
Richard H. Field, Royal & SunAlliance, NC [I] 

Rep. American Insurance Services Group 
Russell P. Fleming, National Fire Sprinkler Association, 
NY[M] 

James G. Gallup, The RJA Group, Inc., AZ [SE] 
James Golinveaux, Tyco Fire Products, RI [M] 

Rep. National Fire Sprinkler Association 
Joseph B. Hankins, Jr., FM Global, MA [I] 
Roland J. Huggins, American Fire Sprinkler Association, 
Inc., TX [IM] 
Larry Keeping, Vipond Fire Protection, Canada [IM] 

Rep. Canadian Automatic Sprinkler Association 
Andrew Kim, National Research Council of Canada, 
Canada [RT] 



William E. Koffel, Koffel Associates, Inc., MD [SE] 
Chris LaFleur, General Motors Corporation, MI [U] 
Jerome P. Merkel, United Sprinkler, Inc., MN [IM] 
Azarang Mirkhah, Las Vegas Fire Department, NV [E] 
Richard Pehrson, Minnesota State Fire Marshal Division, 
MN [E] 

Rep. International Fire Marshals Association 
Chester W. Schirmer, Schirmer Engineering 
Corporation, NC [SE] 

Todd E. Schumann, Industrial Risk Insurers, IL [I] 
Peter A. Smith, International Paper Company, TN [U] 
Sandra Stanek, Rural Metro Fire Department, AZ [E] 
David W. Stroup, U.S. National Institute of Standards and 
Technology, MD [RT] 

Willie R. Templin, American Automatic Sprinkler, Inc., 
TX [IM] 

Rep. American Fire Sprinkler Association, Inc. 
Jack Thacker, Allan Automatic Sprinkler Corporation of 
Southern California, CA [IM] 

Rep. National Fire Sprinkler Association 
William J. Tomes, TVA Fire and Life Safety, GA [U] 

Rep. The Home Depot 



Alternates 



Carl P. Anderson, Tacoma Fire Department, WA [E] 

(Alt. to A. Mirkhah) 
Gordon Bates, Minneapolis Fire Dept., MN [E] 

(Alt. to R. Pehrson) 
John August Denhardt, Strickland Fire Protection, Inc. 
MD [IM] 

(Alt. toW. R. Templin) 
David L. Dixon, Security Fire Protection, TN [IM] 

(Alt. to J. Thacker) 
Michael L. Edwards, The RJA Group, Inc., VA [SE] 

(Alt. to J. G. Gallup) 
Pravinray D. Gandhi, Underwriters Laboratories Inc., 
IL [RT] 

(Alt. to K. M. Bell) 
J. Grayson Gilbert, Industrial Risk Insurers, GA [I] 

(Alt. to T. E. Schumann) 
Daniel Madrzykowski, U.S. National Institute of 
Standards and Technology, MD [RT] 

(Alt. to D. W. Stroup) 



Barry M. Lee, Tyco International, Australia [M] 



Jack A. Medovich, East Coast Fire Protection, Inc., 
MD [IM] 

(Alt. to R.J. Huggins) 
Thomas L. Multer, Reliable Automatic Sprinkler 
Company, GA [M] 

(Alt. to R. P. Fleming) 
Garner A. Palenske, Schirmer Engineering Corp., CA [SE] 

(Alt. to C. W. Schirmer) 
Raymond Schmid, Koffel Associates, Inc., MD [SE] 

(Alt. to W. E. Koffel) 
Peter W. Thomas, Tyco Fire Products, RI [M] 

(Alt. toj. Golinveaux) 
William P. Thomas, Jr., TVA Fire and Safety, GA [U] 

(Alt. to W.J. Tomes) 
Tom Vincent, Life Safety Systems, Canada [IM] 

(Alt. to L. Keeping) 
William E. Wilcox, FM Global, MA [I] 

(Alt. to J. B. Hankins, Jr.) 



Nonvoting 



Christian Dubay, NFPA Staff Liaison 

Committee Scope: This Committee shall have primary responsibility for those portions of NFPA 13 that 
pertain to the classification of various fire hazards and the determination of associated discharge criteria for 
sprinkler systems employing automatic and open sprinklers. 



2002 Edition 



COMMITTEE PERSONNEL 



13-7 



Technical Committee on Sprinkler System Installation Criteria (AUT-SSI) 



Kenneth W. Under, Chair 
Industrial Risk Insurers, CT [I] 



Kenneth E. Isman, Secretary 
National Fire Sprinkler Association, NY [M] 



Edward K. Budnick, Hughes Associates, Inc., MD [SE] 
Robert G. Caputo, Consolidated Fireprotection, Inc., 
CA[IM] 

Rep. American Fire Sprinkler Association, Inc. 
Robert E. Duke, Fire Control Incorporated, IL [IM] 
Randall Eberly, U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters, DC [E] 
Ralph Gerdes, Ralph Gerdes Consultants, LLC, IN [SE] 

Rep. American Institute of Architects 
Rick Glenn, Gage-Babcock & Associates, Inc. IL [SE] 
Christopher M. Goddard, AstraZeneca, DE [U] 

Rep. NFPA Industrial Fire Protection Section 
Luke Hilton, LMG Property Engineering, FL [I] 
Elwin G. Joyce, Kentucky Division of Building Code 
Enforcement, KY [E] 
Larry Keeping, Vipond Fire Protection, Canada [IM] 

Rep. Canadian Automatic Sprinkler Association 
George E. Laverick, Underwriters Laboratories Inc., IL 
[RT] 

Ausmus S. Marburger, Fire Protection Industries, Inc., 
PA [IM] 

Rep. National Fire Sprinkler Association 
Rodney A. McPhee, Canadian Wood Council, Canada [U] 
Peter J. McWilliams, Eastman Kodak Company, NY [U] 



Michael F. Meehan, Virginia Sprinkler Company, Inc., 
VA [IM] 

Rep. American Fire Sprinkler Association, Inc. 
Ernest (Russ) Mower, City of Piano Building 
Department, TX [E] 

Rep. NFPA Fire Service Section 
David S. Mowrer, HSB Professional Loss Control, TN [I] 
Joseph W. Noble, Clark County Fire Department, NV [E] 

Rep. International Fire Marshals Association 
Eric Packard, Local 669 JATC Education Fund, MD [L] 

Rep. United Association of Journeymen and 

Apprentices of the Plumbing and Pipe Fitting Industry 

of the U.S. and Canada 
Chester W. Schirmer, Schirmer Engineering 
Corporation, NC [SE] 

Sandra Stanek, Rural Metro Fire Department, AZ [E] 
Craig R. Studer, The RJA Group, Inc., IL [SE] 
William L. Testa, Grinnell Fire Protection Systems 
Company/Tyco, RI [M] 

Rep. National Fire Sprinkler Association 
Lynn K. Underwood, CNA Risk Management Property, 
IL[I] 
William E. Wilcox, FM Global, MA [I] 



Alternates 



Michael A. Amar, Gage-Babcock & Associates, Inc., CA [SE] 

(Alt. to R. Glenn) 
Daniel L. Arnold, The RJA Group, Inc., GA [SE] 

(Alt. to C. R. Studer) 
Hamid R. Bahadori, Hughes Associates, Inc., FL [SE] 

(Alt. to E. K. Budnick) 
Antonio C. M. Braga, FM Global, CA [I] 

(Alt. to W. E. Wilcox) 
Phillip Brown, American Fire Sprinkler Association, Inc., 
TX [IM] 

(Alt. to R. G. Caputo) 
Randall S. Chaney, LMG Property Engineering, CA [I] 

(Alt. to L. Hilton) 
Del Dornbos, The Viking Corporation, MI [M] 

(Alt. to K. E. Isman) 
James Golinveaux, Tyco Fire Products, RI [M] 

(Alt. to W. L. Testa) 
Richard S. Malek, Eastman Kodak Company, NY [U] 

(Alt. to P.J. McWilliams) 



Barry M. Lee, Tyco International, Australia [M] 



Thomas H. Miller, Varley-Campbell & Associates, 
Inc./Village of Glen Ellyn, IL [SE] 

(Alt. to E. Mower) 
Richard Oliver, Oliver Sprinkler Company, Inc., PA [IM] 

(Alt. to A. S. Marburger) 
Michael A. Rothmier, UA Joint Apprenticeship 
Committee Local 669, CO [L] 

(Alt. to E. Packard) 
David T. Sheppard, Underwriters Laboratories Inc., IL [RT] 

(Alt. to G. E. Laverick) 
Mahendra "Kumar" H. Sheth, B.I.C. Design Company, 
MO [IM] 

(Alt. to M. F. Meehan) 
Lejay Slocum, Schirmer Engineering Corporation, IL [SE] 

(Alt. to C. W. Schirmer) 
Tom Vincent, Life Safety Systems, Canada [IM] 

(Alt. to L. Keeping) 



Nonvoting 



Christian Dubay, NFPA Staff Liaison 

Committee Scope: This Committee shall have primary responsibility for those portions of NFPA 13 that 
pertain to the criteria for the use and installation of sprinkler system components (with the exception of 
those components used for support of piping), positioning of sprinklers, types of systems, plans and calcula- 
tions, water supplies, and acceptance testing. 

These lists represent the membership at the time the Committees were balloted on the final text of this edition. Since that time, 
changes in the membership may have occurred. A key to classifications is found at the back of the document. 
NOTE: Membership on a committee shall not in and of itself constitute an endorsement of the Association or 
any document developed by the committee on which the member serves. 



2002 Edition 



13-£ 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Contents 



Chapter 1 Administration 13- 1 

1.1 Scope 13- 1 

1.2 Purpose 13- 1 

1.3 Application 13- 1 

1.4 Retroactivity Clause 13- 1 

1.5 Equivalency 13- 1 

1.6 New Technology 13— 1 

1.7 Units and Symbols 13- 1 

Chapter 2 Referenced Publications 13- 12 

2.1 General 13-12 

2.2 NFPA Publications 13- 12 

2.3 Other Publications 13- 12 

Chapter3 Definitions 13- 14 

3.1 General 13- 14 

3.2 NFPA Official Definitions 13- 14 

3.3 General Definitions 13- 14 

3.4 Sprinkler System Type Definitions 13- 15 

3.5 System Component Definitions 13- 16 

3.6 Sprinkler Definitions 13- 16 

3.7 Construction Definitions 13— 17 

3.8 Private Water Supply Piping 

Definitions 13— 17 

3.9 Palletized, Solid Pile, Bin Box, and 

Shelf Storage Definitions 13- 17 

3.10 Rack Storage Definitions 13-18 

3.11 Rubber Tire Storage Definitions 13- 18 

3.12 Baled Cotton Definitions 13- 19 

3.13 Roll Paper Definitions 13- 19 

3.14 Marine Definitions 13- 19 



Chapter 4 General Requirements 13- 20 

4.1 Level of Protection 13- 20 

4.2 Limited Area Systems 13- 20 

4.3 Owners' Certificate 13-20 

Chapter 5 Classification of Occupancies and 

Commodities 13— 20 

5.1 Classification of Occupancies 13— 20 

5.2 Light Hazard Occupancies 13— 20 

5.3 Ordinary Hazard Occupancies 13— 20 

5.4 Extra Hazard Occupancies 13- 20 

5.5 Special Occupancy Hazards 13— 20 

5.6 Commodity Classification 13- 20 

Chapter 6 System Components and Hardware 13- 22 

6.1 General 13— 22 

6.2 Sprinklers 13— 22 

6.3 Aboveground Pipe and Tube 13— 24 

6.4 Fittings 13- 25 

6.5 Joining of Pipe and Fittings 13- 26 

6.6 Hangers 13- 27 

6.7 Valves 13- 27 



6.8 Fire Department Connections 13— 27 

6.9 Waterflow Alarms 13- 27 

Chapter 7 System Requirements 13- 28 

7.1 Wet Pipe Systems 13-28 

7.2 Dry Pipe Systems 13- 28 

7.3 Preaction Systems and Deluge Systems ... 13- 30 

7.4 Combined Dry Pipe and Preaction 

Systems 13— 30 

7.5 Antifreeze Systems 13— 31 

7.6 Automatic Sprinkler Systems with 

Non-Fire Protection Connections 13— 34 

7.7 Outside Sprinklers for Protection 

Against Exposure Fires 13— 36 

7.8 Refrigerated Spaces 13— 37 

7.9 Commercial-Type Cooking Equipment 

and Ventilation 13- 37 

Chapter 8 Installation Requirements 13- 39 

8.1 Basic Requirements 13- 39 

8.2 System Protection Area Limitations 13- 39 

8.3 Use of Sprinklers 13-39 

8.4 Application of Sprinkler Types 13- 42 

8.5 Position, Location, Spacing, and Use 

of Sprinklers 13- 43 

8.6 Standard Pendent and Upright Spray 
Sprinklers 13— 44 

8.7 Sidewall Standard Spray Sprinklers 13- 50 

8.8 Extended Coverage Upright and 

Pendent Spray Sprinklers 13— 53 

8.9 Extended Coverage Sidewall Spray 

Sprinklers 13— 57 

8.10 Residential Sprinklers 13- 59 

8.11 Large Drop Sprinklers in All 
Applications and Other Specific 
Application Sprinklers Used for 

Storage Protection 13- 63 

8.12 Early Suppression Fast-Response 

Sprinklers 13— 66 

8.13 In-Rack Sprinklers 13- 69 

8.14 Special Situations 13- 69 

8.15 Piping Installation 13- 74 

8.16 System Attachments 13- 77 

Chapter 9 Hanging, Bracing, and Restraint of 

System Piping 13-80 

9.1 Hangers 13- 80 

9.2 Installation of Pipe Hangers 13-84 

9.3 Protection of Piping Against Damage 

Where Subject to Earthquakes 13— 86 

Chapter 10 Underground Piping 13— 92 

10.1 Piping Materials 13- 92 

10.2 Fittings 13- 93 



2002 Edition 



CONTENTS 



13-9 



10.3 Joiningof Pipe and Fittings 13-94 

10.4 DepthofCover 13-94 

10.5 Protection Against Freezing 13- 94 

10.6 Protection Against Damage 13- 94 

10.7 Requirement for Laying Pipe 13- 94 

10.8 Joint Restraint 13- 95 

10.9 Backfilling 13- 96 

10.10 Testing and Acceptance 13-96 

Chapter 11 Design Approaches 13— 98 

11.1 General 13-98 

11.2 Occupancy Hazard Fire Control 

Approach 13- 99 

Chapter 12 Storage 13-103 

12.1 General 13-103 

12.2 Fire Control Approach for the 
Protection of Commodities That 
are Stored Palletized, Solid Piled, 

Bin Boxes, or Shelf Storage 13-108 

12.3 Protection of Commodities Stored on 

Racks 13-117 

12.4 Protection of Rubber Tire Storage 13-161 

12.5 Protection of Baled Cotton Storage 13-165 

12.6 Protection of Roll Paper Storage 13-165 

12.7 Special Designs 13-166 

Chapter 1 3 Special Occupancy Requirements 1 3—1 69 

13.1 General 13-169 

13.2 Flammable and Combustible Liquids 13-169 

13.3 Aerosol Products 13-169 

13.4 Spray Application Using Flammable 

and Combustible Materials 13-169 

13.5 Solvent Extraction Plants 13-169 

13.6 Nitrate Film 13-169 

13.7 Storage of Pyroxylin Plastic 13-171 

13.8 Laboratories Using Chemicals 13-172 

13.9 Oxygen-Fuel Gas Systems for Welding, 

Cutting, and Allied Processes 13-172 

13.10 Acetylene Cylinder Charging Plants 13-173 

13.11 Storage, Use, and Handling of 
Compressed and Liquefied Gases 

in Portable Cylinders 13-173 

13.12 Storage and Handling of Liquefied 
Petroleum Gases at Utility Gas 

Plants 13-173 

13.13 Production, Storage, and Handling of 
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) 13-174 

13.14 Electronic Computer Systems 13-174 

13.15 Incinerators, Systems, and Equipment ... 13-174 

13.16 Industrial Furnaces Using a Special 

Process Atmosphere 13-175 

13.17 Ventilation Control and Fire 
Protection of Commercial Cooking 
Operations 13-175 

13.18 Class A Hyperbaric Chambers 13-175 



13.19 Fixed Guideway Transit Systems 13-176 

13.20 Race Track Stables 13-176 

13.21 Water Cooling Towers 13-176 

13.22 Piers, Terminals, and Wharves 13-178 

13.23 Cleanrooms 13-178 

13.24 Aircraft Hangars 13-179 

13.25 Airport Terminal Buildings, Fueling 
Ramp Drainage, and Loading 

Walkways 13-179 

13.26 Aircraft Engine Test Facilities 13-179 

13.27 Liquid and Solid Oxidizers 13-179 

13.28 Storage of Organic Peroxide 

Formulations 13-180 

13.29 Advanced Light Water Reactor Electric 
Generating Plants 13-180 

13.30 Light Water Nuclear Power Plants 13-181 

13.31 Electric Generating Plants and High 
Voltage Direct Current Converter 

Stations. [NFPA850] 13-181 

13.32 Hydroelectric Generating Plants. 

[NFPA851] 13-181 

13.33 Fire Protection in Places of Worship. 
[NFPA909] 13-181 

Chapter 14 Plans and Calculations 13-181 

14.1 WorkingPlans 13-181 

14.2 Water Supply Information 13-182 

14.3 Hydraulic Calculation Forms 13-182 

14.4 Hydraulic Calculation Procedures 13-183 

14.5 Pipe Schedules 13-186 

14.6 Deluge Systems 13-188 

14.7 Exposure Systems 13-188 

14.8 In-Rack Sprinklers 13-188 

Chapter 15 Water Supplies 13-188 

15.1 General 13-188 

15.2 Types 13-189 

Chapter 16 Systems Acceptance 13-189 

16.1 Approval of Sprinkler Systems and 

Private Fire Service Mains 13-189 

16.2 Acceptance Requirements 13-189 

16.3 Circulating Closed Loop Systems 13-193 

16.4 Instructions 13-193 

16.5 Hydraulic Design Information Sign 13-193 

Chapter 17 Marine Systems 13-194 

17.1 General 13-194 

17.2 System Components, Hardware, and 

Use 13-194 

17.3 System Requirements 13—195 

17.4 Installation Requirements 13-195 

17.5 Design Approaches 13-196 

17.6 Plans and Calculations 13-196 

17.7 Water Supplies 13-196 

17.8 System Acceptance 13-198 



2002 Edition 



13-10 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



17.9 System Instructions and Maintenance .... 13-198 

Chapter 18 System Inspection, Testing, and 

Maintenance 13-198 

18.1 General 13-198 

Annex A Explanatory Material 13—198 

Annex B Miscellaneous Topics 13-305 



Annex C Explanation of Test Data and 

Procedures for Rack Storage 1 3—306 

Annex D Sprinkler System Information from 
the 1997 Edition of the Life Safety 

Code 13-312 

Annex E Informational References 13—313 

Index 13-316 



2002 Edition 



ADMINISTRATION 



13-11 



NFPA13 

Standard for the 

Installation of Sprinkler Systems 

2002 Edition 

NOTICE: An asterisk (*) following the number or letter desig- 
nating a paragraph indicates that explanatory material on the 
paragraph can be found in Annex A. 

Changes other than editorial are indicated by a vertical 
rule beside the paragraph, table, or figure in which the 
change occurred. These rules are included as an aid to the 
user in identifying changes from the previous edition. Where 
one or more complete paragraphs have been deleted, the de- 
letion is indicated by a bullet between the paragraphs that 
remain. 

A reference in brackets [ ] following a section or paragraph 
indicates material that has been extracted from another NFPA 
document. As an aid to the user, Annex E lists the complete 
title and edition of the source documents for both mandatory 
and nonmandatory extracts. Editorial changes to extracted 
material consist of revising references to an appropriate divi- 
sion in this document or the inclusion of the document num- 
ber with the division number when the reference is to the 
original document. Requests for interpretations or revisions 
of extracted text shall be sent to the appropriate technical 
committee. 

Information on referenced publications can be found in 
Chapter 2 and Annex E. 



Chapter 1 Administration 

1.1* Scope. This standard shall provide the minimum require- 
ments for the design and installation of automatic fire sprin- 
kler systems and exposure protection sprinkler systems cov- 
ered within this standard. 

1.2* Purpose. 

1.2.1 The purpose of this standard shall be to provide a rea- 
sonable degree of protection for life and property from fire 
through standardization of design, installation, and testing re- 
quirements for sprinkler systems, including private fire service 
mains, based on sound engineering principles, test data, and 
field experience. 

1.2.2 Sprinkler systems and private fire service mains are spe- 
cialized fire protection systems and shall require knowledge- 
able and experienced design and installation. 

1.3 Application. 

1.3.1 This standard shall apply to: 

( 1 ) Character and adequacy of water supplies 

(2) Selection of sprinklers 

(3) Fittings 

(4) Piping 

(5) Valves 

(6) All materials and accessories, including the installation of 
private fire service mains 

1.3.2 This standard shall also apply to "combined service 
mains" used to carry water for both fire service and other uses 
as well as mains for fire service use only. 



1.4 Retroactivity Clause. The provisions of this standard re- 
flect a consensus of what is necessary to provide an acceptable 
degree of protection from the hazards addressed in this stan- 
dard at the time the standard was issued. Unless otherwise 
specified, the provisions of this standard shall not apply to 
facilities, equipment, structures, or installations that existed or 
were approved for construction or installation prior to the 
effective date of this standard. Where specified, the provisions 
of this standard shall be retroactive. In those cases where the 
authority having jurisdiction determines that the existing situ- 
ation presents an unacceptable degree of risk, the authority 
having jurisdiction shall be permitted to apply retroactively 
any portions of this standard deemed appropriate. 

1.5 Equivalency. Nothing in this standard is intended to pre- 
vent the use of systems, methods, or devices of equivalent or 
superior quality, strength, fire resistance, effectiveness, dura- 
bility, and safety over those prescribed by this standard. Tech- 
nical documentation shall be submitted to the authority hav- 
ing jurisdiction to demonstrate equivalency. The system, 
method, or device shall be approved for the intended purpose 
by the authority having jurisdiction. 

1.6 New Technology. 

1.6.1 Nothing in this standard shall be intended to restrict 
new technologies or alternate arrangements, provided the 
level of safety prescribed by this standard is not lowered. 

1.6.2 Materials or devices not specifically designated by this 
standard shall be utilized in complete accord with all condi- 
tions, requirements, and limitations of their listings. 

1.7 Units and Symbols. 
1.7.1 Units. 

1.7.1.1 Metric units of measurement in this standard are in 
accordance with the modernized metric system known as the 
International System of Units (SI). 

1.7.1.2 Two units (liter and bar), outside of but recognized by 
SI, are commonly used in international fire protection. 

1.7.1.3 These units are listed in Table 1.7.1.3 with conversion 
factors. 

Table 1.7.1.3 SI Units and Conversion Factors 





Unit 




Name of Unit 


Symbol 


Conversion Factor 


liter 


L 


1 gal = 3.785 L 


millimeter per 


mm/min 


1 gpm/ft 2 = 


minute 




40.746 mm/min = 
40.746 (L/min)/m 2 


cubic decimeter 


dm 3 


1 gal = 3.785 dm 3 


pascal 


Pa 


1 psi = 6894.757 Pa 


bar 


bar 


1 psi = 0.0689 bar 


bar 


bar 


1 bar = 10 5 Pa 



Note: For additional conversions and information, see ASTM SI 10, 
Standard for Use of the International System of Units (SI): The Modern Metric 
System. 



1.7.1.4 If a value for measurement as given in this standard is 
followed by an equivalent value in other units, the first stated is 
to be regarded as the requirement. 



2002 Edition 



13-12 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



1.7.2 Symbols. The standard abbreviations in Table 1.7.2 shall 
be used on the hydraulic calculation form discussed in Chap- 
ter 11. 



Table 1.7.2 Hydraulic Symbols 



Symbol or 
Abbreviation 



Item 



p Pressure in psi 

gpm U.S. gallons per minute 

q Flow increment in gpm to be added at a 

specific location 

Q Summation of flow in gpm at a specific 

location 

P t Total pressure in psi at a point in a pipe 

Pj- Pressure loss due to friction between points 

indicated in location column 

P e Pressure due to elevation difference between 

indicated points. This can be a plus value 
or a minus value. If minus, the (-) shall be 
used; if plus, no sign need be indicated. 

P v Velocity pressure in psi at a point in a pipe 

P n Normal pressure in psi at a point in a pipe 

E 90-degree ell 

EE 45-degree ell 

Lt.E Long-turn elbow 

Cr Cross 

T Tee-flow turned 90 degrees 

GV Gate valve 

BV Butterfly (wafer) check valve 

Del V Deluge valve 

ALV Alarm valve 

DPV Dry pipe valve 

CV Swing check valve 

WCV Butterfly (wafer) check valve 

St Strainer 

psi Pounds per square inch 

v Velocity of water in pipe in feet per second 



Chapter 2 Referenced Publications 

2.1 General. The documents or portions thereof listed in this 
chapter are referenced within this standard and shall be con- 
sidered part of the requirements of this document. 

2.2 NFPA Publications. National Fire Protection Association, 
1 Batterymarch Park, P.O. Box 9101, Quincy, MA 02269-9101. 

NFPA 1 1 A, Standard for Medium- and High-Expansion Foam 
Systems, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 14, Standard for the Installation ofStandpipe, Private Hy- 
drant, and Hose Systems, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 15, Standard for Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire Protec- 
tion, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 20, Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for 
Fire Protection, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 22, Standard for Water Tanks for Private Fire Protection, 
1998 edition. 

NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance 
of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, 2000 edi- 
tion. 



NFPA 30B, Code for the Manufacture and Storage of Aerosol Prod- 
ucts, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 40, Standard for the Storage and Handling of Cellulose 
Nitrate Film, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 42, Code for the Storage of Pyroxylin Plastic, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 45, Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using 
Chemicals, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 51, Standard for the Design and Installation of Oxygen- 
Fuel Gas Systems for Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes, 2002 
edition. 

NFPA 51 A, Standard for Acetylene Cylinder Charging Plants, 
2001 edition. 

NFPA 5 IB, Standard for Fire Prevention During Welding, Cut- 
ting, and Other Hot Work, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 55, Standard for the Storage, Use, and Handling of Com- 
pressed and Liquefied Gases in Portable Cylinders, 1998 edition. 

NFPA 59, Utility LP-Gas Plant Code, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 59 A, Standard for the Production, Storage, and Handling 
of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), 2001 edition. 

NFPA 70, National Electrical Code®, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 72®, National Fire Alarm Code®, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 75, Standard for the Protection of Electronic Computer/ 
Data Processing Equipment, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 82, Standard on Incinerators and Waste and Linen Han- 
dling Systems and Equipment, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 86C, Standard for Industrial Furnaces Using a Special 
Processing Atmosphere, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 96, Standard for Ventilation Control and Fire Protection of 
Commercial Cooking Operations, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 101®, Life Safety Code®, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 170, Standard for Fire Safety Symbols, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 214, Standard on Water-Cooling Towers, 2000 edition. 

NFPA251, Standard Methods of Tests of Fire Endurance of Build- 
ing Construction and Materials, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 259, Standard Test Method for Potential Heat of Building 
Materials, 1998 edition. 

NFPA 307, Standard for the Construction and Fire Protection of 
Marine Terminals, Piers, and Wharves, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 409, Standard on Aircraft Hangars, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 430, Code for the Storage of Liquid and Solid Oxidizers, 
2000 edition. 

NFPA 703, Standard for Fire Retardant Impregnated Wood and 
Fire Retardant Coatings for Building Materials, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 1963, Standard for Fire Hose Connections, 1998 edition. 

2.3 Other Publications. 

2.3.1 ASME Publications. American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers, Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990. 

ASME Al 7.1, Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators, 2000. 

ASME Bl.20.1, Pipe Threads, General Purpose (Inch), 2001. 

ASME B16.1, Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, 
Classes 25, 125, and 250, 1998. 

ASME B16.3, Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings, Classes 150 and 
300, 1998. 

ASME B16.4, Cast Iron Threaded Fittings, Classes 125 and 250, 
1998. 

ASME B16.5, Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, 1996. 

ASME B16.9, Factory-Made Wrought Steel Buttwelding Fittings, 
2001. 

ASME B16.ll, Forged Steel Fittings, Socket-Welding and 
Threaded, 1996. 



2002 Edition 



REFERENCED PUBLICATIONS 



13-13 



ASME B16.18, Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure Fittings, 
1994. 

ASME B16.22, Wrought Copper and Copper Alloy Solder Joint 
Pressure Fittings, 1995. 

ASME B16.25, Buttwelding Ends, 1997. 

ANSI/ASME B31.1, Code for Power Piping, 2001. 

ANSI/ASME B36.10M, Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel 
Pipe, 2000. 

2.3.2 ASTM Publications. American Society for Testing and 
Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 
19428-2959. 

ANSI/ ASTM A 53, Standard Specification for Pipe, Steel, Black 
and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated, Welded and Seamless, 2001. 

ASTM A 135, Standard Specification for Electric-Resistance- 
Welded Steel Pipe, 2001. 

ASTM A 153, Standard Specification for Zinc Coating (Hot Dip) 
on Iron and Steel Hardware, 2001. 

ASTM A 234/A 234M, Standard Specification for Piping Fit- 
tings ofWrought-Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Moderate and High 
Temperature Service, 2001. 

ASTM A 795, Standard Specification for Black and Hot-Dipped 
Zinc-Coated (Galvanized) Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe for Fire Pro- 
tection Use, 2000. 

ASTM B 32, Standard Specification for Solder Metal, 2000. 

ASTM B 75, Standard Specification for Seamless Copper Tube, 
1999. 

ASTM B 88, Standard Specification for Seamless Copper Water 
Tube, 1999. 

ASTM B 251, Standard Specification for General Requirements 
for Wrought Seamless Copper and Copper-Alloy Tube, 1997. 

ASTM B 446, Standard Specification for Nickel-Chromium- 
Molybdenum-Columbium Alloy (UNSN 06625) and Nickel- 
Chromium-Molybdenum-Silicon Alloy (UNSN 06219) Rod and Bar, 
2000. 

ASTM B 813, Standard Specification for Liquid and Paste Fluxes 
for Soldering Applications of Copper and Copper-Alloy Tube, 2000. 

ASTM B 828, Standard Practice for Making Capillary Joints by 
Soldering of Copper and Copper Alloy Tube and Fittings, 2000. 

ASTM D 3309, Standard Specification for Polybutylene (PB) 
Plastic Hot- and Cold-Water Distribution Systems, 1996. 

ASTM E 119, Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Building 
Construction and Materials, 2000. 

ASTM E 136, Standard Test Method for Behavior of Materials in 
a Vertical Tube Furnace at 750°C, 1999. 

ASTM F 437, Standard Specification for Threaded Chlorinated 
Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 80, 
1999. 

ASTM F 438, Standard Specification for Socket-Type Chlorinated 
Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 40, 
2001. 

ASTM F 439, Standard Specification for Socket-Type Chlorinated 
Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 80, 
2001. 



ASTM F 442, Standard Specification for Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl 
Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe (SDR-PR), 1999. 

ASTM F 1121, Standard Specification for International Shore 
Connections for Marine Fire Applications, 1998. 

ASTM SI 10, Standard for Use of the International System of 
Units (SI): The Modern Metric System, 1997. 

2.3.3 AWS Publications. American Welding Society, 550 N.W. 
Lejeune Road, Miami, FL 33126. 

AWS A5.8, Specification for Filler Metals for Brazing and Braze 
Welding, 1992. 

AWS B2.1, Specification for Welding Procedure and Performance 
Qualification, 2000. 

AWS D10.9, Specification for Qualification of Welding Procedures 
and Welders for Piping and Tubing, 1980. 

2.3.4 AWWA Publications. American Water Works Associa- 
tion, 6666 West Quincy Avenue, Denver, CO 80235. 

AWWA CI 04, Cement Mortar Lining for Ductile Iron Pipe and 
Fittings for Water, 1995. 

AWWA CI 05, Polyethylene Encasement for Ductile Iron Pipe Sys- 
tems, 1999. 

AWWA C110, Ductile Iron and Gray Iron Fittings, 3-in. Through 
48-in. (76 mm Through 1219 mm), for Water and Other Liquids, 
1998. 

AWWA Clll, Rubber Gasket Joints for Ductile Iron Pressure Pipe 
and Fittings, 2000. 

AWWA C 1 1 5 , Flanged Ductile Iron Pipe with Ductile Iron or Gray 
Iron Threaded Flanges, 1999. 

AWWAC150, Thickness Design of Ductile Iron Pipe, 1996. 

AWWA C151, Ductile Iron Pipe, Centrifugally Cast for Water, 
1996. 

AWWA C200, Steel Water Pipe 6 in. (150 mm) and Larger, 1997. 

AWWAC203, Coal-Tar Protective Coatings and Linings for Steel 
Water Pipelines Enamel and Tape — Hot Applied, 1997. 

AWWAC205, Cement-Mortar Protective Lining and Coating for 
Steel Water Pipe 4 in. (100 mm) and Larger — Shop Applied, 2000. 

AWWAC206, Field Welding of Steel Water Pipe, 1997. 

AWWA C207, Steel Pipe Flanges for Waterworks Service — Sizes 
4 in. Through 144 in. (100 mm Through 3,600 mm), 1994. 

AWWA C208, Dimensions for Fabricated Steel Water Pipe Fittings, 
1996. 

AWWA C300, Reinforced Concrete Pressure Pipe, Steel-Cylinder 
Type, for Water and Other Liquids, 1997. 

AWWA C301, Prestressed Concrete Pressure Pipe, Steel-Cylinder 
Type, for Water and Other Liquids, 1999. 

AWWA C302, Reinforced Concrete Pressure Pipe, Non-Cylinder 
Type, for Water and Other Liquids, 1995. 

AWWA C303, Reinforced Concrete Pressure Pipe, Steel-Cylinder 
Type, Pretensioned, for Water and Other Liquids, 1995. 

AWWA C400, Standard for Asbestos-Cement Distribution Pipe, 
4 in. Through 16 in. (100 mm Through 400 mm), for Water and 
Other Liquids, 1998. 



2002 Edition 



13-14 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



AWWA C401, Standard Practice for the Selection of Asbestos- 
Cement Water Pipe, 4 in. Through 16 in. (100 mm Through 
400 mm), 1998. 

AWWA C600, Standard for the Installation of Ductile Iron Water 
Mains and Their Appurtenances, 1999. 

AWWA C602, Cement-Mortar Lining of Water Pipe Lines 4 in. 
(100 mm) and Larger — in Place, 2000. 

AWWA C603, Standard for the Installation of Asbestos-Cement 
Water Pipe, 1996. 

AWWA C900, Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Pressure Pipe, 4 in. 
Through 12 in. (100 mm Through 300 mm), for Water and Other 
Liquids, 1997. 

AWWA Mil, A Guide for Steel Pipe Design and Installation, 3rd 
edition, 1989. 

2.3.5 IEEE Publication. Institute of Electrical and Electron- 
ics Engineers, 445 Hoes Lane, P.O. Box 1331, Piscataway, NJ 
08855-1331. 

IEEE 45, Recommended Practice for Electric Installations on Ship- 
board, 1998. 

2.3.6 UL Publication. Underwriters Laboratories Inc., 333 
Pfingsten Road, Northbrook, IL 60062. 

UL 300, Standard for Safety Fire Testing of Fire Extinguishing 
Systems for Protection of Restaurant Cooking Areas, 1998. 

2.3.7 U.S. Government Publications. U.S. Government 
Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. 

Title 46, Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 54.15-10 Safety and 
Relief Valves, 56.20 Valves, 56.20-5(a) Marking, 56.50-95 Over- 
board Discharges and Shore Connections, 56.60 Materials, 
and 58.01-40 Machinery, Angle of Inclination. 

Tide 46, Code of Federal Regulations, Subchapter F, "Marine 
Engineering." 

Title 46, Code of Federal Regulations, Subchapter J, "Electrical 
Engineering." 



Chapter 3 Definitions 

3.1 General. The definitions contained in this chapter shall 
apply to the terms used in this standard. Where terms are not 
included, common usage of the terms shall apply. 

3.2 NFPA Official Definitions. 

3.2.1* Approved. Acceptable to the authority having jurisdic- 
tion. 

3.2.2* Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ). The organiza- 
tion, office, or individual responsible for approving equip- 
ment, materials, an installation, or a procedure. 

3.2.3* Listed. Equipment, materials, or services included in a 
list published by an organization that is acceptable to the au- 
thority having jurisdiction and concerned with evaluation of 
products or services, that maintains periodic inspection of 
production of listed equipment or materials or periodic evalu- 
ation of services, and whose listing states that either the equip- 
ment, material, or service meets appropriate designated stan- 
dards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified 
purpose. 



3.2.4 Shall. Indicates a mandatory requirement. 

3.2.5 Should. Indicates a recommendation or that which is 
advised but not required. 

3.2.6 Standard. Adocument, the main text of which contains 
only mandatory provisions using the word "shall" to indicate 
requirements and which is in a form generally suitable for 
mandatory reference by another standard or code or for adop- 
tion into law. Nonmandatory provisions shall be located in an 
appendix or annex, footnote, or fine-print note and are not to 
be considered a part of the requirements of a standard. 

3.3 General Definitions. 

3.3.1 Automatic Sprinkler. A fire suppression or control de- 
vice that operates automatically when its heat-activated ele- 
ment is heated to its thermal rating or above, allowing water to 
discharge over a specified area. 

3.3.2 Automotive Components on Portable Racks. Automo- 
tive components on portable racks are defined as the follow- 
ing: instrument panels, windshields, metal and plastic gasoline 
tanks, heater housings, door panels, interior trim, bumper fa- 
cia, wiring harnesses, sheet metal, body components, engines, 
driveline components, steering mechanisms, auxiliary motors, 
and lighting — all with or without expanded plastic donnage. 
This definition does not include the storage of air bags, tires, 
and seats on portable racks. 

3.3.3* Bathroom. Within a dwelling unit, any room or com- 
partment containing a lavatory dedicated to personal hygiene, 
or a water closet, or bathing capability such as a shower or tub, 
or any combination of facilities thereof. 

3.3.4 Ceiling Height. The distance between the floor and the 
underside of the ceiling above (or roof deck) within the area. 

3.3.5 Ceiling Types. 

3.3.5.1 Flat Ceiling. A continuous ceiling in a single plane. 

3.3.5.2 Horizontal Ceiling. A ceiling with a slope not exceed- 
ing 2 in 12. 

3.3.5.3 Sloped Ceiling. A ceiling with a slope exceeding 2 in 
12. 

3.3.5.4 Smooth Ceiling. A continuous ceiling free from sig- 
nificant irregularities, lumps, or indentations. 

3.3.6 Compartment. A space completely enclosed by walls 
and a ceiling. The compartment enclosure is permitted to 
have openings to an adjoining space if the openings have a 
minimum lintel depth of 8 in. (203 mm) from the ceiling. 

3.3.7 Drop-Out Ceiling. A suspended ceiling system, which is 
installed below the sprinklers, with listed translucent or 
opaque panels that are heat sensitive and fall from their set- 
ting when exposed to heat. 

3.3.8 Dwelling Unit. One or more rooms arranged for the 
use of one or more individuals living together, as in a single 
housekeeping unit normally having cooking, living, sanitary, 
and sleeping facilities. For purposes of this standard, dwelling 
unit includes hotel rooms, dormitory rooms, apartments, con- 
dominiums, sleeping rooms in nursing homes, and similar liv- 
ing units. 

3.3.9 Fire Control. Limiting the size of a fire by distribution 
of water so as to decrease the heat release rate and pre-wet 
adjacent combustibles, while controlling ceiling gas tempera- 
tures to avoid structural damage. 



2002 Edition 



DEFINITIONS 



13-15 



3.3.10 Fire Suppression. Sharply reducing the heat release 
rate of a fire and preventing its regrowth by means of direct 
and sufficient application of water through the fire plume to 
the burning fuel surface. 

3.3.11 High-Challenge Fire Hazard. A fire hazard typical of 
that produced by fires in combustible high-piled storage. 

3.3.12 High-Piled Storage. Solid-piled, palletized, rack stor- 
age, bin box, and shelf storage in excess of 12 ft (3.7 m) in 
height. 

3.3.13 Hydraulically Designed System. A calculated sprin- 
kler system in which pipe sizes are selected on a pressure loss 
basis to provide a prescribed water density, in gallons per 
minute per square foot (mm/min), or a prescribed minimum 
discharge pressure or flow per sprinkler, distributed with a 
reasonable degree of uniformity over a specified area. 

3.3.14 Limited-Combustible Material. A building construc- 
tion material that does not comply with the definition of non- 
combustible material that, in the form in which it is used, has a 
potential heat value not exceeding 3500 Btu per lb (8141 kj/kg) 
(see NFPA 359, Standard Test Method for Potential Heat of Building 
Materials), and that complies with either of the following, (a) or 
(b). Materials subject to increase in combustibility or flame 
spread rating beyond the limits herein established through the 
effects of age, moisture, or other atmospheric condition shall be 
considered combustible, (a) Materials having a structural base of 
noncombustible material, with a surfacing not exceeding a thick- 
ness of Vs in. (3.2 mm) that has a flame spread rating not greater 
than 50. (b) Materials, in the form and thickness used, other than 
as described in (a) , having neither a flame spread rating greater 
than 25 nor evidence of continued progressive combustion and 
of such composition that surfaces that would be exposed by cut- 
ting through the material on any plane would have neither a 
flame spread rating greater than 25 nor evidence of continued 
progressive combustion. 

3.3.15* Miscellaneous Storage. Storage that does not exceed 
12 ft (3.66 m) in height and is incidental to another occu- 
pancy use group. Such storage shall not constitute more than 
10 percent of the building area or 4000 ft 2 (372 m 2 ) of the 
sprinklered area, whichever is greater. Such storage shall not 
exceed 1000 ft 2 (93 m 2 ) in one pile or area, and each such pile 
or area shall be separated from other storage areas by at least 
25 ft (7.62 m). 

3.3.16 Noncombustible Material. A material that, in the 
form in which it is used and under the conditions anticipated, 
will not ignite, burn, support combustion, or release flam- 
mable vapors when subjected to fire or heat. Materials that are 
reported as passing ASTM E 136, Standard Test Method for Behav- 
ior of Materials in a Vertical Tube Furnace at 750°C, shall be con- 
sidered noncombustible materials. 

3.3.17 Pipe Schedule System. A sprinkler system in which 
the pipe sizing is selected from a schedule that is determined 
by the occupancy classification and in which a given number 
of sprinklers are allowed to be supplied from specific sizes of 
pipe. 

3.3.18* Reinforced Plastic Pallet. A plastic pallet incorporat- 
ing a secondary reinforcing material (such as steel or fiber- 
glass) within the pallet. 

3.3.19 Shop-Welded. As used in this standard, shop in the 
term shop-welded means either (1) a sprinkler contractor's or 



fabricator's premise or (2) an area specifically designed or 
authorized for welding, such as a detached outside location, 
maintenance shop, or other area (either temporary or perma- 
nent) of noncombustible or fire-resistive construction free of 
combustible and flammable contents and suitably segregated 
from adjacent areas. 

3.3.20 Small Rooms. A room of light hazard occupancy clas- 
sification having unobstructed construction and floor areas 
not exceeding 800 ft 2 (74.3 m 2 ) that are enclosed by walls and 
a ceiling. Openings to the adjoining space are permitted if the 
minimum lintel depth is 8 in. (203 mm) from the ceiling. 

3.3.21* Sprinkler System. For fire protection purposes, an 
integrated system of underground and overhead piping de- 
signed in accordance with fire protection engineering stan- 
dards. The installation includes one or more automatic water 
supplies. The portion of the sprinkler system aboveground is a 
network of specially sized or hydraulically designed piping in- 
stalled in a building, structure, or area, generally overhead, 
and to which sprinklers are attached in a systematic pattern. 
The valve controlling each system riser is located in the system 
riser or its supply piping. Each sprinkler system riser includes a 
device for actuating an alarm when the system is in operation. 
The system is usually activated by heat from a fire and dis- 
charges water over the fire area. 

3.3.22 System Working Pressure. The maximum anticipated 
static (nonflowing) or flowing pressure applied to sprinkler 
system components exclusive of surge pressures. 

3.3.23 Thermal Barrier. A material that will limit the average 
temperature rise of the unexposed surface to not more than 
250°F (121°C) after 15 minutes of fire exposure, which com- 
plies with the standard time-temperature curve of NFPA 251, 

Standard Methods of Tests of Fire Endurance of Building Construc- 
tion and Materials. 

3.4 Sprinkler System Type Definitions. 

3.4.1 Antifreeze Sprinkler System. A wet pipe sprinkler sys- 
tem employing automatic sprinklers that are attached to a pip- 
ing system that contains an antifreeze solution and that are 
connected to a water supply. The antifreeze solution is dis- 
charged, followed by water, immediately upon operation of 
sprinklers opened by heat from a fire. 

3.4.2 Circulating Closed-Loop Sprinkler System. A wet pipe 
sprinkler system having non-fire protection connections to 
automatic sprinkler systems in a closed-loop piping arrange- 
ment for the purpose of utilizing sprinkler piping to conduct 
water for heating or cooling, where water is not removed or 
used from the system but only circulated through the piping 
system. 

3.4.3 Combined Dry Pipe-Preaction Sprinkler System. A 

sprinkler system employing automatic sprinklers attached to a 
piping system containing air under pressure with a supple- 
mental detection system installed in the same areas as the 
sprinklers. Operation of the detection system actuates trip- 
ping devices that open dry pipe valves simultaneously and 
without loss of air pressure in the system. Operation of the 
detection system also opens listed air exhaust valves at the end 
of the feed main, which usually precedes the opening of sprin- 
klers. The detection system also serves as an automatic fire 
alarm system. 

3.4.4 Deluge Sprinkler System. A sprinkler system employ- 
ing open sprinklers that are attached to a piping system that is 



2002 Edition 



13-16 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



connected to a water supply through a valve that is opened by 
the operation of a detection system installed in the same areas 
as the sprinklers. When this valve opens, water flows into the 
piping system and discharges from all sprinklers attached 
thereto. 

3.4.5 Dry Pipe Sprinkler System. A sprinkler system employ- 
ing automatic sprinklers that are attached to a piping system 
containing air or nitrogen under pressure, the release of 
which (as from the opening of a sprinkler) permits the water 
pressure to open a valve known as a dry pipe valve, and the 
water then flows into the piping system and out the opened 
sprinklers. 

3.4.6* Gridded Sprinkler System. A sprinkler system in which 
parallel cross mains are connected by multiple branch lines. 
An operating sprinkler will receive water from both ends of its 
branch line while other branch lines help transfer water be- 
tween cross mains. 

3.4.7* Looped Sprinkler System. A sprinkler system in which 
multiple cross mains are tied together so as to provide more 
than one path for water to flow to an operating sprinkler and 
branch lines are not tied together. 

3.4.8* Preaction Sprinkler System. A sprinkler system em- 
ploying automatic sprinklers that are attached to a piping sys- 
tem that contains air that might or might not be under pres- 
sure, with a supplemental detection system installed in the 
same areas as the sprinklers. 

3.4.9 Wet Pipe Sprinkler System. A sprinkler system employ- 
ing automatic sprinklers attached to a piping system contain- 
ing water and connected to a water supply so that water dis- 
charges immediately from sprinklers opened by heat from a 
fire. 

3.5* System Component Definitions. 

3.5.1 Branch Lines. The pipes in which the sprinklers are 
placed, either directly or through risers. 

3.5.2 Cross Mains. The pipes supplying the branch lines, ei- 
ther directly or through risers. 

3.5.3 Feed Mains. The pipes supplying cross mains, either 
directly or through risers. 

3.5.4 Flexible Listed Pipe Coupling. A listed coupling or fit- 
ting that allows axial displacement, rotation, and at least 1 
degree of angular movement of the pipe without inducing 
harm on the pipe. For pipe diameters of 8 in. (203.2 mm) and 
larger, the angular movement shall be permitted to be less 
than 1 degree but not less than 0.5 degree. 

3.5.5 Risers. The vertical supply pipes in a sprinkler system. 

3.5.6 Sprig-up. A line that rises vertically and supplies a 
single sprinkler. 

3.5.7 Supervisory Device. A device arranged to supervise the 
operative condition of automatic sprinkler systems. 

3.5.8 System Riser. The aboveground horizontal or vertical 
pipe between the water supply and the mains (cross or feed) 
that contains a control valve (either directly or within its sup- 
ply pipe) and a waterflow alarm device. 

3.6 Sprinkler Definitions. 

3.6.1* General. The following are characteristics of a sprin- 
kler that define its ability to control or extinguish a fire, (a) 
Thermal sensitivity. A measure of the rapidity with which the 



thermal element operates as installed in a specific sprinkler or 
sprinkler assembly. One measure of thermal sensitivity is the 
response time index (RTI) as measured under standardized 
test conditions. (1) Sprinklers defined as fast response have a 
thermal element with an RTI of 50 (meters-seconds) 1/2 or less. 
(2) Sprinklers defined as standard response have a thermal 
element with an RTI of 80 (meters-seconds) 172 or more, (b) 
Temperature rating, (c) Orifice size (see Chapter 6). (d) Instal- 
lation orientation (see 3.6.3). (e) Water distribution character- 
istics (i.e., application rate, wall wetting), (f) Special service 
conditions (see 3.6.4). 

3.6.2 Sprinkler Types. The following sprinklers are defined 
according to design and performance characteristics. 

3.6.2.1* Early Suppression Fast-Response (ESFR) Sprinkler. A 

type of fast-response sprinkler that meets the criteria of 
3.6.1(a)(1) and is listed for its capability to provide fire sup- 
pression of specific high-challenge fire hazards. 

3.6.2.2 Extended Coverage Sprinkler. A type of spray sprin- 
kler with maximum coverage areas as specified in Sections 8.8 
and 8.9 of this standard. 

3.6.2.3 Large Drop Sprinkler. A type of specific application 
control mode sprinkler that is capable of producing character- 
istic large water droplets and that is listed for its capability to 
provide fire control of specific high-challenge fire hazards. 

3.6.2.4 Nozzles. A device for use in applications requiring 
special water discharge patterns, directional spray, or other 
unusual discharge characteristics. 

3.6.2.5 Old-Style/Conventional Sprinkler. A sprinkler that 
directs from 40 percent to 60 percent of the total water ini- 
tially in a downward direction and that is designed to be in- 
stalled with the deflector either upright or pendent. 

3.6.2.6 Open Sprinkler. A sprinkler that does not have actua- 
tors or heat-responsive elements. 

3.6.2.7* Quick-Response Early Suppression (QRES) Sprin- 
kler. A type of quick-response sprinkler that meets the criteria 
of 3.6.1(a)(1) and is listed for its capability to provide fire 
suppression of specific fire hazards. 

3.6.2.8 Quick-Response Extended Coverage Sprinkler. A 

type of quick-response sprinkler that meets the criteria of 
3.6.1(a)(1) and complies with the extended protection areas 
defined in Chapter 8. 

3.6.2.9 Quick-Response (QR) Sprinkler. A type of spray 
sprinkler that meets the criteria of 3.6.1 (a) (1) and is listed as a 
quick-response sprinkler for its intended use. 

3.6.2.10 Residential Sprinkler. A type of fast-response sprin- 
kler that meets the criteria of 3.6.1 (a) (1) that has been specifi- 
cally investigated for its ability to enhance survivability in the 
room of fire origin and is listed for use in the protection of 
dwelling units. 

3.6.2.11 Special Sprinkler. A sprinkler that has been tested 
and listed as prescribed in 8.4.9. 

3.6.2.12* Specific Application Control Mode Sprinkler (for 
Storage Use). A type of spray sprinkler listed at a minimum 
operating pressure with a specific number of operating sprin- 
klers for a given protection scheme. 

3.6.2.13 Spray Sprinkler. A type of sprinkler listed for its ca- 
pability to provide fire control for a wide range of fire hazards. 



2002 Edition 



DEFINITIONS 



13-17 



3.6.2.14 Standard Spray Sprinkler. A spray sprinkler with 
maximum coverage areas as specified in Sections 8.6 and 8.7 
of this standard. 

3.6.3 Installation Orientation. The following sprinklers are 
defined according to orientation. 

3.6.3.1 Concealed Sprinkler. A recessed sprinkler with cover 
plates. 

3.6.3.2 Flush Sprinkler. A sprinkler in which all or part of the 
body, including the shank thread, is mounted above the lower 
plane of the ceiling. 

3.6.3.3 Pendent Sprinkler. A sprinkler designed to be in- 
stalled in such a way that the water stream is directed down- 
ward against the deflector. 

3.6.3.4 Recessed Sprinkler. A sprinkler in which all or part of 
the body, other than the shank thread, is mounted within a 
recessed housing. 

3.6.3.5 Sidewall Sprinkler. A sprinkler having special deflec- 
tors that are designed to discharge most of the water away 
from the nearby wall in a pattern resembling one-quarter of a 
sphere, with a small portion of the discharge directed at the 
wall behind the sprinkler. 

3.6.3.6 Upright Sprinkler. A sprinkler designed to be in- 
stalled in such a way that the water spray is directed upwards 
against the deflector. 

3.6.4 Special Service Conditions. The following sprinklers 
are defined according to special application or environment. 

3.6.4.1 Corrosion-Resistant Sprinkler. A sprinkler fabricated 
with corrosion-resistant material, or with special coatings or 
platings, to be used in an atmosphere that would normally 
corrode sprinklers. 

3.6.4.2* Dry Sprinkler. A sprinkler secured in an extension 
nipple that has a seal at the inlet end to prevent water from 
entering the nipple until the sprinkler operates. 

3.6.4.3 Intermediate Level Sprinkler/Rack Storage Sprinkler. 

A sprinkler equipped with integral shields to protect its oper- 
ating elements from the discharge of sprinklers installed at 
higher elevations. 

3.6.4.4 Ornamental/Decorative Sprinkler. A sprinkler that 
has been painted or plated by the manufacturer. 

3.7 Construction Definitions. 

3.7.1* Obstructed Construction. Panel construction and 
other construction where beams, trusses, or other members 
impede heat flow or water distribution in a manner that mate- 
rially affects the ability of sprinklers to control or suppress a 
fire. 

3.7.2* Unobstructed Construction. Construction where 
beams, trusses, or other members do not impede heat flow or 
water distribution in a manner that materially affects the abil- 
ity of sprinklers to control or suppress a fire. Unobstructed 
construction has horizontal structural members that are not 
solid, where the openings are at least 70 percent of the cross- 
section area and the depth of the member does not exceed 
the least dimension of the openings, or all construction types 
where the spacing of structural members exceeds IV2 ft 
(2.3 m) on center. 



3.8 Private Water Supply Piping Definitions. 

3.8.1* Private Fire Service Main. Private fire service main, as 
used in this standard, is that pipe and its appurtenances on 
private property (1) between a source of water and the base of 
the system riser for water-based fire protection systems, (2) 
between a source of water and inlets to foam-making systems, 
(3) between a source of water and the base elbow of private 
hydrants or monitor nozzles, and (4) used as fire pump suc- 
tion and discharge piping, (5) beginning at the inlet side of 
the check valve on a gravity or pressure tank. 

3.9 Palletized, Solid Pile, Bin Box, and Shelf Storage Defi- 
nitions. 

3.9.1 Array. 

3.9.1.1 Closed Array. A storage arrangement where air move- 
ment through the pile is restricted because of 6-in. (152-mm) 
or less vertical flues. 

3.9.1.2* Open Array. A storage arrangement where air move- 
ment through the pile is enhanced because of vertical flues 
larger than 6 in. (152 mm). 

3.9.2* Available Height for Storage. The maximum height at 
which commodities can be stored above the floor and still 
maintain adequate clearance from structural members and 
the required clearance below sprinklers. 

3.9.3 Bin Box Storage. Storage in five-sided wood, metal, or 
cardboard boxes with open face on the aisles. Boxes are self- 
supporting or supported by a structure so designed that litde 
or no horizontal or vertical space exists around boxes. 

3.9.4 Clearance. The distance from the top of storage to the 
ceiling sprinkler deflectors. 

3.9.5 Commodity. Combinations of products, packing mate- 
rial, and container upon which the commodity classification is 
based. 

3.9.6* Compartmented. The rigid separation of the products 
in a container by dividers that form a stable unit under fire 
conditions. 

3.9.7* Container (Shipping, Master, or Outer Container). A 

receptacle strong enough, by reason of material, design, and 
construction, to be shipped safely without further packaging. 

3.9.8 Encapsulation. A method of packaging consisting of a 
plastic sheet completely enclosing the sides and top of a pallet 
load containing a combustible commodity or a combustible 
package or a group of combustible commodities or combus- 
tible packages. Combustible commodities individually 
wrapped in plastic sheeting and stored exposed in a pallet 
load also are to be considered encapsulated. Totally noncom- 
bustible commodities on wood pallets enclosed only by a plas- 
tic sheet as described are not covered under this definition. 
Banding (i.e., stretch-wrapping around the sides only of a pal- 
let load) is not considered to be encapsulation. Where there 
are holes or voids in the plastic or waterproof cover on the top 
of the carton that exceed more than half of the area of the 
cover, the term encapsulated does not apply. The term encapsu- 
lated does not apply to plastic-enclosed products or packages 
inside a large, nonplastic, enclosed container. 

3.9.9 Expanded (Foamed or Cellular) Plastics. Those plas- 
tics, the density of which is reduced by the presence of numer- 
ous small cavities (cells), interconnecting or not, dispersed 
throughout their mass. 



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INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



3.9.10 Exposed Group A Plastic Commodities. Those plas- 
tics not in packaging or coverings that absorb water or other- 
wise appreciably retard the burning hazard of the commodity. 
(Paper wrapped or encapsulated, or both, should be consid- 
ered exposed.) 

3.9.11 Free-Flowing Plastic Materials. Those plastics that fall 
out of their containers during a fire, fill flue spaces, and create 
a smothering effect on the fire. Examples include powder, pel- 
lets, flakes, or random-packed small objects [e.g., razor blade 
dispensers, 1-oz to 2-oz (28-g to 57-g) bottles]. 

3.9.12 Packaging. A commodity wrapping, cushioning, or 
container. 

3.9.13 Palletized Storage. Storage of commodities on pallets 
or other storage aids that form horizontal spaces between tiers 
of storage. 

3.9.14* Pile Stability, Stable Piles. Those arrays where col- 
lapse, spillage of content, or leaning of stacks across flue 
spaces is not likely to occur soon after initial fire development. 

3.9.15* Pile Stability, Unstable Piles. Those arrays where col- 
lapse, spillage of contents, or leaning of stacks across flue 
spaces occurs soon after initial fire development. 

3.9.16 Roof Height. The distance between the floor and the 
underside of the roof deck within the storage area. 

3.9.17 Shelf Storage. Storage on structures less than 30 in. 
(76.2 cm) deep with shelves usually 2 ft (0.6 m) apart vertically 
and separated by approximately 30-in. (76.2-cm) aisles. 

3.9.18 Solid Unit Load of a Nonexpanded Plastic (Either Car- 
toned or Exposed). A load that does not have voids (air) 
within the load and that burns only on the exterior of the load; 
water from sprinklers might reach most surfaces available to 
burn. 

3.9.19 Storage Aids. Commodity storage devices, such as pal- 
lets, dunnage, separators, and skids. 

3.9.20 Unit Load. A pallet load or module held together in 
some manner and normally transported by material handling 
equipment. 

3.10 Rack Storage Definitions. 

3.10.1* Aisle Width. The horizontal dimension between 
the face of the loads in racks under consideration. (See Fig- 
ure A.3. 10.1.) 

3.10.2 Bulkhead. A vertical barrier across the rack. 

3.10.3 Cartoned. A method of storage consisting of corru- 
gated cardboard or paperboard containers fully enclosing the 
commodity. 

3.10.4* Conventional Pallets. A material-handling aid de- 
signed to support a unit load with openings to provide access 
for material-handling devices. (See Figure A. 3. 10.4.) 

3.10.5 Face Sprinklers. Standard sprinklers that are located 
in transverse flue spaces along the aisle or in the rack, are 
within 18 in. (0.46 m) of the aisle face of storage, and are used 
to oppose vertical development of fire on the external face of 
storage. 

3.10.6 Horizontal Barrier. A solid barrier in the horizontal 
position covering the entire rack, including all flue spaces at 
certain height increments, to prevent vertical fire spread. 



3.10.7* Longitudinal Flue Space. The space between rows of 
storage perpendicular to the direction of loading. (See Figure 
A.3.10.7.) 

3.10.8* Rack. Any combination of vertical, horizontal, and 
diagonal members that supports stored materials. Some rack 
structures use solid shelves. Racks can be fixed, portable, or 
movable. Loading can be either manual — using lift trucks, 
stacker cranes, or hand placement — or automatic — using 
machine-controlled storage and retrieval systems. 

3.10.8.1 Double-Row Racks. Two single-row racks placed 
back-to-back having a combined width up to 12 ft (3.7 m), with 
aisles at least 3.5 ft (1.1 m) on each side. 

3.10.8.2 Movable Racks. Racks on fixed rails or guides. They 
can be moved back and forth only in a horizontal, two- 
dimensional plane. A moving aisle is created as abutting racks 
are either loaded or unloaded, then moved across the aisle to 
abut other racks. 

3.10.8.3 Multiple-Row Racks. Racks greater than 12 ft (3.7 m) 
wide or single- or double-row racks separated by aisles less 
than 3.5 ft (1.1 m) wide having an overall width greater than 
12 ft (3.7 m). 

3.10.8.4 Portable Racks. Racks that are not fixed in place. 
They can be arranged in any number of configurations. 

3.10.8.5 Single-Row Racks. Racks that have no longitudinal 
flue space and that have a width up to 6 ft (1.8 m) with aisles at 
least 3.5 ft (1.1 m) from other storage. 

3.10.9 Slave Pallet. A special pallet captive to a material- 
handling system. (See Figure A. 3. 10.4.) 

3.10.10 Solid Shelving. Solid shelving is fixed in place, slatted, 
wire mesh or other type of shelves located within racks. The area 
of a solid shelf is defined by perimeter aisle or flue space on all 
four sides. Solid shelves having an area equal to or less than 20 ft 2 
shall be defined as open racks. Shelves of wire mesh, slates, or 
other materials more than 50 percent open and where the flue 
spaces are maintained shall be defined as open racks. 

3.10.11 Transverse Flue Space. The space between rows of stor- 
age parallel to the direction of loading. (See Figure A.3. 10. 7.) 

3.11 Rubber Tire Storage Definitions. 

3.11.1 Banded Tires. A storage method in which a number of 
tires are strapped together. 

3.11.2 Horizontal Channel. Any uninterrupted space in ex- 
cess of 5 ft (1.5 m) in length between horizontal layers of 
stored tires. Such channels can be formed by pallets, shelving, 
racks, or other storage arrangements. 

3.11.3 Laced Tire Storage. Tires stored where the sides of the 
tires overlap, creating a woven or laced appearance. [See Figure 
A.3. 11.9(g).] 

3.11.4* Miscellaneous Tire Storage. The storage of rubber 
tires that is incidental to the main use of the building. Storage 
areas shall not exceed 2000 ft 2 (186 m 2 ). On-tread storage 
piles, regardless of storage method, shall not exceed 25 ft 
(7.6 m) in the direction of the wheel holes. Acceptable storage 
arrangements include (a) on-floor, on-side storage up to 12 ft 
(3.7 m) high; (b) on-floor, on-tread storage up to 5 ft (1.5 m) 
high; (c) double-row or multirow fixed or portable rack stor- 
age on-side or on-tread up to 5 ft (1.5 m) high; (d) single row 
fixed or portable rack storage on-side or on-tread up to 12 ft 



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DEFINITIONS 



13-19 



(3.7 m) high; and (e) laced tires in racks up to 5 ft (1.5 m) in 
height. 

3.11.5 On-Side Tire Storage. Tires stored horizontally or flat. 

3.11.6 On-Tread Tire Storage. Tires stored vertically or on 
their treads. 

3.11.7 Palletized Tire Storage. Storage on portable racks of 
various types utilizing a conventional pallet as a base. 

3.11.8 Pyramid Tire Storage. On-floor storage in which tires 
are formed into a pyramid to provide pile stability. 

3.11.9* Rubber Tire Rack Illustrations. See Figure A.3.11.9(a) 
through Figure A.3.1 1.9(g). 

3.11.10 Rubber Tires. Pneumatic tires for passenger auto- 
mobiles, aircraft, light and heavy trucks, trailers, farm equip- 
ment, construction equipment (off-the-road), and buses. 

3.12 Baled Cotton Definitions. 

3.12.1* Baled Cotton. A natural seed fiber wrapped and se- 
cured in industry-accepted materials, usually consisting of bur- 
lap, woven polypropylene or sheet polyethylene, and secured 
with steel, synthetic or wire bands, or wire; can also include 
linters (lint removed from the cottonseed) and motes (re- 
sidual materials from the ginning process) . (See Table A. 3. 12. 1.) 

3.12.2 Block Cotton Storage. The number of bales closely 
stacked in cubical form and enclosed by aisles or building 
sides, or both. 

3.12.3 Cold Cotton. Baled cotton five or more days old after 
the ginning process. 

3.12.4 Fire-Packed. A bale within which a fire has been 
packed as a result of a process, with ginning being the most 
frequent cause. 

3.12.5 Naked Cotton Bale. A bale secured with wire or steel 
straps without wrapping. 

3.13 Roll Paper Definitions. 

3.13.1 Array (Paper). 

3.13.1.1 Closed Array (Paper). A vertical storage arrange- 
ment in which the distances between columns in both direc- 
tions are short [not more than 2 in. (50 mm) in one direction 
and 1 in. (25 mm) in the other]. 

3.13.1.2 Open Array (Paper). A vertical storage arrangement 
in which the distance between columns in both directions is 
lengthy (all vertical arrays other than closed or standard). 

3.13.1.3* Standard Array (Paper). A vertical storage arrange- 
ment in which the distance between columns in one direction 
is short [1 in. (25 mm) or less] and is in excess of 2 in. 
(50 mm) in the other direction. 

3.13.2 Banded Roll Paper Storage. Rolls provided with a cir- 
cumferential steel strap [% in. (9.5 mm) or wider] at each end 
of the roll. 

3.13.3 Column. A single vertical stack of rolls. 

3.13.4 Core. The central tube around which paper is wound 
to form a roll. 

3.13.5 Paper (General Term). The term for all kinds of 
felted sheets made from natural fibrous materials, usually veg- 
etable but sometimes mineral or animal, and formed on a fine 
wire screen from water suspension. 



3.13.6 Roll Paper Storage. 

3.13.6.1 Horizontal Roll Paper Storage. Rolls stored with the 
cores in the horizontal plane (on-side storage). 

3.13.6.2 Vertical Roll Paper Storage. Rolls stored with the 
cores in the vertical plane (on-end storage). 

3.13.6.3* Wrapped Roll Paper Storage. Rolls provided with a 
complete heavy kraft covering around both sides and ends. 

3.13.7* Roll Paper Storage Height. The maximum vertical 
distance above the floor at which roll paper is normally stored. 

3.14 Marine Definitions. These definitions apply to Chapter 
1 7 only. 

3.14.1 A-Class Boundary. A boundary designed to resist the 
passage of smoke and flame for 1 hour when tested in accor- 
dance with ASTM E 119, Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of 
Building Construction and Materials. 

3.14.2 B-Class Boundary. A boundary designed to resist the 
passage of flame for M> hour when tested in accordance with 
ASTM E 119, Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Building Con- 
struction and Materials. 

3.14.3 Central Safety Station A continuously manned con- 
trol station from which all of the fire control equipment is 
monitored. If this station is not the bridge, direct communica- 
tion with the bridge shall be provided by means other than the 
ship's service telephone. 

3.14.4* Heat-Sensitive Material. A material whose melting 
point is below 1700°F (926.7°C). 

3.14.5 Heel. The inclination of a ship to one side. 

3.14.6 Heel Angle. The angle defined by the intersection of 
a vertical line through the center of a vessel and a line perpen- 
dicular to the surface of the water. 

3.14.7 International Shore Connection. A universal connec- 
tion complying with ASTM F 1121, Standard Specification for 
International Shore Connections for Marine Fire Applications, to 
which shoreside fire-fighting hose are to be connected. 

3.14.8* Marine System. A sprinkler system installed on a ship, 
boat, or other floating structure that takes its supply from the 
water on which the vessel floats. 

3.14.9* Marine Thermal Barrier. An assembly that is con- 
structed of noncombustible materials and made intact with 
the main structure of the vessel, such as shell, structural bulk- 
heads, and decks. A marine thermal barrier shall meet the 
requirements of a B-Class boundary. In addition, a marine 
thermal barrier shall be insulated such that, if tested in accor- 
dance with ASTM E 119, Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of 
Building Construction and Materials, for 15 minutes, the average 
temperature of the unexposed side does not rise more than 
250°F (193°C) above the original temperature, nor does the 
temperature at any one point, including any joint, rise more 
than 405°F (225°C) above the original temperature. 

3.14.10 Supervision. A visual and audible alarm signal given 
at the central safety station to indicate when the system is in 
operation or when a condition that would impair the satisfac- 
tory operation of the system exists. Supervisory alarms shall 
give a distinct indication for each individual system compo- 
nent that is monitored. 



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INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



3.14.11 Survival Angle. The maximum angle to which a ves- 
sel is permitted to heel after the assumed damage required by 
stability regulations is imposed. 

3.14.12 Type 1 Stair. A fully enclosed stair that serves all lev- 
els of a vessel in which persons can be employed. 

3.14.13 Marine Water Supply. The supply portion of the 
sprinkler system from the water pressure tank or the sea suc- 
tion of the designated sprinkler system pump up to and in- 
cluding the valve that isolates the sprinkler system from these 
two water sources. 



Chapter 4 General Requirements 

4.1 Level of Protection. A building, where protected by an 
automatic sprinkler system installation, shall be provided with 
sprinklers in all areas except where specific sections of this 
standard permit the omission of sprinklers. 

4.2 Limited Area Systems. 

4.2.1 When partial sprinkler systems are installed, the re- 
quirements of this standard shall be used insofar as they are 
applicable. 

4.2.2 The authority having jurisdiction shall be consulted in 
each case. 

4.3 Owners' Certificate. The owner(s) of a building or struc- 
ture where the fire sprinkler system is going to be installed or 
their authorized agent shall provide the sprinkler systems in- 
staller with the following information prior to the layout and 
detailing of the fire sprinkler system (See Figure A. 14. 1(b)): 

( 1 ) Intended use of the building including the materials within 
the building and the maximum height of any storage 

(2) A preliminary plan of the building or structure along with 
the design concepts necessary to perform the layout and 
detail for the fire sprinkler system 

(3) Any special knowledge of the water supply including 
known environmental conditions that might be respon- 
sible for microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) 



Chapter 5 Classification of Occupancies and 
Commodities 

5.1* Classification of Occupancies. 

5.1.1 Occupancy classifications for this standard shall relate 
to sprinkler design, installation, and water supply require- 
ments only. 

5.1.2 Occupancy classifications shall not be intended to be a 
general classification of occupancy hazards. 

5.2* Light Hazard Occupancies. Light hazard occupancies 
shall be defined as occupancies or portions of other occu- 
pancies where the quantity and/or combustibility of con- 
tents is low and fires with relatively low rates of heat release 
are expected. 

5.3 Ordinary Hazard Occupancies. 

5.3.1* Ordinary Hazard (Group 1). Ordinary hazard (Group 
1) occupancies shall be defined as occupancies or portions of 
other occupancies where combustibility is low, quantity of 
combustibles is moderate, stockpiles of combustibles do not 



exceed 8 ft (2.4 m), and fires with moderate rates of heat 
release are expected. 

5.3.2* Ordinary Hazard (Group 2). Ordinary hazard (Group 
2) occupancies shall be defined as occupancies or portions of 
other occupancies where the quantity and combustibility of 
contents are moderate to high, stockpiles do not exceed 12 ft 
(3.7 m), and fires with moderate to high rates of heat release 
are expected. 

5.4 Extra Hazard Occupancies. 

5.4.1* Extra Hazard (Group 1). Extra hazard (Group 1) occu- 
pancies shall be defined as occupancies or portions of other 
occupancies where the quantity and combustibility of con- 
tents are very high and dust, lint, or other materials are 
present, introducing the probability of rapidly developing 
fires with high rates of heat release but with little or no com- 
bustible or flammable liquids. 

5.4.2* Extra Hazard (Group 2). Extra hazard (Group 2) occu- 
pancies shall be defined as occupancies or portions of other 
occupancies with moderate to substantial amounts of flam- 
mable or combustible liquids or occupancies where shielding 
of combustibles is extensive. 

5.5* Special Occupancy Hazards. 

5.6* Commodity Classification. See Section C.2. 

5.6.1 General. 

5.6.1.1* Classification of Commodities. 

5.6.1.1.1 Commodity classification and the corresponding 
protection requirements shall be determined based on the 
makeup of individual storage units (i.e., unit load, pallet 
load). 

5.6.1.1.2 When specific test data of commodity classification 
by a nationally recognized testing agency are available, the 
data shall be permitted to be used in determining classifica- 
tion of commodities. 

5.6.1.2 Mixed Commodities. 

5.6.1.2.1 Protection requirements shall not be based on the 
overall commodity mix in a fire area. 

5.6.1.2.2 Unless the requirements of 5.6.1.2.3 or 5.6.1.2.4 are 
met, mixed commodity storage shall be protected by the re- 
quirements for the highest classified commodity and storage 
arrangement. 

5.6.1.2.3 The protection requirements for the lower com- 
modity class shall be permitted to be utilized where all of the 
following are met: 

(1) Up to 10 pallet loads of a higher hazard commodity, as 
described in 5.6.3 and 5.6.4, shall be permitted to be 
present in an area not exceeding 40,000 ft 2 (3716 m 2 ). 

(2) The higher hazard commodity shall be randomly dis- 
persed with no adjacent loads in any direction (including 
diagonally) . 

(3) Where the ceiling protection is based on Class I or Class II 
commodities, the allowable number of pallet loads for 
Class IV or Group A plastics shall be reduced to five. 

5.6.1.2.4 Mixed Commodity Segregation. The protection re- 
quirements for the lower commodity class shall be permitted 
to be utilized in the area of lower commodity class, where the 
higher hazard material is confined to a designated area and 



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CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPANCIES AND COMMODITIES 



13-21 



the area is protected to the higher hazard in accordance with 
the requirements of this standard. 

5.6.2 Pallet Types. 

5.6.2.1 When loads are palletized, the use of wooden or metal 
pallets shall be assumed in the classification of commodities. 

5.6.2.2 For Class I through Class IV, when unreinforced 
polypropylene or high-density polyethylene plastic pallets are 
used, the classification of the commodity unit shall be in- 
creased one class (e.g., Class III will become Class IV and Class 
IV will become cartoned unexpanded Group A plastics) . 

5.6.2.3 For Class I through Class IV, when reinforced polypro- 
pylene or high-density polyethylene plastic pallets are used, 
the classification of the commodity unit shall be increased two 
classes (e.g., Class II will become Class IV and Class III will 
become cartoned unexpanded Group A plastic commodity) . 
Reinforced polypropylene or reinforced high-density polyeth- 
ylene plastic pallets shall be marked with a molded symbol to 
indicate that the pallet is reinforced. 

5.6.2.4 For Class I through Class IV when other than polypro- 
pylene or high-density polyethylene plastic pallets are used, 
the classification of the commodity unit shall be determined 
by specific testing conducted by a national testing laboratory 
or shall be increased two classes. 

5.6.2.5 No increase in the commodity classification shall be 
required for Group A plastic commodities stored on plastic 
pallets. 

5.6.2.6 For ceiling-only sprinkler protection, the require- 
ments of 5.6.2.2 and 5.6.2.3 shall not apply where plastic pal- 
lets are used and where the sprinkler system uses spray sprin- 
klers with a K-factor of 16.8. 

5.6.2.7 The requirements of 5.6.2.2 through 5.6.2.4 shall not 
apply to nonwood pallets that have demonstrated a fire hazard 
that is equal to or less than wood pallets and are listed as such. 

5.6.3* Commodity Classes. 

5.6.3.1* Class I. A Class I commodity shall be defined as a 
noncombustible product that meets one of the following 
criteria: 

(1) Placed directly on wooden pallets 

(2) Placed in single-layer corrugated cartons, with or with- 
out single-thickness cardboard dividers, with or without 
pallets 

(3) Shrink-wrapped or paper-wrapped as a unit load with or 
without pallets 

5.6.3.2* Class II. A Class II commodity shall be defined as a 
noncombustible product that is in slatted wooden crates, solid 
wood boxes, multiple-layered corrugated cartons, or equiva- 
lent combustible packaging material, with or without pallets. 

5.6.3.3* Class III. 

5.6.3.3.1 A Class III commodity shall be defined as a product 
fashioned from wood, paper, natural fibers, or Group C plas- 
tics with or without cartons, boxes, or crates and with or with- 
out pallets. 

5.6.3.3.2 A Class III commodity shall be permitted to contain 
a limited amount (5 percent by weight or volume or less) of 
Group A or Group B plastics. 



5.6.3.4* Class IV. 

5.6.3.4.1 A Class IV commodity shall be defined as a prod- 
uct, with or without pallets, that meets one of the following 
criteria: 

(1) Constructed partially or totally of Group B plastics 

(2) Consists of free-flowing Group A plastic materials 

(3) Contains within itself or its packaging an appreciable 
amount (5 percent to 15 percent by weight or 5 percent to 
25 percent by volume) of Group A plastics 

5.6.3.4.2 The remaining materials shall be permitted to be 
metal, wood, paper, natural or synthetic fibers, or Group B or 
Group C plastics. 

5.6.4* Classification of Plastics, Elastomers, and Rubber. Plas- 
tics, elastomers, and rubber shall be classified as Group A, 
Group B, or Group C. 

5.6.4.1* Group A. The following materials shall be classified as 
Group A: 

(1 

(2 

(3. 

(4 

(5 

(6 

(7. 

(8 

(9 
(10 
(11 
(12 
(13 
(14 
(15 
(16 
(17 

(18 
(19 



ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer) 

Acetal (polyformaldehyde) 

Acrylic (polymethyl methacrylate) 

Butyl rubber 

EPDM (ethylene-propylene rubber) 

FRP (fiberglass-reinforced polyester) 

Natural rubber (if expanded) 

Nitrile-rubber (acrylonitrile-butadiene-rubber) 

PET (thermoplastic polyester) 

Polybutadiene 

Polycarbonate 

Polyester elastomer 

Polyethylene 

Polypropylene 

Polystyrene 

Polyurethane 

PVC (polyvinyl chloride — highly plasticized, with plas- 

ticizer content greater than 20 percent) (rarely found) 

SAN (styrene acrylonitrile) 

SBR (styrene-butadiene rubber) 

5.6.4.2 Group B. The following materials shall be classified as 
Group B: 

(1) Cellulosics (cellulose acetate, cellulose acetate butyrate, 
ethyl cellulose) 

(2) Chloroprene rubber 

(3) Fluoroplastics (ECTFE — emylene<hlorotrifluoro-ethylene 
copolymer; ETFE — ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene-copolymer; 
FEP — fluorinated ethylene-propylene copolymer) 

(4) Natural rubber (not expanded) 

(5) Nylon (nylon 6, nylon 6/6) 

(6) Silicone rubber 

5.6.4.3 Group C. The following materials shall be classified as 
Group C: 

(1) Fluoroplastics (PCTFE — polychlorotrifluoroethylene; 
PTFE — polytetrafluoroethylene) 

(2) Melamine (melamine formaldehyde) 

(3) Phenolic 

(4) PVC (polyvinyl chloride — flexible — PVCs with plasti- 
cizer content up to 20 percent) 

(5) PVDC (polyvinylidene chloride) 

(6) PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) 

(7) PVF (polyvinyl fluoride) 

(8) Urea (urea formaldehyde) 



2002 Edition 



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INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



5.6.5* Classification of Rolled Paper Storage. For the pur- 
poses of this standard, the classifications of paper described in 
5.6.5.1 through 5.6.5.4 shall apply and shall be used to deter- 
mine the sprinkler system design criteria. 

5.6.5.1 Heavyweight Class. Heavyweight class shall be defined 
so as to include paperboard and paper stock having a basis 
weight [weight per 1000 ft 2 (92.9 m 2 )] of 20 lb (9.1 kg). 

5.6.5.2 Mediumweight Class. Mediumweight class shall be de- 
fined so as to include all the broad range of papers having a 
basis weight [weight per 1000 ft 2 (92.9 m 2 )] of 10 lb to 20 lb 
(4.5 kg to 9.1 kg). 

5.6.5.3 Lightweight Class. Lightweight class shall be defined 
so as to include all papers having a basis weight [weight per 
1000 ft 2 (92.9 m 2 )] of 101b (4.5 kg). 

5.6.5.4 Tissue. 

5.6.5.4.1 Tissue shall be defined so as to include the broad 
range of papers of characteristic gauzy texture, which, in some 
cases, are fairly transparent. 

5.6.5.4.2 For the purposes of this standard, tissue shall be 
defined as the soft, absorbent type, regardless of basis weight 
— specifically, crepe wadding and the sanitary class including 
facial tissue, paper napkins, bathroom tissue, and toweling. 



Chapter 6 System Components and Hardware 

6.1 General. This chapter provides requirements for correct 
use of sprinkler system components. 

6.1.1* Listing. 

6.1.1.1 Materials or devices not specifically designated by this 
standard shall be used in accordance with all conditions, re- 
quirements, and limitations of their special listing. All special 
listing requirements shall be included and identified in the 
product submittal literature and installation instructions. 

6.1.1.2 Unless the requirements of 6.1.1.3, 6.1.1.4, or 6.1.1.5 
are met, all materials and devices essential to successful system 
operation shall be listed. 

6.1.1.3 Equipment as permitted in Table 6.3.1.1 and Table 

6.4.1 shall not be required to be listed. 

6.1.1.4 Materials meeting the requirements of 9.1.1.2, 
9.1.1.4.2, and 9.1.1.4.3 shall not be required to be listed. 

6.1.1.5 Components that do not affect system performance 
such as drain piping, drain valves, and signs shall not be re- 
quired to be listed. 

6.1.2 Reconditioned Components. 

6.1.2.1 The use of reconditioned valves and devices as re- 
placement equipment in existing systems shall be permitted. 

6.1.2.2 Reconditioned sprinklers shall not be permitted to be 
utilized on any new or existing system. 

6.1.3 Rated Pressure. System components shall be rated for 
the maximum system working pressure to which they are ex- 
posed but shall not be rated at less than 175 psi (12.1 bar) for 
components installed aboveground and 150 psi (10.4 bar) for 
components installed underground. 



6.2 Sprinklers. 

6.2.1 General. Only new sprinklers shall be installed. 

6.2.2* Sprinkler Identification. 

6.2.2.1 All sprinklers shall be permanently marked with a 
one- or two-character manufacturer symbol, followed by three 
or four numbers, so as to identify a unique sprinkler identifi- 
cation for every change in orifice size or shape, deflector char- 
acteristic, pressure rating, and thermal sensitivity. 

6.2.2.2 The requirements of 6.2.2 shall become effective on 
January 1,2001. 

6.2.3 Sprinkler Discharge Characteristics. 

6.2.3.1* General. Unless the requirements of 6.2.3.2, 6.2.3.3, 
or 6.2.3.4 are met, the K-factor, relative discharge, and mark- 
ing identification for sprinklers having different orifice sizes 
shall be in accordance with Table 6.2.3.1. 

6.2.3.2 Pipe Threads. Listed sprinklers having pipe threads 
different from those shown in Table 6.2.3.1 shall be permitted. 

6.2.3.3 K-Factors Greater Than 28. Sprinklers listed with 
nominal K-factors greater than 28 shall increase the flow by 
100 percent increments when compared with a nominal K-5.6 
sprinkler. 

6.2.3.4 Residential Sprinklers. Residential sprinklers shall be 
permitted with K-factors other than those specified in Table 
6.2.3.1. 

6.2.3.5 Large Drop and ESFR K-Factors. Large drop and 
ESFR sprinklers shall have a minimum nominal K-factor of 
11.2. 

6.2.3.6 ESFR Orifice Size. ESFR sprinkler orifice size shall be 
selected as appropriate for the hazard. (See Chapter 12.) 

6.2.4 Occupancy Limitations. Unless the requirements of 
6.2.4.1 or 6.2.4.2 are met, sprinklers shall not be listed for 
protection of a portion of an occupancy classification. 

6.2.4.1 Residential Sprinklers. Residential sprinklers shall be 
permitted to be listed for portions of residential occupancies 
as defined in 8.4.5.1. 

6.2.4.2 Special Sprinklers. Special sprinklers shall be permit- 
ted to be listed for protection of a specific construction feature 
in a portion of an occupancy classification. (See 8.4.9.) 

6.2.5* Temperature Characteristics. 

6.2.5.1 Automatic sprinklers shall have their frame arms, de- 
flector, coating material, or liquid bulb colored in accordance 
with the requirements of Table 6.2.5.1 or the requirements of 
6.2.5.2, 6.2.5.3, 6.2.5.4, or 6.2.5.5. 

6.2.5.2 A dot on the top of the deflector, the color of the 
coating material, or colored frame arms shall be permitted for 
color identification of corrosion-resistant sprinklers. 

6.2.5.3 Color identification shall not be required for orna- 
mental sprinklers such as factory-plated or factory-painted 
sprinklers or for recessed, flush, or concealed sprinklers. 

6.2.5.4 The frame arms of bulb-type sprinklers shall not be 
required to be color coded. 

6.2.5.5 The liquid in bulb-type sprinklers shall be color 
coded in accordance with Table 6.2.5.1. 



2002 Edition 



SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND HARDWARE 



13-23 



Table 6.2.3.1 Sprinkler Discharge Characteristics Identification 



Nominal 






Percent of 




K-factor 


K-factor Range 
[gpm/(psi) i;5 ] 


K-factor Range 


Nominal K-5.6 




[gpm/(psi) 1/2 ] 


[dm 3 /min/(kPa) 1/2 ] 


Discharge 


Thread Type 


1.4 


1.3-1.5 


1.9-2.2 


25 


y 2 in. NPT 


1.9 


1.8-2.0 


2.6-2.9 


33.3 


Vfc in. NPT 


2.8 


2.6-2.9 


3.8-4.2 


50 


Vt in. NPT 


4.2 


4.0-4.4 


5.9-6.4 


75 


Vfc in. NPT 


5.6 


5.3-5.8 


7.6-8.4 


100 


Vi in. NPT 


8.0 


7.4-8.2 


10.7-11.8 


140 


3 / 4 in. NPT 

or 
V2 in. NPT 


11.2 


11.0-11.5 


15.9-16.6 


200 


J /2 in. NPT 

or 
Vi in. NPT 


14.0 


13.5-14.5 


19.5-20.9 


250 


% in. NPT 


16.8 


16.0-17.6 


23.1-25.4 


300 


% in. NPT 


19.6 


18.6-20.6 


27.2-30.1 


350 


1 in. NPT 


22.4 


21.3-23.5 


31.1-34.3 


400 


1 in. NPT 


25.2 


23.9-26.5 


34.9-38.7 


450 


1 in. NPT 


28.0 


26.6-29.4 


38.9-43.0 


500 


1 in. NPT 



Table 6.2.5.1 Temperature Ratings, Classifications, and Color Codings 

Maximum 
Ceiling 
Temperature Temperature Rating 











Temperature 




Glass Bulb 


°F 


°C 


°F 


°C 


Classification 


Color Code 


Colors 


100 


38 


135-170 


57-77 


Ordinary 


Uncolored or 
black 


Orange or red 


150 


66 


175-225 


79-107 


Intermediate 


White 


Yellow or green 


225 


107 


250-300 


121-149 


High 


Blue 


Blue 


300 


149 


325-375 


163-191 


Extra high 


Red 


Purple 


375 


191 


400-475 


204-246 


Very extra high 


Green 


Black 


475 


246 


500-575 


260-302 


Ultra high 


Orange 


Black 


625 


329 


650 


343 


Ultra high 


Orange 


Black 



6.2.6 Special Coatings. 

6.2.6.1* Corrosion Resistant. 

6.2.6.1.1 Listed corrosion-resistant sprinklers shall be in- 
stalled in locations where chemicals, moisture, or other corro- 
sive vapors sufficient to cause corrosion of such devices exist. 

6.2.6.1.2* Unless the requirements of 6.2.6.1.3 are met, 
corrosion-resistant coatings shall be applied only by the manu- 
facturer of the sprinkler and in accordance with the require- 
ments of 6.2.6.1.3. 

6.2.6.1.3 Any damage to the protective coating occurring at 
the time of installation shall be repaired at once using only the 
coating of the manufacturer of the sprinkler in the approved 
manner so that no part of the sprinkler will be exposed after 
installation has been completed. 

6.2.6.2* Painting. 

6.2.6.2.1 Sprinklers shall only be painted by the sprinkler 
manufacturer. 



6.2.6.2.2 Where sprinklers have had paint applied by other 
than the sprinkler manufacturer, they shall be replaced with 
new listed sprinklers of the same characteristics, including ori- 
fice size, thermal response, and water distribution. 

6.2.6.3 Ornamental Finishes. 

6.2.6.3.1 Ornamental finishes shall only be applied to sprin- 
klers, and if applicable their concealed cover plates, by the 
sprinkler manufacturer. 

6.2.6.3.2 Sprinklers shall be specifically listed with ornamen- 
tal finishes where utilized. 

6.2.6.4 Protective Coverings. 

6.2.6.4.1 Sprinklers protecting spray areas and mixing rooms 
in resin application areas shall be protected against overspray 
residue so that they will operate in the event of fire. 

6.2.6.4.2 Where protected in accordance with 6.2.6.4.1, cel- 
lophane bags having a thickness of 0.003 in. (0.076 mm) or 
less or thin paper bags shall be used. 



2002 Edition 



13-24 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



6.2.6.4.3 Coverings shall be replaced periodically so that 
heavy deposits of residue do not accumulate. 

6.2.6.4.4 Sprinklers that have been painted or coated shall be 
replaced in accordance with the requirements of 6.2.6.2.2. 

6.2.7 Escutcheons and Cover Plates. 

6.2.7.1 Nonmetallic escutcheons shall be listed. 

6.2.7.2* Escutcheons used with recessed, flush-type, or con- 
cealed sprinklers shall be part of a listed sprinkler assembly. 

6.2.7.3 Cover plates used with concealed sprinklers shall be 
part of the listed sprinkler assembly. 

6.2.8* Guards and Shields. Sprinklers subject to mechanical 
injury shall be protected with listed guards. 

6.2.9 Stock of Spare Sprinklers. 

6.2.9.1* A supply of at least six spare sprinklers (never fewer 
than six) shall be maintained on the premises so that any 
sprinklers that have operated or been damaged in any way can 
be promptly replaced. 

6.2.9.2 The sprinklers shall correspond to the types and tem- 
perature ratings of the sprinklers in the property. 

6.2.9.3 The sprinklers shall be kept in a cabinet located 
where the temperature to which they are subjected will at no 
time exceed 100°F (38°C). 

6.2.9.4 Where dry sprinklers of different lengths are in- 
stalled, spare dry sprinklers shall not be required, provided 
that a means of returning the system to service is furnished. 

6.2.9.5 The stock of spare sprinklers shall include all types 
and ratings installed and shall be as follows: 

(1) For protected facilities having under 300 sprinklers — no 
fewer than six sprinklers 

(2) For protected facilities having 300 to 1000 sprinklers — 
no fewer than 12 sprinklers 

(3) For protected facilities having over 1000 sprinklers — no 
fewer than 24 sprinklers 

6.2.9.6 A special sprinkler wrench shall be provided and kept 
in the cabinet to be used in the removal and installation of 
sprinklers. One sprinkler wrench shall be provided for each 
type of sprinkler installed. 

6.3 Aboveground Pipe and Tube. 

6.3.1 General. 

6.3.1.1 Pipe or tube shall meet or exceed one of the stan- 
dards in Table 6.3.1.1 or be in accordance with 6.3.6. 

6.3.1.2 Steel pipe shall be in accordance with 6.3.2, 6.3.3, or 
6.3.4. 

6.3.1.3 Copper tube shall be in accordance with 6.3.5. 

6.3.1.4 Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) and polybuty- 
lene pipe shall be in accordance with 6.3.6 and with the por- 
tions of the ASTM standards specified in Table 6.3.6.1 that 
apply to fire protection service. 

6.3.2* Steel Pipe — Welded or Roll-Grooved. When steel pipe 
referenced in Table 6.3.1.1 is used and joined by welding as 
referenced in 6.5.2 or by roll-grooved pipe and fittings as ref- 
erenced in 6.5.3, the minimum nominal wall thickness for 
pressures up to 300 psi (20.7 bar) shall be in accordance with 
Schedule 10 for pipe sizes up to 5 in. (127 mm), 0.134 in. 



Table 6.3.1.1 Pipe or Tube Materials and Dimensions 



Materials and Dimensions 



Standard 



Ferrous Piping (Welded and 
Seamless) 

Specification for black and 
hot-dipped zinc-coated 
(galvanized) welded and 
seamless steel pipe for fire 
protection use 

Specification for welded and 
seamless steel pipe 

Wrought steel pipe 

Specification for electric- 
resistance-welded steel pipe 

Copper Tube (Drawn, Seamless) 

Specification for seamless 

copper tube 
Specification for seamless 

copper water tube 
Specification for general 

requirements for wrought 

seamless copper and 

copper-alloy tube 
Fluxes for soldering applications 

of copper and copper-alloy 

tube 
Brazing filler metal 

(classification BCuP-3 or 

BCuP-4) 
Solder metal, 95-5 

(tin-antimony-Grade 95TA) 
Alloy materials 



ASTM A 795 



ANSI/ASTM A 53 

ANSI/ASME B36.10M 
ASTM A 135 



ASTM B 75 
ASTM B 88 
ASTM B 251 

ASTM B 813 

AWS A5.8 

ASTM B 32 
ASTM B 446 



(3.40 mm) for 6-in. (152-mm) pipe, and 0.188 in. (4.78 mm) 
for 8- and 10-in. (203- and 254-mm) pipe. 

6.3.3 Steel Pipe — Threaded. When steel pipe referenced in 
Table 6.3.1.1 is joined by threaded fittings referenced in 
6.5.1 or by fittings used with pipe having cut grooves, the 
minimum wall thickness shall be in accordance with Sched- 
ule 30 pipe [in sizes 8 in. (203 mm) and larger] or Schedule 
40 pipe [in sizes less than 8 in. (203 mm)] for pressures up 
to 300 psi (20.7 bar). 

6.3.4 Specially Listed Steel Pipe. Pressure limitations and wall 
thickness for steel pipe specially listed in accordance with 
6.3.6 shall be permitted to be in accordance with the pipe 
listing requirements. 

6.3.5* Copper Tube. Copper tube as specified in the standards 
listed in Table 6.3.1.1 shall have a wall thickness of Type K, 
Type L, or Type M where used in sprinkler systems. 

6.3.6* Listed Pipe and Tubing. 

6.3.6.1 Other types of pipe or tube investigated for suitability 
in automatic sprinkler installations and listed for this service, 
including but not limited to polybutylene, CPVC, and steel, 
differing from that provided in Table 6.3.6.1 shall be permit- 
ted where installed in accordance with their listing limitations, 
including installation instructions. 



2002 Edition 



SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND HARDWARE 



13-25 



Table 6.3.6.1 Specially Listed Pipe or Tube Materials and 
Dimensions 



Materials and Dimensions 



Standard 



Nonmetallic piping specification for special ASTM F 442 

listed chlorinated polyvinyl chloride 

(CPVC) pipe 
Specification for special listed polybutylene ASTM D 3309 

(PB) pipe 



6.3.6.2 Pipe or tube listed for light hazard occupancies shall 
be permitted to be installed in ordinary hazard rooms of oth- 
erwise light hazard occupancies where the room does not ex- 
ceed 400 ft 2 (37 m 2 ). 

6.3.6.3 Pipe or tube shall not be listed for portions of an 
occupancy classification. 

6.3.6.4 Bending of listed pipe and tubing shall be permitted 
as allowed by the listing. 

6.3.7 Pipe Bending. 

6.3.7.1 Bending of Schedule 10 steel pipe, or any steel pipe of 
wall thickness equal to or greater than Schedule 10 and Types 
K and L copper tube, shall be permitted when bends are made 
with no kinks, ripples, distortions, or reductions in diameter 
or any noticeable deviations from round. 

6.3.7.2 For Schedule 40 and copper tubing, the minimum 
radius of a bend shall be six pipe diameters for pipe sizes 2 in. 
(51 mm) and smaller and five pipe diameters for pipe sizes 
2V2 in. (64 mm) and larger. 

6.3.7.3 For all other steel pipe, the minimum radius of a bend 
shall be 12 pipe diameters for all sizes. 

6.3.8 Pipe Identification. 

6.3.8.1 All pipe, including specially listed pipe allowed by 
6.3.6, shall be marked continuously along its length by the 
manufacturer in such a way as to properly identify the type of 
pipe. 

6.3.8.2 Pipe identification shall include the manufacturer's 
name, model designation, or schedule. 

6.4 Fittings. 

6.4.1 Fittings used in sprinkler systems shall meet or exceed 
the standards in Table 6.4.1 or be in accordance with 6.4.2 or 
6.4.3. 

6.4.2 In addition to the standards in Table 6.4.1, CPVC fit- 
tings shall also be in accordance with 6.4.3 and with the por- 
tions of the ASTM standards specified in Table 6.4.3 that apply 
to fire protection service. 

6.4.3* Other types of fittings investigated for suitability in au- 
tomatic sprinkler installations and listed for this service in- 
cluding, but not limited to, polybutylene, CPVC, and steel dif- 
fering from that provided in Table 6.4.3, shall be permitted 
when installed in accordance with their listing limitations, in- 
cluding installation instructions. 

6.4.4* Fitting Pressure Limits. 

6.4.4.1 Standard weight pattern cast-iron fittings 2 in. 
(51 mm) in size and smaller shall be permitted where pres- 
sures do not exceed 300 psi (20.7 bar). 



Table 6.4.1 Fittings Materials and Dimensions 



Materials and Dimensions 



Standard 



Cast Iron 

Cast iron threaded fittings, Class 125 and ASME B16.4 

250 
Cast iron pipe flanges and flanged fittings ASME B16.1 

Malleable Iron 

Malleable iron threaded fittings, Class ASME B16.3 

150 and 300 steel 
Factory-made wrought steel buttweld ASME B16.9 

fittings 
Buttwelding ends for pipe, valves, flanges, ASME B16.25 

and fittings 
Specification for piping fittings of ASTM A 234 

wrought carbon steel and alloy steel for 

moderate and elevated temperatures 
Steel pipe flanges and flanged fittings ASME B16.5 

Forged steel fittings, socket welded and ASME B16.ll 

threaded copper 
Wrought copper and copper alloy solder ASME B16.22 

joint pressure fittings 
Cast copper alloy solder joint pressure ASME B16.18 

fittings 



Table 6.4.3 Specially Listed Fittings Materials and 
Dimensions 



Materials and Dimensions 



Standard 



Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) ASTM F 437 

specification for schedule 80 CPVC 

threaded fittings 
Specification for schedule 40 CPVC ASTM F 438 

socket-type fittings 
Specification for schedule 80 CPVC ASTM F 439 

socket-type fittings 



6.4.4.2 Standard weight pattern malleable iron fittings 6 in. 
(152 mm) in size and smaller shall be permitted where pres- 
sures do not exceed 300 psi (20.7 bar). 

6.4.4.3 Listed fittings shall be permitted for system pressures 
up to the limits specified in their listings. 

6.4.4.4 Fittings not meeting the requirements of 6.4.4.1 
through 6.4.4.3 shall be extra-heavy pattern where pressures 
exceed 175 psi (12.1 bar). 

6.4.5* Couplings and Unions. 

6.4.5.1 Screwed unions shall not be used on pipe larger than 
2 in. (51 mm). 

6.4.5.2 Couplings and unions of other than screwed-type 
shall be of types listed specifically for use in sprinkler systems. 

6.4.6 Reducers and Bushings. 

6.4.6.1 Unless the requirements of 6.4.6.2 or 6.4.6.3 are met, 
a one-piece reducing fitting shall be used wherever a change is 
made in the size of the pipe. 



2002 Edition 



13-26 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



6.4.6.2 Hexagonal or face bushings shall be permitted in re- 
ducing the size of openings of fittings when standard fittings 
of the required size are not available. 

6.4.6.3 Hexagonal bushings as permitted in 8.14.19.2 shall be 
permitted to be used. 

6.5 Joining of Pipe and Fittings. 

6.5.1 Threaded Pipe and Fittings. 

6.5.1.1 All threaded pipe and fittings shall have threads cut to 
ASME Bl.20.1, Pipe Threads, General Purpose (Inch). 

6.5.1.2* Steel pipe with wall thicknesses less than Schedule 30 
[in sizes 8 in. (203 mm) and larger] or Schedule 40 [in sizes 
less than 8 in. (203 mm)] shall only be permitted to be joined 
by threaded fittings where the threaded assembly is investi- 
gated for suitability in automatic sprinkler installations and 
listed for this service. 

6.5.1.3 Joint compound or tape shall be applied only to male 
threads. 

6.5.2* Welded Pipe and Fittings. 

6.5.2.1 Welding methods that comply with the applicable re- 
quirements of AWS B2.1, Specification for Welding Procedure and 
Performance Qualification, shall be permitted as means of join- 
ing fire protection piping. 

6.5.2.1.1 Where oudets are welded in pipe using listed weld- 
ing outlet fittings, partial joint penetration (groove/fillet) 
shall be acceptable when performed in accordance with the 
requirements of 6.5.2.1. 

6.5.2.1.2 Where slip-on flanges are welded to pipe, fillet 
welds shall be acceptable where such welds are used along 
both circumferences where the flange contacts the pipe. 

6.5.2.2* Unless the requirements of 6.5.2.3 are met, sprinkler 
piping shall be shop welded. 

6.5.2.3 Where the design specifications call for all or part of 
the piping to be welded in place, welding of sprinkler piping 
in place shall be permitted where the welding process is per- 
formed in accordance with NFPA51B, Standard for Fire Preven- 
tion During Welding, Cutting, and Other Hot Work, and the me- 
chanical fittings required by 8.14.16 and 8.14.21 are provided. 

6.5.2.4 Welding of tabs for longitudinal earthquake bracing 
to in-place piping shall be permitted where the welding pro- 
cess is performed in accordance with NFPA51B, Standard for 
Fire Prevention During Welding, Cutting, and Other Hot Work. 

6.5.2.5 Welded fittings used to join pipe shall be listed fabri- 
cated fittings or manufactured in accordance with Table 6.4.1. 

6.5.2.6 Fittings referenced in 6.5.2.5 shall be joined in con- 
formance with a qualified welding procedure as set forth in 
this section and shall be an acceptable product under this 
standard, provided that materials and wall thickness are com- 
patible with other sections of this standard. 

6.5.2.7 Fittings shall not be required where pipe ends are 
butt welded in accordance with the requirements of 6.5.2.1. 

6.5.2.8 No welding shall be performed if there is impinge- 
ment of rain, snow, sleet, or high wind on the weld area of the 
pipe product. 

6.5.2.9 When welding is performed, the following proce- 
dures shall be completed: 



(l)*Holes in piping for outlets shall be cut to the full inside 
diameter of fittings prior to welding in place of the 
fittings. 

(2) Discs shall be retrieved. 

(3) Openings cut into piping shall be smooth bore, and all 
internal slag and welding residue shall be removed. 

(4) Fittings shall not penetrate the internal diameter of the 
piping. 

(5) Steel plates shall not be welded to the ends of piping or 
fittings. 

(6) Fittings shall not be modified. 

(7) Nuts, clips, eye rods, angle brackets, or other fasteners 
shall not be welded to pipe or fittings, except as permitted 
in 6.5.2.10. 

6.5.2.10 Tabs for longitudinal earthquake braces shall be per- 
mitted to be welded directly to the sprinkler pipe. 

6.5.2.11 When the pipe size in a run of piping is reduced, a 
reducing fitting designed for that purpose shall be used in 
accordance with the requirements of 6.5.2.3. 

6.5.2.12 Torch cutting and welding shall not be permitted as 
a means of modifying or repairing sprinkler systems. 

6.5.2.13 Qualifications. 

6.5.2.13.1 Awelding procedure shall be prepared and quali- 
fied by the contractor or fabricator before any welding is 
done. 

6.5.2.13.2 Qualification of the welding procedure to be used 
and the performance of all welders and welding operators 
shall be required and shall meet or exceed the requirements 
of AWS B2.1, Specification for Welding Procedure and Performance 
Qualification, except as permitted by 6.5.2.13.3. 

6.5.2.13.3 Successful procedure qualification of complete 
joint penetration groove welds shall qualify partial joint pen- 
etration (groove/fillet) welds and fillet welds in accordance 
with the provisions of this standard. 

6.5.2.13.4 Welding procedures qualified under standards 
recognized by previous editions of this standard shall be per- 
mitted to be continued in use. 

6.5.2.13.5 Contractors or fabricators shall be responsible for 
all welding they produce. 

6.5.2.13.6 Each contractor or fabricator shall have available 
to the authority having jurisdiction an established written 
quality assurance procedure ensuring compliance with the re- 
quirements of 6.5.2.9. 

6.5.2.14 Records. 

6.5.2.14.1 Welders or welding machine operators shall, upon 
completion of each weld, stamp an imprint of their identifica- 
tion into the side of the pipe adjacent to the weld. 

6.5.2.14.2 Contractors or fabricators shall maintain certified 
records, which shall be available to the authority having juris- 
diction, of the procedures used and the welders or welding 
machine operators employed by them, along with their weld- 
ing identification imprints. 

6.5.2.14.3 Records shall show the date and the results of pro- 
cedure and performance qualifications. 

6.5.3 Groove Joining Methods. 

6.5.3.1 Pipe joined with grooved fittings shall be joined by a 
listed combination of fittings, gaskets, and grooves. 



2002 Edition 



SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND HARDWARE 



13-27 



6.5.3.2 Grooves cut or rolled on pipe shall be dimensionally 
compatible with the fittings. 

6.5.3.3 Grooved fittings including gaskets used on dry pipe 
systems shall be listed for dry pipe service. 

6.5.4* Brazed and Soldered Joints. 

6.5.4.1 Solder joints, where permitted, shall be fabricated in 
accordance with the methods and procedures listed in ASTM 
B 828, Standard Practice for Making Capillary Joints by Soldering of 
Copper and Copper Alloy Tube and Fittings. 

6.5.4.2 Unless the requirements of 6.5.4.3 or 6.5.4.4 are met, 
joints for the connection of copper tube shall be brazed. 

6.5.4.3 Solder joints shall be permitted for exposed wet pipe 
systems in light hazard occupancies where the temperature 
classification of the installed sprinklers is of the ordinary- or 
intermediate-temperature classification. 

6.5.4.4 Solder joints shall be permitted for wet pipe systems 
in light hazard and ordinary hazard (Group 1) occupancies 
where the piping is concealed, irrespective of sprinkler tem- 
perature ratings. 

6.5.4.5* Soldering fluxes shall be in accordance with Table 
6.3.1.1. 

6.5.4.6 Brazing fluxes, if used, shall not be of a highly corro- 
sive type. 

6.5.5 Other Joining Methods. Other joining methods investi- 
gated for suitability in automatic sprinkler installations and 
listed for this service shall be permitted where installed in ac- 
cordance with their listing limitations, including installation 
instructions. 

6.5.6 End Treatment. 

6.5.6.1 After cutting, pipe ends shall have burrs and fins re- 
moved. 

6.5.6.2 Pipe used with listed fittings and its end treatment 
shall be in accordance with the fitting manufacturer's installa- 
tion instructions and the fitting's listing. 

6.6* Hangers. Hangers shall be in accordance with the re- 
quirements of Section 9.1. 

6.7 Valves. 

6.7.1 General. 

6.7.1.1 Valve Pressure Requirements. When water pressures 
exceed 175 psi (12.1 bar), valves shall be used in accordance 
with their pressure ratings. 

6.7.1.2 Valve Closure Time. Listed indicating valves shall not 
close in less than 5 seconds when operated at maximum pos- 
sible speed from the fully open position. 

6.7.1.3 Listed Indicating Valves. Unless the requirements of 
6.7.1.3.1, 6.7.1.3.2, or 6.7.1.3.3 are met, all valves controlling 
connections to water supplies and to supply pipes to sprinklers 
shall be listed indicating valves. 

6.7.1.3.1 A listed underground gate valve equipped with a 
listed indicator post shall be permitted. 

6.7.1.3.2 A listed water control valve assembly with a reliable 
position indication connected to a remote supervisory station 
shali be permitted. 



6.7.1.3.3 Anonindicating valve, such as an underground gate 
valve with approved roadway box, complete with T-wrench, 
and where accepted by the authority havingjurisdiction, shall 
be permitted. 

6.7.2 Wafer-Type Valves. Wafer-type valves with components 
that extend beyond the valve body shall be installed in a man- 
ner that does not interfere with the operation of any system 
components. 

6.7.3 Drain Valves and Test Valves. Drain valves and test valves 
shall be approved. 

6.7.4* Identification of Valves. 

6.7.4.1 All control, drain, and test connection valves shall be 
provided with permanently marked weatherproof metal or 
rigid plastic identification signs. 

6.7.4.2 The identification sign shall be secured with 
corrosion-resistant wire, chain, or other approved means. 

6.7.4.3 The control valve sign shall identify the portion of the 
building served. 

6.8 Fire Department Connections. 

6.8.1 Unless the requirements of 6.8.2 or 6.8.3 are met, the 
fire department connection (s) shall use an NH internal 
threaded swivel fitting(s) with an NH standard thread (s), 
where at least one of the connections shall be the "2.5-7.5 NH 
standard thread," as specified in NFPA 1963, Standard for Fire 
Hose Connections. 

6.8.2 Where local fire department connections do not con- 
form to NFPA 1963, Standard for Fire Hose Connections, the au- 
thority havingjurisdiction shall be permitted to designate the 
connection to be used. 

6.8.3 The use of threadless couplings shall be permitted 
where required by the authority havingjurisdiction and where 
listed for such use. 

6.8.4 Fire department connections shall be equipped with 
listed plugs or caps, properly secured and arranged for easy 
removal by fire departments. 

6.8.5 Fire department connections shall be of an approved 
type. 

6.9 Waterflow Alarms. 

6.9.1 General. Waterflow alarm apparatus shall be listed for 
the service and so constructed and installed that any flow of 
water from a sprinkler system equal to or greater than that 
from a single automatic sprinkler of the smallest orifice size 
installed on the system will result in an audible alarm on the 
premises within 5 minutes after such flow begins and until 
such flow stops. 

6.9.2 Waterflow Detecting Devices. 

6.9.2.1 Wet Pipe Systems. The alarm apparatus for a wet pipe 
system shall consist of a listed alarm check valve or other listed 
waterflow-detecting alarm device with the necessary attach- 
ments required to give an alarm. 

6.9.2.2 Dry Pipe Systems. 

6.9.2.2.1 The alarm apparatus for a dry pipe system shall con- 
sist of listed alarm attachments to the dry pipe valve. 



2002 Edition 



13-28 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



6.9.2.2.2 Where a dry pipe valve is located on the system side 
of an alarm valve, connection of the actuating device of the 
alarms for the dry pipe valve to the alarms on the wet pipe 
system shall be permitted. 

6.9.2.3 Preaction and Deluge Systems. The alarm apparatus 
for deluge and preaction systems shall consist of alarms actu- 
ated independently by the detection system and the flow of 
water. 

6.9.2.4* Paddle-Type Waterflow Devices. Paddle-type water- 
flow alarm indicators shall be installed in wet systems only. 

6.9.3 Attachments — General. 

6.9.3.1* An alarm unit shall include a listed mechanical alarm, 
horn, or siren or a listed electric gong, bell, speaker, horn, or 
siren. 

6.9.3.2* Outdoor water motor-operated or electrically oper- 
ated bells shall be weatherproofed and guarded. 

6.9.3.3 All piping to water motor-operated devices shall be 
galvanized or brass or other corrosion-resistant material ac- 
ceptable under this standard and of a size not less than % in. 
(19 mm). 

6.9.3.4 Piping between the sprinkler system and a pressure 
actuated alarm-initiating device shall be galvanized or of non- 
ferrous metal or other approved corrosion-resistant material 
of not less than % in. (9.5 mm) nominal pipe size. 

6.9.4* Attachments — Electrically Operated. 

6.9.4.1 Electrically operated alarm attachments forming part 
of an auxiliary, central station, local protective, proprietary, or 
remote station signaling system shall be installed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 72®, National Fire Alarm Code®. 

6.9.4.2 Sprinkler waterflow alarm systems that are not part of 
a required protective signaling system shall not be required to 
be supervised and shall be installed in accordance with 
NFPA 70, National Electrical Code®, Article 760. 

6.9.4.3 Outdoor electric alarm devices shall be listed for out- 
door use. 

6.9.5 Alarm Device Drains. Drains from alarm devices shall be 
so arranged that there will be no overflowing at the alarm 
apparatus, at domestic connections, or elsewhere with the 
sprinkler drains wide open and under system pressure. (See 
8.15.2.6.) 



Chapter 7 System Requirements 

7.1 Wet Pipe Systems. 

7.1.1 Pressure Gauges. 

7.1.1.1 A listed pressure gauge conforming to 8.16.3 shall be 
installed in each system riser. 

7.1.1.2 Pressure gauges shall be installed above and below 
each alarm check valve or system riser check valve where such 
devices are present. 

7.1.2 Relief Valves. 

7.1.2.1 Unless the requirements of 7.1.2.2 are met, a gridded 
wet pipe system shall be provided with a relief valve not less 
than l A in. (6.4 mm) in size set to operate at 175 psi (12.1 bar) 



or 10 psi (0.7 bar) in excess of the maximum system pressure, 
whichever is greater. 

7.1.2.2 Where auxiliary air reservoirs are installed to absorb 
pressure increases, a relief valve shall not be required. 

7.1.3 Auxiliary Systems. A wet pipe system shall be permitted 
to supply an auxiliary dry pipe, preaction, or deluge system, 
provided the water supply is adequate. 

7.2* Dry Pipe Systems. 

7.2.1 Pressure Gauges. Listed pressure gauges conforming 
with 8.16.3 shall be connected as follows: 

(1) On the water side and air side of the dry pipe valve 

(2) At the air pump supplying the air receiver where one is 
provided 

(3) At the air receiver where one is provided 

(4) In each independent pipe from air supply to dry pipe 
system 

(5) At exhausters and accelerators 

7.2.2 Sprinklers. The following types of sprinklers and ar- 
rangements shall be permitted for dry pipe systems: 

(1) Upright sprinklers 
(2)*Listed dry sprinklers 

(3) Pendent sprinklers and sidewall sprinklers installed on re- 
turn bends, where the sprinklers, return bend, and 
branch line piping are in an area maintained at or above 
40°F (4°C) 

(4) Horizontal sidewall sprinklers, installed so that water is 
not trapped 

7.2.3* Size of Systems — Volume Limitations. 

7.2.3.1* Unless the requirements of 7.2.3.2 or 7.2.3.3 are met, 
not more than 750 gal (2839 L) system capacity shall be con- 
trolled by one dry pipe valve. 

7.2.3.2 Piping volume shall be permitted to exceed the require- 
ments of 7.2.3.1 where the system design is such that water is 
delivered to the system test connection in not more than 60 sec- 
onds, starting at the normal air pressure on the system and at the 
time of fully opened inspection test connection. 

7.2.3.3 Piping volume shall be permitted to exceed the re- 
quirements of 7.2.3.1 where dry systems are calculated for wa- 
ter delivery in accordance with 11.2.3.9. 

7.2.3.4 Check valves shall not be used to subdivide the dry 
pipe system. 

7.2.3.5 Gridded dry pipe systems shall not be installed. 

7.2.4 Quick-Opening Devices. 

7.2.4.1 Unless the requirements of 7.2.4.2 are met, dry pipe 
valves shall be provided with a listed quick-opening device 
where system capacity exceeds 500 gal (1893 L). 

7.2.4.2 A quick-opening device shall not be required where wa- 
ter is delivered to the system test connection in not more than 
60 seconds, starting at the normal air pressure on the system and 
at the time of fully opened inspection test connection. 

7.2.4.3 The quick-opening device shall be located as close as 
practical to the dry pipe valve. 

7.2.4.4 To protect the restriction orifice and other operating 
parts of the quick-opening device against submergence, the 
connection to the riser shall be above the point at which water 
(priming water and back drainage) is expected when the dry 



2002 Edition 



SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS 



13-29 



pipe valve and quick-opening device are set, except where de- 
sign features of the particular quick-opening device make 
these requirements unnecessary. 

7.2.4.5 A soft disc globe or angle valve shall be installed in the 
connection between the dry pipe sprinkler riser and the quick- 
opening device. 

7.2.4.6 A check valve shall be installed between the quick- 
opening device and the intermediate chamber of the dry pipe 
valve. 

7.2.4.7 If the quick-opening device requires pressure feed- 
back from the intermediate chamber, a valve type that will 
clearly indicate whether it is opened or closed shall be permit- 
ted in place of that check valve. 

7.2.4.8 Where a valve is utilized in accordance with 7.2.4.7, 
the valve shall be constructed so that it can be locked or sealed 
in the open position. 

7.2.4.9 Antiflooding Device. 

7.2.4.9.1 Unless the requirements of 7.2.4.9.2 are met, a 
listed antiflooding device shall be installed in the connection 
between the dry pipe sprinkler riser and the quick-opening 
device. 

7.2.4.9.2 A listed antiflooding device shall not be required 
where the quick-opening device has built-in antiflooding de- 
sign features. 

7.2.5* Location and Protection of Dry Pipe Valve. 

7.2.5.1* General. The dry pipe valve and supply pipe shall be 
protected against freezing and mechanical injury. 

7.2.5.2 Valve Rooms. 

7.2.5.2.1 Valve rooms shall be lighted and heated. 

7.2.5.2.2 The source of heat shall be of a permanendy in- 
stalled type. 

7.2.5.2.3 Heat tape shall not be used in lieu of heated valve 
enclosures to protect the dry pipe valve and supply pipe 
against freezing. 

7.2.5.3 Supply. The supply for the sprinkler in the dry pipe 
valve enclosure shall be from the dry side of the system. 

7.2.5.4 Low Differential Dry Pipe Valve. Protection against 
accumulation of water above the clapper shall be provided for 
a low differential dry pipe valve. 

7.2.5.5 High Water Level Device. An automatic high water 
level signaling device or an automatic drain device shall be 
permitted. 

7.2.6 Air Pressure and Supply. 

7.2.6.1 Maintenance of Air Pressure. Air or nitrogen pressure 
shall be maintained on dry pipe systems throughout the year. 

7.2.6.2* Air Supply. 

7.2.6.2.1 The compressed air supply shall be from a source 
available at all times. 

7.2.6.2.2 The air supply shall have a capacity capable of re- 
storing normal air pressure in the system within 30 minutes. 

7.2.6.2.3 The requirements of 7.2.6.2.2 shall not apply in re- 
frigerated spaces maintained below 5°F (-15°C), where nor- 
mal system air pressure shall be permitted to be restored 
within 60 minutes. 



7.2.6.3 Air Filling Connection. 

7.2.6.3.1 The connection pipe from the air compressor shall 
not be less than V2 in. (13 mm) in diameter and shall enter the 
system above the priming water level of the dry pipe valve. 

7.2.6.3.2 A check valve shall be installed in this air line, and a 
shutoff valve of the renewable disc type shall be installed on 
the supply side of this check valve and shall remain closed 
unless filling the system. 

7.2.6.4 Relief Valve. A listed relief valve shall be provided be- 
tween the compressor and controlling valve and shall be set to 
relieve at a pressure 10 psi (0.7 bar) in excess of the operating 
air pressure of the system. 

7.2.6.5 Shop Air Supply. Where the air supply is taken from a 
shop system having a normal pressure greater than that re- 
quired for dry pipe system, an air maintenance device (regu- 
lator style) shall be used to regulate air pressure and flow to 
the system. A relief valve shall be installed between the oudet 
of the air maintenance device and dry system and set to relieve 
at 20 psi (0.7 bar) above the dry pipe system operating set- 
point. (See Figure 7.2.6.5.) 



rx3 



To 

sprinkler 
if required 




1 . Check valve 

2. Control valve (renewable disc type) 

3. Small air cock (normally open) 

4. Relief valve 

5. Air supply 



FIGURE 7.2.6.5 Air Supply from Shop System. 



7.2.6.6 Automatic Air Compressor. 

7.2.6.6.1 Where a dry pipe system is supplied by an automatic 
air compressor or plant air system, any device or apparatus 
used for automatic maintenance of air pressure shall be of a 
type specifically listed for such service and capable of control- 
ling the required air pressure on, and maximum airflow to, 
the dry pipe system. 

7.2.6.6.2 Automatic air supply to more than one dry pipe 
system shall be connected to enable individual maintenance 
of air pressure in each system. 

7.2.6.6.3 A check valve or other positive backflow prevention 
device shall be installed in the air supply to each system to 
prevent airflow or waterflow from one system to another. 

7.2.6.6.4 Where the air compressor feeding the dry pipe sys- 
tem has less capacity than the discharge through a Vs,-m. ori- 
fice at 10 psig, no air maintenance device shall be required. 



2002 Edition 



13-30 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



7.2.6.7 System Air Pressure. 

7.2.6.7.1 The system air pressure shall be maintained in ac- 
cordance with the instruction sheet furnished with the dry 
pipe valve, or shall be 20 psi (1.4 bar) in excess of the calcu- 
lated trip pressure of the dry pipe valve, based on the highest 
normal water pressure of the system supply. 

7.2.6.7.2 The permitted rate of air leakage shall be as speci- 
fied in 16.2.2. 

7.2.6.8 Nitrogen. Where used, nitrogen shall be introduced 
through a pressure regulator set to maintain system pressure 
in accordance with 7.2.6.7. 

7.3 Preaction Systems and Deluge Systems. 

7.3.1* General. 

7.3.1.1 All components of pneumatic, hydraulic, or electrical 
systems shall be compatible. 

7.3.1.2 The automatic water control valve shall be provided 
with hydraulic, pneumatic, or mechanical manual means for 
operation that is independent of detection devices and of the 
sprinklers. 

7.3.1.3 Pressure Gauges. Listed pressure gauges conforming 
with 8.16.3 shall be installed as follows: 

(1) Above and below preaction valve and below deluge valve 

(2) On air supply to preaction and deluge valves 

7.3.1.4 A supply of spare fusible elements for heat-responsive 
devices, not less than two of each temperature rating, shall be 
maintained on the premises for replacement purposes. 

7.3.1.5 Hydraulic release systems shall be designed and in- 
stalled in accordance with manufacturer's requirements and 
listing for height limitations above deluge valves or deluge 
valve actuators to prevent water column. 

7.3.1.6 Location and Spacing of Detection Devices. Spacing 
of detection devices, including automatic sprinklers used as 
detectors, shall be in accordance with their listing and manu- 
facturer's specifications. 

7.3.1.7 Devices for Test Purposes and Testing Apparatus. 

7.3.1.7.1 Where detection devices installed in circuits are lo- 
cated where not readily accessible for testing, an additional 
detection device shall be provided on each circuit for test pur- 
poses at an accessible location and shall be connected to the 
circuit at a point that will assure a proper test of the circuit. 

7.3.1.7.2 Testing apparatus capable of producing the heat 
or impulse necessary to operate any normal detection de- 
vice shall be furnished to the owner of the property with 
each installation. 

7.3.1.7.3 Where explosive vapors or materials are present, 
hot water, steam, or other methods of testing not involving an 
ignition source shall be used. 

7.3.1.8 Location and Protection of System Water Control 
Valves. 

7.3.1.8.1 System water control valves and supply pipes shall 
be protected against freezing and mechanical injury. 

7.3.1.8.2 Valve Rooms. 

7.3.1.8.2.1 Valve rooms shall be lighted and heated. 



7.3.1.8.2.2 The source of heat shall be of a permanently in- 
stalled type. 

7.3.1.8.2.3 Heat tape shall not be used in lieu of heated valve 
enclosure rooms to protect preaction and deluge valves and 
supply pipe against freezing. 

7.3.2 Preaction Systems. 

7.3.2.1 Preaction systems shall be one of the following types: 

(1 ) A single interlock system, which admits water to sprinkler 
piping upon operation of detection devices 

(2) A non-interlock system, which admits water to sprinkler 
piping upon operation of detection devices or automatic 
sprinklers 

(3) A double interlock system, which admits water to sprin- 
kler piping upon operation of both detection devices and 
automatic sprinklers 

7.3.2.2 Size of Systems. 

7.3.2.2.1 Not more than 1000 automatic sprinklers shall be 
controlled by any one preaction valve. 

7.3.2.2.2 Unless the requirements of 7.3.2.2.3 are met, for 
preaction system types described in 7.3.2.1(3), not more than 
750 gal (2839 L) shall be controlled by one preaction valve. 

7.3.2.2.3 The system volume for preaction system types de- 
scribed in 7.3.2.1(3) shall be permitted to exceed 750 gal 
(2839 L) where the system is designed to deliver water to the 
system test connection in not more than 60 seconds, starting 
at the normal air pressure on the system, with the detection 
system operated and at the time of fully opened inspection test 
connection. Air pressure and supply shall comply with 7.2.6. 

7.3.2.3* Supervision. 

7.3.2.3.1 Sprinkler piping and fire detection devices shall be 
automatically supervised where there are more than 20 sprin- 
klers on the system. 

7.3.2.3.2 All preaction system types described in 7.3.2.1(2) 
and 7.3.2.1 (3) shall maintain a minimum supervising air pres- 
sure of 7 psi (0.5 bar). 

7.3.2.4 Sprinklers. The following types of sprinklers and ar- 
rangements shall be permitted for preaction systems: 

(1) Upright sprinklers 
(2)*Listed dry sprinklers 

(3) Pendent sprinklers and sidewall sprinklers installed on re- 
turn bends, where the sprinklers, return bend, and 
branch line piping are in an area maintained at or above 
40°F (4°C) 

(4) Horizontal sidewall sprinklers, installed so that water is 
not trapped 

7.3.2.5 System Configuration. Preaction systems of the type 
described in 7.3.2.1(3) shall not be gridded. 

7.3.3* Deluge Systems. 

7.3.3.1 The detection devices or systems shall be automati- 
cally supervised. 

7.3.3.2 Deluge systems shall be hydraulically calculated. 
7.4 Combined Dry Pipe and Preaction Systems. 

7.4.1* General. 

7.4.1.1* Combined automatic dry pipe and preaction systems 
shall be so constructed that failure of the detection system 



2002 Edition 



SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS 



13-31 



shall not prevent the system from functioning as a conven- 
tional automatic dry pipe system. 

7.4.1.2 Combined automatic dry pipe and preaction systems 
shall be so constructed that failure of the dry pipe system of 
automatic sprinklers shall not prevent the detection system 
from properly functioning as an automatic fire alarm system. 

7.4.1.3 Provisions shall be made for the manual operation of 
the detection system at locations requiring not more than 
200 ft (61 m) of travel. 

7.4.1.4 Sprinklers. The following types of sprinklers and ar- 
rangements shall be permitted for combined dry pipe and 
preaction systems: 

( 1 ) Upright sprinklers 
(2)*Listed dry sprinklers 

(3) Pendent sprinklers and sidewall sprinklers installed on re- 
turn bends, where both the sprinklers and the return 
bends are located in a heated area 

(4) Horizontal sidewall sprinklers, installed so that water is 
not trapped 

7.4.2 Dry Pipe Valves in Combined Systems. 

7.4.2. 1 Where the system consists of more than 600 sprinklers 
or has more than 275 sprinklers in any fire area, the entire 
system shall be controlled through two 6-in. (152-mm) dry 
pipe valves connected in parallel and shall feed into a com- 
mon feed main. 

7.4.2.2 Where parallel dry pipe valves are required by 7.4.2.1 
these valves shall be checked against each other. (See Figure 
7.4.2.2.) 

7.4.2.3 Each dry pipe valve shall be provided with a listed 
tripping device actuated by the detection system. 

7.4.2.4 Dry pipe valves shall be cross-connected through a 
1-in. (25.4-mm) pipe connection to permit simultaneous trip- 
ping of both dry pipe valves. 

7.4.2.5 The 1-in. (25.4-mm) cross-connection pipe shall be 
equipped with an indicating valve so that either dry pipe valve 
can be shut off and worked on while the other remains in 
service. 

7.4.2.6 The check valves between the dry pipe valves and the 
common feed main shall be equipped with V^-in. (13-mm) by- 
passes so that a loss of air from leakage in the trimmings of a 
dry pipe valve will not cause the valve to trip until the pressure 
in the feed main is reduced to the tripping point. 

7.4.2.7 An indicating valve shall be installed in each of these 
bypasses so that either dry pipe valve can be completely iso- 
lated from the main riser or feed main and from the other dry 
pipe valve. 

7.4.2.8 Each combined dry pipe and preaction system shall 
be provided with listed quick-opening devices at the dry pipe 
valves. 

7.4.3* Exhausters. 

7.4.3.1 One or more listed exhausters of 2-in. (51-mm) or 
larger size controlled by operation of a fire detection system 
shall be installed at the end of the common feed main. 

7.4.3.2 These air exhaust valves shall have soft-seated globe 
or angle valves in their intakes. 



7.4.3.3 Approved strainers shall be installed between the 
globe valves and the air exhaust valves. 

7.4.4 Subdivision of System Using Check Valves. 

7.4.4.1 Where more than 275 sprinklers are required in a 
single fire area, the system shall be divided into sections of 275 
sprinklers or fewer by means of check valves. 

7.4.4.2 Where the system is installed in more than one fire 
area or story, not more than 600 sprinklers shall be supplied 
through any one check valve. 

7.4.4.3 Each section shall have a 1 l A-m. (33-mm) drain on the 
system side of each check valve supplemented by a dry pipe 
system auxiliary drain. 

7.4.4.4 Section drain lines and dry pipe system auxiliary 
drains shall be located in heated areas or inside heated 
cabinets to enclose drain valves and auxiliary drains for 
each section. 

7.4.4.5 Air exhaust valves at the end of a feed main and asso- 
ciated check valves shall be protected against freezing. 

7.4.5 Time Limitation. 

7.4.5.1 The sprinkler system shall be so constructed and the 
number of sprinklers controlled shall be so limited that water 
shall reach the farthest sprinkler within a period of time not 
exceeding 1 minute for each 400 ft (122 m) of common feed 
main from the time the heat-responsive system operates. 

7.4.5.2 The maximum time permitted shall not exceed 3 
minutes. 

7.4.6 System Test Connection. The end section shall have a 
system test connection as required for dry pipe systems. 

7.5 Antifreeze Systems. 

7.5.1 General. 

7.5.1.1 The use of antifreeze solutions shall be in conformity 
with state and local health regulations. 

7.5.1.2 Antifreeze used in ESFR systems shall be specifically 
listed for ESFR applications. 

7.5.2* Antifreeze Solutions. 

7.5.2.1 Where sprinkler systems are supplied by potable wa- 
ter connections, the use of antifreeze solutions other than wa- 
ter solutions of pure glycerine (C.P. or U.S. P. 96.5 percent 
grade) or propylene glycol shall not be permitted. 

7.5.2.2 Glycerine-water and propylene glycol-water mixtures 
shown in Table 7.5.2.2 shall be considered suitable for use. 

7.5.2.3 If potable water is not connected to sprinklers, the 
commercially available materials indicated in Table 7.5.2.3 
shall be permitted for use in antifreeze solutions. 

7.5.2.4* An antifreeze solution shall be prepared with a freez- 
ing point below the expected minimum temperature for the 
locality. 

7.5.2.5 The specific gravity of the prepared solution shall be 
checked by a hydrometer, in accordance with Figure 
7.5.2.5(a), Figure 7.5.2.5(b), and Figure 7.5.2.5(c), with suit- 
able scale or a refractometer having a scale calibrated for the 
antifreeze solution involved. 



2002 Edition 



13-32 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Tubing or wiring to fire detection system 




FIGURE 7.4.2.2 Header for Dry Pipe Valves Installed in Parallel for Combined Systems; 
Standard Trimmings Not Shown. Arrows Indicate Direction of Fluid Flow. 



2002 Edition 



SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS 



13-33 



Table 7.5.2.2 Antifreeze Solutions to Be Used if Potable 
Water Is Connected to Sprinklers 



Material 



Solution 
(by volume) 



Specific Freezing 
Gravity Point 
at60°F 

(15.6°C) °F °C 



Glycerine 50% water 

C.P. or U.S.P. 40% water 

grade* 

30% water 
Hydrometer scale 1.000 to 1.200 



1.145 -20.9 -29.4 
1.171 -47.3 -44.1 

1.197 -22.2 -30.1 



Propylene glycol 70% water 
60% water 
50% water 
40% water 

Hydrometer scale 1.000 to 1.200 



1.027 +9 -12.8 

1.034 -6 -21.1 

1.041 -26 -32.2 

1.045 -60 -51.1 
(subdivisions 0.002) 



*C.P. — chemically 
96.5%. 



pure; U.S.P. — United States Pharmacopoeia 



Table 7.5.2.3 Antifreeze Solution to Be Used if Nonpotable 
Water Is Connected to Sprinklers 



Material 



Solution 
(by volume) 



Specific 
Gravity 
at 60°F 

(15.6°C) 



Freezing 
Point 



Glycerine 

Diethylene 
glycol 



See Table 7.5.2.2. 

50% water 1.078 -13 -25.0 



45% water 1.081 -27 -32.8 

40% water 1.086 -42 -41.1 

Hydrometer scale 1.000 to 1.120 (subdivisions 0.002) 



Ethylene glycol 


61% water 


1.056 


-10 


-23.3 




56% water 


1.063 


-20 


-28.9 




51% water 


1.069 


-30 


-34.4 




47% water 


1.073 


-40 


-40.0 



Hydrometer scale 1.000 to 1.120 (subdivisions 0.002) 
Propylene glycol See Table 7.5.2.2. 



Temperature (°C) 
-40 -30 -20-10 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 



1.15 
1.14 
1.13 
1.12 
1.11 
1.10 
1.09 
1 1.08 

& 1.07 

'w 

o 1.06 

Q 

1.05 
1.04 
1.03 
1.02 
1.01 
1.00 
0.99 



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= 9.5 

9.4 

9.3 

9.2 

9.1 _ 

15 

9.0 f 

^ 8.9 f 

c 
o 

8.8 a 

8.7 

8.6 

8.5 

8.4 

8.3 



-40 -20 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 
Temperature (°F) 

FIGURE 7.5.2.5 (a) Densities of Aqueous Ethylene Glycol 
Solutions (Percent by Weight). 



Temperature (°C) 
-40 -30 -20-10 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 



1.09 

1.08 

1.07 

I 1.06 

J 1.05 

03 

§ 1.04 
a 
1.03 

1.02 

1.01 

1.00 

0.99 

0.98 





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9.84 
9.50 



9.18 



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9.04 




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8.88 
8.80 
8.70 


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8.63 


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8.50 





-40 -20 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 
Temperature (°F) 

FIGURE 7.5.2.5(b) Densities of Aqueous Propylene Glycol 
Solutions (Percent by Weight). 



2002 Edition 



13-34 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 




-40.00-20.00 0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00 120.00 140.00 160.00 180.00 

Temperature (°F) 

Data Sources: 

1 . Density data for 100% water was taken from Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, Revised Tenth Edition, 
page 1 199. Temperatures have been converted from Celsius to Fahrenheit units, and data points at 10 
degree Fahrenheit multiples have been determined by linear interpolation. Conversion from relative to 
absolute density was achieved by multiplying by 0.999973. 

2. Densities of glycerine-water solutions at 0°C and above were taken from Table III (p. 6) in Glycerol by 
Anthony Armin Newman, C.R.C. Press, 1968. Densities for temperatures below 0°C were taken from 
Table IV. Temperatures have been converted from Celsius to Fahrenheit units, and data points at 10 
degree Fahrenheit multiples have been determined by linear interpolation. 

3. Density data for pure glycerine was taken from Table II (p. 6) in Glycerol by Anthony Armin Newman, 
C.R.C. Press, 1968, and derived from the thermal expansion data in Table 7-9 in Gycerol by Carl S. 
Miner and N.N. Dalton, Reinhold Publishing Corp., 1953 (American Chemical Society Monograph 
Series #117) using the density for 0°C as a base point. Temperatures have been converted from 
Celsius to Fahrenheit units, and data points at 10 degree Fahrenheit multiples have been determined 
by linear interpolation. 

4. Freezing points were taken from the article, "Freezing Points of Glycerol and Its Aqueous Solution" by 
Leonard B. Lane in Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, volume 17 (1925), number 9, page 924. 
Temperatures have been converted from Celsius to Fahrenheit units. 

FIGURE 7.5.2.5(c) Densities of Aqueous Glycerine Solutions (Percent by Weight). 



7.5.3 Arrangement of Supply Piping and Valves. 

7.5.3.1* Where the connection between the antifreeze system 
and the wet pipe system does not incorporate a backflow pre- 
vention device, piping and valves shall be installed as illus- 
trated in Figure 7.5.3.1. 

7.5.3.2* Where the connection between the antifreeze system 
and the wet pipe system incorporates a backflow prevention 
device, piping and valves shall be installed as illustrated in 
Figure 7.5.3.2. 

7.5.3.3 Where the connection between the antifreeze solu- 
tion and the wet pipe system incorporates a backflow preven- 
tion device, a listed expansion chamber of appropriate size 
and precharged air pressure shall be provided to compensate 
for thermal expansion of the antifreeze solution as illustrated 
in Figure 7.5.3.2. 



7.6 Automatic Sprinkler Systems with Non-Fire Protection 
Connections. 

7.6.1 Circulating Closed-Loop Systems. 

7.6.1.1 System Components. 

7.6.1.1.1 A circulating closed-loop system is primarily a sprin- 
kler system and shall comply with all provisions of this stan- 
dard such as those for control valves, area limitations of a sys- 
tem, alarms, fire department connections, sprinkler spacing, 
and so forth except as modified by Section 7.6. 

7.6.1.1.2 Piping, fittings, valves, and pipe hangers shall meet 
the requirements specified in Chapter 6. 

7.6.1.1.3 Unless the requirements of 7.6.1.1.4 are met, a di- 
electric fitting shall be installed in the junction where dissimi- 
lar piping materials are joined (e.g., copper to steel). 



2002 Edition 



SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS 



13-35 



Filling cup 



Water supply 




Drop 

5ft 

(1.5 m) 

minimum 



Check valve 
[ 1 /32-in. (0.8-mm 
hole in clapper] 



Pitch to drain 



Drain valve 



Notes: 

1 . Check valve shall be permitted to be omitted where sprinklers are 
below the level of valve A. 

2. The 1 /32-in. (0.8-mm) hole in the check valve clapper is needed to 
allow for expansion of the solution during a temperature rise, thus 
preventing damage to sprinklers. 

FIGURE 7.5.3.1 Arrangement of Supply Piping and Valves. 



Fill cup or 
filling connection 



Backflow preventer 
with control valves 




Water— , n J 
supply | 



Expansion I 

phamhor ' 

Drain 
valve 



chamber 



Heated area 



Unheated area 



FIGURE 7.5.3.2 
flow Device. 



Arrangement of Supply Piping with Back- 



7.6.1.1.4 Dielectric fittings shall not be required in the junc- 
tion where sprinklers are connected to piping. 

7.6.1.1.5 Other auxiliary devices shall not be required to be 
listed for sprinkler service; however, these devices, such as 
pumps, circulating pumps, heat exchangers, radiators, and lu- 
minaries, shall be pressure rated at 175 psi or 300 psi (12.1 bar 
or 20.7 bar) (rupture pressure of five times rated water system 
working pressure) to match the required rating of sprinkler 
system components. 

7.6.1.1.6 Auxiliary devices shall incorporate materials of con- 
struction and be so constructed that they will maintain their 
physical integrity under fire conditions to avoid impairment to 
the fire protection system. 

7.6.1.1.7 Auxiliary devices, where hung from the building 
structure, shall be supported independently from the sprin- 



kler portion of the system, following recognized engineering 
practices. 

7.6.1.2* Hydraulic Characteristics. Piping systems for attached 
heating and cooling equipment shall have auxiliary pumps or 
an arrangement made to return water to the piping system in 
order to assure the following: 

( 1 ) Water for sprinklers shall not be required to pass through 
heating or cooling equipment. 

(2) At least one direct path shall exist for waterflow from the 
sprinkler water supply to every sprinkler. 

(3) Pipe sizing in the direct path shall be in accordance with 
the design requirements of this standard. 

(4) No portions of the sprinkler piping shall have less than 
the sprinkler system design pressure, regardless of the 
mode of operation of the attached heating or cooling 
equipment. 

(5) There shall be no loss or outflow of water from the system 
due to or resulting from the operation of heating or cool- 
ing equipment. 

(6) Shutoff valves and a means of drainage shall be provided 
on piping to heating or cooling equipment at all points of 
connection to sprinkler piping and shall be installed in 
such a manner as to make possible repair or removal of 
any auxiliary component without impairing the service- 
ability and response to the sprinkler system. 

(7) All auxiliary components, including the strainer, shall be 
installed on the auxiliary equipment side of the shutoff 
valves. 

7.6.1.3 Water Temperature. 

7.6.1.3.1 Maximum. 

7.6.1.3.1.1 In no case shall maximum water temperature 
flowing through the sprinkler portion of the system exceed 
120°F (49°C). 

7.6.1.3.1.2 Protective control devices listed for this purpose 
shall be installed to shut down heating or cooling systems 
when the temperature of water flowing through the sprinkler 
portion of the system exceeds 120°F (49°C). 

7.6.1.3.1.3 Where the water temperature exceeds 100°F 
(37.8°C), intermediate or higher temperature-rated sprin- 
klers shall be used. 

7.6.1.3.2 Minimum. Precautions shall be taken to ensure that 
temperatures below 40°F (4 C C) are not permitted. 

7.6.1.4 Obstruction to Discharge. Automatic sprinklers shall 
not be obstructed by auxiliary devices, piping, insulation, and 
so forth, from detecting fire or from proper distribution of 
water. 

7.6.1.5 Signs. Caution signs shall be attached to all valves 
controlling sprinklers. The caution sign shall be worded as 
follows: 

This valve controls fire protection equipment. Do not 

close until after fire has been extinguished. Use 

auxiliary valves when necessary to shut off supply to 

auxiliary equipment. 

CAUTION: Automatic alarm will be sounded if this valve is 
closed. 

7.6.1.6 Water Additives. 

7.6.1.6.1 Materials added to water shall not adversely affect 
the fire-fighting properties of the water and shall be in confor- 
mity with any state or local health regulations. 



2002 Edition 



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INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



7.6.1.6.2 Due care and caution shall be given to the use of 
additives that can remove or suspend scale from older piping 
systems. 

7.6.1.6.3 Where additives are necessary for proper system op- 
eration, due care shall be taken to ensure that additives are 
replenished after alarm testing or whenever water is removed 
from the system. 

7.6.1.7 Waterflow Detection. 

7.6.1.7.1 The supply of water from sprinkler piping through 
auxiliary devices, circulatory piping, and pumps shall not un- 
der any condition or operation, transient or static, cause false 
sprinkler waterflow signals. 

7.6.1.7.2 A sprinkler waterflow signal shall not be impaired 
when water is discharged through an opened sprinkler or 
through the system test connection while auxiliary equipment 
is in any mode of operation (on, off, transient, stable). 

7.7 Outside Sprinklers for Protection Against Exposure Fires. 

7.7.1 Applications. Exposure protection systems shall be per- 
mitted on buildings regardless of whether the building's inte- 
rior is protected by a sprinkler system. 

7.7.2 Water Supply and Control. 

7.7.2.1* Unless the requirements of 7.7.2.2 are met, sprinklers 
installed for protection against exposure fires shall be sup- 
plied from a standard water supply as outlined in Chapter 15. 

7.7.2.2 Where approved, other supplies, such as manual 
valves or pumps or fire department connections, shall be per- 
mitted to supply water to sprinklers for exposure protection. 

7.7.2.3 Where fire department connections are used for wa- 
ter supply, they shall be so located that they will not be affected 
by the exposing fire. 

7.7.3 Control. 

7.7.3.1 Each system of outside sprinklers shall have an inde- 
pendent control valve. 

7.7.3.2 Manually controlled open sprinklers shall be used 
only where constant supervision is present. 

7.7.3.3 Sprinklers shall be of the open or automatic type. 
Automatic sprinklers in areas subject to freezing shall be on 
dry pipe systems conforming to Section 7.2 or antifreeze sys- 
tems conforming to Section 7.5. 

7.7.3.4 Automatic systems of open sprinklers shall be con- 
trolled by the operation of fire detection devices designed for 
the specific application. 

7.7.4 System Components. 

7.7.4.1 Drain Valves. Each system of outside sprinklers shall 
have a separate drain valve installed on the system side of each 
control valve, except where an open sprinkler, top-fed system 
is arranged to facilitate drainage. 

7.7.4.2 Check Valves. 

7.7.4.2.1 Where sprinklers are installed on two adjacent sides 
of a building, protecting against two separate and distinct ex- 
posures, with separate control valves for each side, the end 
lines shall be connected with check valves located so that one 
sprinkler around the corner will operate [see Figure 7. 7.4.2.1(a) 
and Figure 7.7.4.2.1(b)]. 




^ Check 
valve 



Pitch pipe 
to drain 
at the 
sprinklers 



System A ^ 

Check valve 

FIGURE 7.7.4.2. 1 (a) Typical Arrangement of Check Valves. 



System B 




System A 



FIGURE 7.7.4.2.1(b) Alternate Arrangement of Check 
Valves. 

7.7.4.2.2 The intermediate pipe between the two check valves 
shall be arranged to drain. 

7.7.4.2.3 As an alternate solution, an additional sprinkler 
shall be installed on each system located around the corner 
from the system involved. 

7.7.4.3 System Arrangement. Where one exposure affects two 
sides of the protected structure, the system shall not be subdi- 
vided between the two sides but rather shall be arranged to 
operate as a single system. 

7.7.5 Pipe and Fittings. Pipe and fittings installed on the exte- 
rior of the building shall be corrosion resistant. 

7.7.6 Strainers. A listed strainer shall be provided in the riser 
or feed main that supplies sprinklers having nominal K-factors 
smaller than 2.8 (4.0). 

7.7.7 Gauge Connections. A listed pressure gauge conform- 
ing with 8.16.3 shall be installed immediately below the con- 
trol valve of each system. 

7.7.8 Sprinklers. 

7.7.8.1 Only sprinklers of such type as are listed for win- 
dow, cornice, sidewall, or ridge pole service shall be in- 



2002 Edition 



SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS 



13-37 



stalled for such use, except where adequate coverage by use 
of other types of listed sprinklers and/or nozzles has been 
demonstrated. 

7.7.8.2 Small-orifice or large-orifice sprinklers shall be per- 
mitted. 

7.8* Refrigerated Spaces. 

7.8.1 Spaces Maintained at Temperatures Above 32°F (0°C). 
Where temperatures are maintained above 32°F (0°C) in re- 
frigerated spaces, the requirements in this section shall not 
apply. 

7.8.2* Spaces Maintained at Temperatures Below 32°F (0°C). 

7.8.2.1 General. 

7.8.2.1.1 Where sprinkler pipe passes through a wall or floor 
into the refrigerated space, a section of pipe arranged for re- 
moval shall be provided immediately inside the space. 

7.8.2.1.2 The removable length of pipe required in 7.8.2.1.1 
shall be a minimum of 30 in. (762 mm). 

7.8.2.2 Low Air Pressure Alarm. 

7.8.2.2-1 Unless the requirements of 7.8.2.2.2 are met, a low 
air pressure alarm to a constantly attended location shall be 
installed. 

7.8.2.2.2 Systems equipped with local low pressure alarms 
and an automatic air maintenance device shall not be re- 
quired to alarm to a constantly attended location. 

7.8.2.3 Piping Pitch. Piping in refrigerated spaces shall be in- 
stalled with pitch as outlined in 8.15.2.3. 

7.8.2.4* Air or Nitrogen Supply. Air or nitrogen supply for 
systems shall be one of the following: 

(1) Air from the room of lowest temperature to reduce the 
moisture content 

(2) Air compressor/dryer package listed for the application 
utilizing ambient air 

(3) Compressed nitrogen gas from cylinders used in lieu of 
compressed air 

7.8.2.5* Control Valve. An indicating-type control valve for op- 
erational testing of the system shall be provided on each sprin- 
kler riser outside of the refrigerated space. 

7.8.2.6* Check Valve. 

7.8.2.6.1 Unless the requirements of 7.8.2.6.2 are met, a 
check valve with a %2-in. (2.4-mm) diameter hole in the clap- 
per shall be installed in the system riser below the test valve 
required in 7.8.2.5. 

7.8.2.6.2 Check valves shall not be required where dry pipe or 
preaction valves are used and designed to completely drain all 
water above the seat and that are listed for installation without 
priming water remaining and where priming water is not used 
in the system riser. 

7.8.2.7* Air or Nitrogen Supply Piping. 

7.8.2.7.1 The air or nitrogen supply piping entering the 
freezer area shall be as stated in 7.8.2.7.1.1 and 7.8.2.7.1.2. 

7.8.2.7.1.1 Air Supply. The supply piping shall be equipped 
with two easily removable supply lines at least 6 ft (1.9 m) long 
and at least 1 in. (25.4 mm) in diameter as shown in Figure 
7.8.2.7.1.1. 



7.8.2.7.1.2 Nitrogen Supply. The supply piping shall be 
equipped with a single easily removable supply line at least 6 ft 
(1.9 m) long and at least 1 in. (25.4 mm) in diameter. 

7.8.2.7.2 Each supply line shall be equipped with control 
valves located in the warm area. 

7.8.2.7.3 Only one air supply line shall be open to supply the 
system air at any one time. 

7.9 Commercial-Type Cooking Equipment and Ventilation. 

7.9.1 General. In cooking areas protected by automatic sprin- 
klers, additional sprinklers or automatic spray nozzles shall be 
provided to protect commercial-type cooking equipment and 
ventilation systems that are designed to carry away grease- 
laden vapors unless otherwise protected. (See NFPA 96, Stan- 
dard for Ventilation Control and Fire Protection of Commercial Cook- 
ing Operations.) 

7.9.2* Sprinklers and Automatic Spray Nozzles. 

7.9.2.1 Unless the requirements of 7.9.2.2 are met, standard 
sprinklers or automatic spray nozzles shall be so located as to 
provide for the protection of exhaust ducts, hood exhaust 
duct collars, and hood exhaust plenum chambers. 

7.9.2.2 Sprinklers or automatic spray nozzles in ducts, duct 
collars, and plenum chambers shall not be required where all 
cooking equipment is served by listed grease extractors. 

7.9.3 Sprinkler and Automatic Spray Nozzle Location — 
Ducts. 

7.9.3.1 Unless the requirements of 7.9.3.2 or 7.9.3.4 are met, 
exhaust ducts shall have one sprinkler or automatic spray 
nozzle located at the top of each vertical riser and at the mid- 
point of each offset. 

7.9.3.2 Sprinklers or automatic spray nozzles shall not be re- 
quired in a vertical riser located outside of a building, pro- 
vided the riser does not expose combustible material or pro- 
vided the interior of the building and the horizontal distance 
between the hood outlet and the vertical riser is at least 25 ft 
(7.6 m). 

7.9.3.3 Unless the requirements of 7.9.3.4 are met, horizon- 
tal exhaust ducts shall have sprinklers or automatic spray 
nozzle devices located on 10 ft (3 m) centers beginning no 
more than 5 ft (1.5 m) from the duct entrance. 

7.9.3.4 Sprinklers or automatic spray nozzles shall not be re- 
quired where the entire exhaust duct is connected to a listed 
exhaust hood incorporating a specific duct collar and sprin- 
kler (or automatic spray nozzle) assembly that has been inves- 
tigated and been shown to protect an unlimited length of duct 
in accordance with UL 300, Standard for Safety Fire Testing of Fire 
Extinguishing Systems for Protection of Restaurant Cooking Areas. 

7.9.3.5 A sprinkler(s) or an automatic spray nozzle(s) in ex- 
haust ducts subject to freezing shall be properly protected 
against freezing by approved means. (See 8.15.3.1.) 

7.9.4 Sprinkler and Automatic Spray Nozzle Location — Duct 
Collar. 

7.9.4.1 Each hood exhaust duct collar shall have one sprin- 
kler or automatic spray nozzle located 1 in. minimum to 12 in. 
maximum (25.4 mm minimum to 305 mm maximum) above 
the point of duct collar connection in the hood plenum. 



2002 Edition 



13-38 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Heated area 



Two easily removed 
sections of pipe 



Refrigerated space 



Normally open 
control valve 



i — or 




Check valve with 3 /32-in. 
(2.4 mm) hole in clapper 

Dry/preaction valve 



Air pressure 
Air supply source 



©Air pressure 
Water supph 



pply source 



Notes: 

1 . Check valve with %2-in. (2.4-mm) hole in clapper not required if prime 
water not used. 

2. Supply air to be connected to top or side of system pipe. 

3. Each removable air line shall be a minimum of 1 in. (25 mm) diameter 
and a minimum of 6 ft (1 .8 m) long. 

FIGURE 7.8.2.7.1.1 Refrigerator Area Sprinkler System Used to Minimize the Chances 
of Developing Ice Plugs. 



7.9.4.2 Hoods that have listed fire dampers located in the duct 
collar shall be protected with a sprinkler or automatic spray 
nozzle located on the discharge side of the damper and shall be 
so positioned as not to interfere with damper operation. 

7.9.5 Sprinkler and Automatic Spray Nozzle Location — 
Exhaust Plenum Chambers. 

7.9.5.1 Hood exhaust plenum chambers shall have one sprin- 
kler or automatic spray nozzle centered in each chamber not 
exceeding 10 ft (3 m) in length. 

7.9.5.2 Plenum chambers greater than 10 ft (3 m) in length 
shall have two sprinklers or automatic spray nozzles evenly 
spaced, with the maximum distance between the two sprin- 
klers not to exceed 10 ft (3 m). 

7.9.6 Sprinkler and Automatic Spray Nozzle Temperature 
Ratings and Orifice Sizes. 

7.9.6.1 Where the exposed temperature is expected to be 
300°F (149°C) or less, sprinklers, or automatic spray nozzles 
being used in duct, duct collar, and plenum areas shall be of 
the extra high-temperature classification [325 C F to 375°F 
(163°Cto 191°C)]. 

7.9.6.2 When use of a temperature-measuring device indi- 
cates temperatures above 300°F (149°C), a sprinkler or auto- 
matic spray nozzle of higher classification shall be used. 



7.9.6.3 Sprinklers or automatic spray nozzles being used in 
duct, duct collar, and plenum areas shall have orifice with 
K-factors not less than 1.4 and not more than 5.6. 

7.9.7 Sprinkler and Automatic Spray Nozzle. Access shall be 
provided to all sprinklers or automatic spray nozzles for ex- 
amination and replacement. 

7.9.8 Cooking Equipment. 

7.9.8.1 General. Cooking equipment (such as deep fat fryers, 
ranges, griddles, and broilers) that is considered to be a 
source of ignition shall be protected in accordance with the 
provisions of 7.9.1. 

7.9.8.2 Listed Sprinkler and Automatic Spray Nozzles. 

7.9.8.2.1 A sprinkler or automatic spray nozzle used for pro- 
tection of deep fat fryers shall be listed for that application. 

7.9.8.2.2 The position, arrangement, location, and water sup- 
ply for each sprinkler or automatic spray nozzle shall be in 
accordance with its listing. 

7.9.8.3 Fuel and Heat Shut Off. 

7.9.8.3.1 The operation of any cooking equipment sprinkler or 
automatic spray nozzle shall automatically shut off all sources of 
fuel and heat to all equipment requiring protection. 



2002 Edition 



INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS 



13-39 



7.9.8.3.2 Any gas appliance not requiring protection but lo- 
cated under ventilating equipment shall also be shut off. 

7.9.8.3.3 All shutdown devices shall be of the type that re- 
quires manual resetting prior to fuel or power being restored. 

7.9.9 Indicating Valves. A listed indicating valve shall be in- 
stalled in the water supply line to the sprinklers and spray 
nozzles protecting the cooking and ventilating system. 

7.9.10 Strainers. A listed line strainer shall be installed in the 
main water supply preceding sprinklers or automatic spray 
nozzles having nominal K-factors smaller than 2.8 (4.0). 

7.9.11 Test Connection. A system test connection shall be pro- 
vided to verify proper operation of equipment specified in 
7.9.8.3. 

7.9.12 Sprinkler and Automatic Spray Nozzle Replacement. 

7.9.12.1 Unless the requirements of 7.9.12.2 are met, sprin- 
klers and automatic spray nozzles used for protecting 
commercial-type cooking equipment and ventilating systems 
shall be replaced annually. 

7.9.12.2 Where automatic bulb-type sprinklers or spray 
nozzles are used and annual examination shows no buildup of 
grease or other material on the sprinklers or spray nozzles, 
such sprinklers or spray nozzles shall be permitted to be con- 
tinued in use. 



Chapter 8 Installation Requirements 

8.1* Basic Requirements. 

8.1.1* The requirements for spacing, location, and position of 
sprinklers shall be based on the following principles: 

(1) Sprinklers shall be installed throughout the premises. 

(2) Sprinklers shall be located so as not to exceed maximum 
protection area per sprinkler. 

(3) Sprinklers shall be positioned and located so as to provide 
satisfactory performance with respect to activation time 
and distribution. 

(4) Sprinklers shall be permitted to be omitted from areas 
specifically allowed by this standard. 

(5) When sprinklers are specifically tested and test results 
demonstrate that deviations from clearance requirements 
to structural members do not impair the ability of the 
sprinkler to control or suppress a fire, their positioning 
and locating in accordance with the test results shall be 
permitted. 

(6) Clearance between sprinklers and ceilings exceeding the 
maximums specified in this standard shall be permitted 
provided that tests or calculations demonstrate compa- 
rable sensitivity and performance of the sprinklers to 
those installed in conformance with these sections. 

8.1.2* System valves and gauges shall be accessible for opera- 
tion, inspection, tests, and maintenance. 

8.2 System Protection Area Limitations. 

8.2.1 The maximum floor area on any one floor to be pro- 
tected by sprinklers supplied by any one sprinkler system riser 
or combined system riser shall be as follows: 

(1) Light hazard — 52,000 ft 2 (4831 m 2 ) 

(2) Ordinary hazard — 52,000 ft 2 (4831 m 2 ) 



(3) Extra hazard 

(a) Pipe schedule — 25,000 ft 2 (2323 m 2 ) 

(b) Hydraulically calculated — 40,000 ft 2 (3716 m 2 ) 

(4) Storage — High-piled storage (as defined in 3.3.12) and 
storage covered by other NFPA standards — 40,000 ft 2 
(3716 m 2 ) 

8.2.2 The floor area occupied by mezzanines shall not be 
included in the area limits of 8.2.1. 

8.2.3 Where single systems protect extra hazard, high-piled stor- 
age, or storage covered by other NFPA standards, and ordinary or 
light hazard areas, the extra hazard or storage area coverage shall 
not exceed the floor area specified for that hazard and the total 
area coverage shall not exceed 52,000 ft 2 (4831 m 2 ). 

8.3 Use of Sprinklers. 

8.3.1 General. 

8.3.1.1* Sprinklers shall be installed in accordance with their 
listing. 

8.3.1.2 The requirements of 8.3.1.1 shall not apply where 
construction features or other special situations require un- 
usual water distribution, and listed sprinklers shall be permit- 
ted to be installed in positions other than anticipated by their 
listing to achieve specific results. 

8.3.1.3* Upright sprinklers shall be installed with the frame 
arms parallel to the branch line, unless specifically listed for 
other orientation. 

8.3.1.4 Where solvent cement is used as the pipe and fittings 
bonding agent, sprinklers shall not be installed in the fittings 
prior to the fittings being cemented in place. 

8.3.2 Temperature Ratings. 

8.3.2.1* Unless the requirements of 8.3.2.2. 8.3.2.3, 8.3.2.4, or 

8.3.2.5 are met, ordinary temperature-rated sprinklers shall 
be used throughout buildings. 

8.3.2.2 Where maximum ceiling temperatures exceed 100°F 
(38°C), sprinklers with temperature ratings in accordance 
with the maximum ceiling temperatures of Table 6.2.5.1 shall 
be used. 

8.3.2.3 Intermediate- and high-temperature sprinklers shall 
be permitted to be used throughout ordinary and extra haz- 
ard occupancies and as allowed in this standard and other 
NFPA codes and standards. 

8.3.2.4 Sprinklers of intermediate- and high-temperature 
classifications shall be installed in specific locations as re- 
quired by 8.3.2.5. 

8.3.2.5 The following practices shall be observed to provide 
sprinklers of other than ordinary-temperature classification 
unless other temperatures are determined or unless high- 
temperature sprinklers are used throughout and temperature 
selection shall be in accordance with Table 8.3.2.5(a), Table 
8.3.2.5(b), and Figure 8.3.2.5: 

(1) Sprinklers in the high-temperature zone shall be of the 
high-temperature classification, and sprinklers in the 
intermediate-temperature zone shall be of the intermediate- 
temperature classification. 



2002 Edition 



13-40 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



(2) Sprinklers located within 12 in. (305 mm) to one side or 
30 in. (762 mm) above an uncovered steam main, heating 
coil, or radiator shall be of the intermediate-temperature 
classification. 

(3) Sprinklers within 7 ft (2.1 m) of a low-pressure blowoff 
valve that discharges free in a large room shall be of the 
high-temperature classification. 

(4) Sprinklers under glass or plastic skylights exposed to the 
direct rays of the sun shall be of the intermediate- 
temperature classification. 

(5) Sprinklers in an unventilated, concealed space, under an 
uninsulated roof, or in an unventilated attic shall be of 
the intermediate-temperature classification. 

(6) Sprinklers in unventilated show windows having high- 
powered electric lights near the ceiling shall be of the 
intermediate-temperature classification. 

(7) Sprinklers protecting commercial-type cooking equip- 
ment and ventilation systems shall be of the high- or extra 
high-temperature classification as determined by use of a 
temperature-measuring device. (See 7.9.6.) 

(8) Sprinklers protecting residential areas installed near spe- 
cific heat sources identified in Table 8.3.2.5(c) shall be 
installed in accordance with Table 8.3.2.5(c). 

8.3.2.6 In case of occupancy change involving temperature 
change, the sprinklers shall be changed accordingly. 

8.3.2.7* The minimum temperature rating of ceiling sprin- 
klers in general storage, rack storage, rubber tire storage, roll 
paper storage, and baled cotton storage applications shall be 
150°F(66°C). 



B= 0.5774 xA 
C= 1.1547 xA 




SI units: 1 in. = 25.4 mm; 1 ft = 0.31 m. 

FIGURE 8.3.2.5 High-Temperature and Intermediate- 
Temperature Zones at Unit Heaters. 



Table 8.3.2.5(a) Temperature Ratings of Sprinklers Based on Distance from Heat Sources 



Type of Heat Condition 



Ordinary Degree Rating 



Intermediate Degree Rating 



High Degree Rating 



(1) Heating ducts 

(a) Above 

(b) Side and below 

(c) Diffuser 



(2) Unit heater 

(a) Horizontal discharge 



(b) Vertical downward 
discharge (for sprinklers below 
unit heater, see Figure 8.3.2.5) 



(3) Steam mains (uncovered) 

(a) Above 

(b) Side and below 

(c) Blowoff valve 



More than 2 ft 6 in. 
More than 1 ft in. 
Any distance except as shown 

under Intermediate Degree 

Rating column 



More than 2 ft 6 in. 
More than 1 ft in. 
More than 7 ft in. 



2 ft 6 in. or less 

1 ft in. or less 

Downward discharge: Cylinder with 
1 ft in. radius from edge 
extending 1 ft in. below and 2 ft 
6 in. above 

Horizontal discharge: Semicylinder 
with 2 ft 6 in. radius in direction 
of flow extending 1 ft in. below 
and 2 ft 6 in. above 

Discharge side: 7 ft in. to 20 ft in. 

radius pie-shaped cylinder (see 

Figure 8.3.2.5) extending 7 ft in. 

above and 2 ft in. below heater; 

also 7 ft in. radius cylinder more 

than 7 ft in. above unit heater 
7 ft in. radius cylinder extending 

upward from an elevation 7 ft in. 

above unit heater 



2 ft 6 in. or less 
1 ft in. or less 



7 ft in. radius cylinder 
extending 7 ft in. 
above and 2 ft in. 
below unit heater 



7 ft in. radius cylinder 
extending from the top 
of the unit heater to an 
elevation 7 ft in. above 
unit heater 



7 ft in. or less 



For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm; 1 ft = 0.3048 m. 



2002 Edition 



INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS 



13-41 



Table 8.3.2.5(b) Ratings of Sprinklers in Specified Locations 



Location 



Ordinary Degree 
Rating 



Intermediate Degree 
Rating 



High Degree 
Rating 



Skylights 

Attics 

Peaked roof: metal or thin boards, 
concealed or not concealed, 
insulated or uninsulated 

Flat roof: metal, not concealed 



Flat roof: metal, concealed, insulated 

or uninsulated 
Show windows 



Ventilated 
Ventilated 



Ventilated or unventilated 



Ventilated 



Ventilated 



Glass or plastic 

Unventilated 

Unventilated 



Note: For uninsulated roof, 
climate and insulated or 
uninsulated occupancy can 
necessitate intermediate 
sprinklers. Check on job. 

Unventilated 

Unventilated 



Note: A check of job condition by means of thermometers might be necessary. 



Table 8.3.2.5(c) Ratings of Sprinklers in Specified Residential Areas 





Minimum Distance from 


Minimum Distance from 




Edg 


e of Source to 


Edge of Source to 




Ordinary-Temperature 


Intermediate-Temperature 






Sprinkler 




Sprinkler 




Heat Source 


in. 


mm 


in. 




mm 


Side of open or recessed 


36 


914 


12 




305 


fireplace 












Front of recessed fireplace 


60 


1524 


36 




914 


Coal- or wood-burning stove 


42 


1067 


12 




305 


Kitchen range 


18 


457 


9 




229 


Wall oven 


18 


457 


9 




229 


Hot air flues 


18 


457 


9 




229 


Uninsulated heat ducts 


18 


457 


9 




229 


Uninsulated hot water pipes 


12 


305 


6 




152 


Side of ceiling- or wall-mounted 


24 


607 


12 




305 


hot air diffusers 












Front of wall-mounted hot air 


36 


914 


18 




457 


diffusers 












Hot water heater or furnace 


6 


152 


3 




76 


Light fixture: 


6 


152 


3 




76 


W-250 W 












250 W-499 W 


12 


305 


6 




152 



8.3.3 Thermal Sensitivity. 

8.3.3.1* Sprinklers in light hazard occupancies shall be one of 
the following: 

(1) Quick-response type as defined in 3.6.2.9 

(2) Residential sprinklers in accordance with the require- 
ments of 8.4.5 

(3) Standard response sprinklers used for modifications or 
additions to existing light hazard systems equipped with 
standard response sprinklers 

(4) Standard response sprinklers used where individual stan- 
dard response sprinklers are replaced in existing light 
hazard systems 



8.3.3.2 Where quick-response sprinklers are installed, all 
sprinklers within a compartment shall be of the quick- 
response type. 

8.3.3.3 Where circumstances require the use of other than 
ordinary temperature-rated sprinklers, standard response 
sprinklers shall be permitted to be used. 

8.3.3.4 When existing light hazard systems are converted to 
use quick-response or residential sprinklers, all sprinklers in a 
compartmented space shall be changed. 

8.3.4 Small Orifice Sprinklers. 

8.3.4.1 For light hazard occupancies not requiring as much 
water as is discharged by a sprinkler with a nominal K-factor of 



2002 Edition 



13-42 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



5.6 operating at 7 psi (0.5 bar), sprinklers having a smaller 
orifice shall be permitted subject to the following restrictions: 

( 1 ) The system shall be hydraulically calculated. 

(2) Sprinklers with K-factors of less than 5.6 shall be installed 
only in wet pipe sprinkler systems or in accordance with 
the limitations of 8.3.4.2. 

(3) A listed strainer shall be provided on the supply side of 
sprinklers with nominal K-factors of less than 2.8. 

8.3.4.2 Sprinklers with K-factors of less than 5.6 shall be per- 
mitted to be installed in conformance with 11.2.3.7 for protec- 
tion against exposure fires. 

8.3.5 Thread Size Limitations. Sprinklers having a K-factor ex- 
ceeding 5.6 and having Vt-in. (13-mm) National Pipe Thread 
(NPT) shall not be installed in new sprinkler systems. 

8.4* Application of Sprinkler Types. Sprinklers shall be se- 
lected for use as indicated in this section and shall be posi- 
tioned and spaced as described in Section 8.5. 

8.4.1 Standard Upright and Pendent Spray Sprinklers. 

8.4. 1 . 1 Upright and pendent spray sprinklers shall be permit- 
ted in all occupancy hazard classifications and building con- 
struction types. 

8.4.1.2 Quick-response sprinklers shall not be permitted for 
use in extra hazard occupancies under the density-area design 
method. 

8.4.2 Sidewall Spray Sprinklers. Sidewall sprinklers shall only 
be installed as follows: 

(1) Light hazard occupancies with smooth, horizontal or 
sloped, flat ceilings 

(2) Ordinary hazard occupancies with smooth, flat ceilings 
where specifically listed for such use 

(3) To protect areas below overhead doors 

8.4.3 Extended Coverage Sprinklers. Extended coverage 
sprinklers shall only be installed as follows: 

(1) Unobstructed construction consisting of flat, smooth 
ceilings with a slope not exceeding a pitch of one in six 
(a rise of two units in a run of 12 units, a roof slope of 
16.7 percent) 

(2) Unobstructed or noncombustible obstructed construc- 
tion, where specifically listed for such use 

(3) Within trusses or bar joists having web members not 
greater than 1 in. (25.4 mm) maximum dimension or 
where trusses are spaced greater than V/z ft (2.3 m) on 
center and where the ceiling slope does not exceed a 
pitch of one in six (a rise of two units in a run of 12 units, 
a roof slope of 16.7 percent) 

(4) Under smooth, flat ceilings that have slopes not exceed- 
ing a pitch of one in three (a rise of four units in a run of 
12 units, a roof slope of 33.3 percent), where specifically 
listed for such use 

8.4.4 Open Sprinklers. 

8.4.4.1 Open sprinklers shall be permitted to be used in del- 
uge systems to protect special hazards or exposures or in other 
special locations. 

8.4.4.2 Open sprinklers shall be installed in accordance with 
all applicable requirements of this standard for their auto- 
matic counterpart. 



8.4.5 Residential Sprinklers. 

8.4.5.1* Residential sprinklers shall be permitted in dwelling 
units and their adjoining corridors provided they are installed 
in conformance with their listing. 

8.4.5.2 Residential sprinklers shall be used only in wet sys- 
tems unless specifically listed for use in dry systems or preac- 
tion systems. 

8.4.5.3 Where residential sprinklers are installed in a com- 
partment as defined in 3.3.6, all sprinklers within the compart- 
ment shall be of the fast-response type that meets the criteria 
of 3.6.1(a)(1). 

8.4.6 Early Suppression Fast-Response (ESFR) Sprinklers. 

8.4.6.1 ESFR sprinklers shall be used only in wet pipe systems 
unless specifically listed for use in dry systems where specifi- 
cally listed for such service. 

8.4.6.2 ESFR sprinklers shall be installed only in buildings 
where roof or ceiling slope above the sprinklers does not ex- 
ceed a pitch of two in 1 2 (a rise of two units in a run of 1 2 units, 
a roof slope of 16.7 percent). 

8.4.6.3* ESFR sprinklers shall be permitted for use in build- 
ings with unobstructed or obstructed construction. Where 
depths of the solid structural members (beams, stem, etc.) 
exceed 12 in., ESFR sprinklers shall be installed in each chan- 
nel formed by the solid structural members. Minimum sprin- 
kler spacing and area of coverage shall comply with the re- 
quirements of 8.12.2 and 8.12.3. 

8.4.6.4 Draft Curtains. 

8.4.6.4.1 Where ESFR sprinkler systems are installed adjacent 
to sprinkler systems with standard response sprinklers, a draft 
curtain of noncombustible construction and at least 2 ft 
(0.6 m) in depth shall be required to separate the two areas. 

8.4.6.4.2 A clear aisle of at least 4 ft (1.2 m) centered below 
the draft curtain shall be maintained for separation. 

8.4.6.5 Temperature Ratings. Sprinkler temperature ratings 
for ESFR sprinklers shall be ordinary unless 8.3.2 requires 
intermediate- or high-temperature ratings. 

8.4.7 Large Drop Sprinklers. 

8.4.7.1 Large drop sprinklers shall be permitted to be used in 
wet, dry, or preaction systems. 

8.4.7.2* Galvanized Pipe. 

8.4.7.2.1 Where steel pipe is used in preaction and dry pipe 
systems, piping materials shall be limited to internally galva- 
nized steel. 

8.4.7.2.2 Nongalvanized fittings shall be permitted. 

8.4.7.3 Temperature Ratings. 

8.4.7.3.1 Unless the requirements of 8.4.7.3.2, 8.4.7.3.3, or 
8.4.7.3.4 are met, sprinkler temperature ratings shall be the 
same as those indicated in Table 8.3.2.5(a) and Table 
8.3.2.5(b) or those used in large-scale fire testing to determine 
the protection requirements for the hazard involved. 

8.4.7.3.2 Sprinklers of intermediate- and high-temperature 
ratings shall be installed in specific locations as required by 

8.3.2. 



2002 Edition 



INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS 



13-43 



8.4.7.3.3 In storage occupancies, ordinary, intermediate, or 
high temperature-rated sprinklers shall be used for wet pipe 
systems. 

8.4.7.3.4 In storage occupancies, high temperature-rated 
sprinklers shall be used for dry pipe systems. 

8.4.8 QRES. (Reserved) 

8.4.9 Special Sprinklers. 

8.4.9.1* Special sprinklers that are intended for the protec- 
tion of specific hazards or construction features shall be per- 
mitted where such devices have been evaluated and listed for 
performance under the following conditions: 

(1) Fire tests related to the intended hazard 

(2) Distribution of the spray pattern with respect to wetting of 
floors and walls 

(3) Distribution of the spray pattern with respect to obstructions 

(4) Evaluation of the thermal sensitivity of the sprinkler 

(5) Performance under horizontal or sloped ceilings 

(6) Area of design 

8.4.9.2 Special sprinklers shall maintain the following 
characteristics: 

(1) Orifice size shall be in accordance with 6.2.3. 

(2) Temperature ratings shall be in accordance with Table 
6.2.5.1. 

(3) The protection area of coverage shall not exceed 400 ft 2 (36 
m 2 ) for light hazard and ordinary hazard occupancies. 

(4) The protection area of coverage shall not exceed 196 ft 2 (17 
m 2 ) for extra hazard and high-piled storage occupancies. 

8.5 Position, Location, Spacing, and Use of Sprinklers. 

8.5.1 General. 

8.5.1.1 Sprinklers shall be located, spaced, and positioned in 
accordance with the requirements of Section 8.5. 

8.5.1.2 Sprinklers shall be positioned to provide protection 
of the area consistent with the overall objectives of this stan- 
dard by controlling the positioning and allowable area of cov- 
erage for each sprinkler. 

8.5.1.3 The requirements of 8.5.2 through 8.5.7 shall apply to 
all sprinkler types unless modified by more restrictive rules in 
Sections 8.6 through 8.12. 

8.5.2 Protection Areas per Sprinkler. 

8.5.2. 1 Determination of the Protection Area of Coverage. 

8.5.2.1.1 The protection area of coverage per sprinkler (A s ) 
shall be determined as follows: 

(1) Along branch lines as follows: 

(a) Determine distance between sprinklers (or to wall or 
obstruction in the case of the end sprinkler on the 
branch line) upstream and downstream. 

(b) Choose the larger of either twice the distance to the 
wall or the distance to the next sprinkler. 

(c) This dimension will be defined as S. 

(2) Between branch lines as follows: 

(a) Determine perpendicular distance to the sprinkler 
on the adjacent branch line (or to a wall or obstruc- 
tion in the case of the last branch line) on each side 
of the branch line on which the subject sprinkler is 
positioned. 



(b) Choose the larger of either twice the distance to the wall 
or obstruction or the distance to the next sprinkler. 

(c) This dimension will be defined as L. 

8.5.2.1.2 The protection area of coverage of the sprinkler 
shall be established by multiplying the 5 dimension by the L 
dimension, as follows: A s = Sx. L 

8.5.2.2 Maximum Protection Area of Coverage. 

8.5.2.2.1 The maximum allowable protection area of cover- 
age for a sprinkler (A s ) shall be in accordance with the value 
indicated in the section for each type or style of sprinkler. 

8.5.2.2.2 The maximum area of coverage of any sprinkler 
shall not exceed 400 ft 2 (36 m 2 ). 

8.5.3 Sprinkler Spacing. 

8.5.3.1 Maximum Distance Between Sprinklers. 

8.5.3.1.1 The maximum distance permitted between sprin- 
klers shall be based on the centerline distance between sprin- 
klers on the branch line or on adjacent branch lines. 

8.5.3.1.2 The maximum distance shall be measured along 
the slope of the ceiling. 

8.5.3.1.3 The maximum distance permitted between sprin- 
klers shall comply with the value indicated in the applicable 
section for each type or style of sprinkler. 

8.5.3.2 Maximum Distance from Walls. 

8.5.3.2.1 The distance from sprinklers to walls shall not ex- 
ceed one-half of the allowable maximum distance between 
sprinklers. 

8.5.3.2.2 The distance from the wall to the sprinkler shall be 
measured perpendicular to the wall. 

8.5.3.3 Minimum Distance from Walls. 

8.5.3.3.1 The minimum distance permitted between a sprin- 
kler and the wall shall comply with the value indicated in the 
applicable section for each type or style of sprinkler. 

8.5.3.3.2 The distance from the wall to the sprinkler shall be 
measured perpendicular to the wall. 

8.5.3.4 Minimum Distance Between Sprinklers. 

8.5.3.4.1 A minimum distance shall be maintained between 
sprinklers to prevent operating sprinklers from wetting adja- 
cent sprinklers and to prevent skipping of sprinklers. 

8.5.3.4.2 The minimum distance permitted between sprin- 
klers shall comply with the value indicated in the applicable 
section for each type or style of sprinkler. 

8.5.4 Deflector Position. 

8.5.4.1* Distance Below Ceilings. The distances between the 
sprinkler deflector and the ceiling above shall be selected 
based on the type of sprinkler and the type of construction. 

8.5.4.2 Deflector Orientation. Deflectors of sprinklers shall 
be aligned parallel to ceilings, roofs, or the incline of stairs. 

8.5.5 Obstructions to Sprinkler Discharge. 

8.5.5.1* Performance Objective. Sprinklers shall be located so 
as to minimize obstructions to discharge as defined in 8.5.5.2 
and 8.5.5.3, or additional sprinklers shall be provided to en- 
sure adequate coverage of the hazard. (See Figure A.8. 5. 5.1.) 



2002 Edition 



13-44 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



8.5.5.2* Obstructions to Sprinkler Discharge Pattern Develop- 
ment. 

8.5.5.2.1 Continuous or noncontinuous obstructions less 
than or equal to 18 in. (457 mm) below the sprinkler deflector 
that prevent the pattern from fully developing shall comply 
with 8.5.5.2. 

8.5.5.2.2 Sprinklers shall be positioned in accordance with 
the minimum distances and special requirements of Sections 
8.6 through 8.12 so that they are located sufficiently away from 
obstructions such as truss webs and chords, pipes, columns, 
and fixtures. 

8.5.5.3* Obstructions that Prevent Sprinkler Discharge from 
Reaching the Hazard. Continuous or noncontinuous obstruc- 
tions that interrupt the water discharge in a horizontal plane 
more than 18 in. (457 mm) below the sprinkler deflector in a 
manner to limit the distribution from reaching the protected 
hazard shall comply with 8.5.5.3. 

8.5.5.3.1 Sprinklers shall be installed under fixed obstruc- 
tions over 4 ft (1.2 m) wide such as ducts, decks, open grate 
flooring, cutting tables, and overhead doors. 

8.5.5.3.2 Sprinklers shall not be required under obstructions 
that are not fixed in place such as conference tables. 

8.5.5.3.3 Sprinklers installed under open gratings shall be of 
the intermediate level/rack storage type or otherwise shielded 
from the discharge of overhead sprinklers. 

8.5.6* Clearance to Storage. 

8.5.6.1 Unless the requirements of 8.5.6.2, 8.5.6.3, 8.5.6.4, or 
8.5.6.5 are met, the clearance between the deflector and the 
top of storage shall be 18 in. (457 mm) or greater. 

8.5.6.2 Where other standards specify greater clearance to 
storage minimums, they shall be followed. 

8.5.6.3 A minimum clearance to storage of 36 in. (0.91 m) 
shall be permitted for special sprinklers. 

8.5.6.4 A minimum clearance to storage of less than 18 in. 
(457 mm) between the top of storage and ceiling sprinkler 
deflectors shall be permitted where proven by successful large- 
scale fire tests for the particular hazard. 

8.5.6.5 The clearance from the top of storage to sprinkler 
deflectors shall be not less than 3 ft (0.9 m) where rubber tires 
are stored. 

8.5.7 Skylights. Sprinklers shall be permitted to be omitted 
from skylights and similar ceiling pockets not exceeding 32 ft 2 
(3 m 2 ) in area, regardless of hazard classification, that are 
separated by at least 10 ft (3 m) horizontally from any other 
skylight or unprotected ceiling pocket. 

8.6 Standard Pendent and Upright Spray Sprinklers. 

8.6.1 General. All requirements of Section 8.5 shall apply to 
standard pendent and upright spray sprinklers except as 
modified in Section 8.6. 

8.6.2 Protection Areas per Sprinkler (Standard Pendent and 
Upright Spray Sprinklers). 

8.6.2.1 Determination of the Protection Area of Coverage. 

8.6.2.1.1 Except as permitted by 8.6.2.1.2, the protection 
area of coverage per sprinkler (A s ) shall be determined in 
accordance with 8.5.2.1. 



8.6.2.1.2 The requirements of 8.6.2.1.1 shall not apply in a 
small room as defined in 3.3.20; the protection area of cover- 
age for each sprinkler in the small room shall be the area of 
the room divided by the number of sprinklers in the room. 

8.6.2.2 Maximum Protection Area of Coverage. 

8.6.2.2.1* The maximum allowable protection area of cover- 
age for a sprinkler (A s ) shall be in accordance with the value 
indicated in Table 8.6.2.2.1(a) through Table 8.6.2.2.1(d). 

8.6.2.2.2 In any case, the maximum area of coverage of a 
sprinkler shall not exceed 225 ft 2 (21 m 2 ). 

8.6.3 Sprinkler Spacing (Standard Pendent and Upright Spray 
Sprinklers). 

8.6.3.1 Maximum Distance Between Sprinklers. The maxi- 
mum distance permitted between sprinklers shall comply with 
Table 8.6.2.2.1(a) through Table 8.6.2.2.1(d). 

8.6.3.2 Maximum Distance from Walls. 

8.6.3.2.1 The distance from sprinklers to walls shall not ex- 
ceed one-half of the allowable distance between sprinklers as 
indicated in Table 8.6.2.2.1 (a) through Table 8.6.2.2.1 (d) . 

8.6.3.2.2 The distance from the wall to the sprinkler shall be 
measured perpendicular to the wall. 

8.6.3.2.3* The requirements of 8.6.3.2.1 shall not apply where 
walls are angled or irregular, and the maximum horizontal 
distance between a sprinkler and any point of floor area pro- 
tected by that sprinkler shall not exceed 0.75 times the allow- 
able distance permitted between sprinklers, provided the 
maximum perpendicular distance is not exceeded. 

8.6.3.2.4* The requirements of 8.6.3.2.1 shall not apply within 
small rooms as defined in 3.3.20, sprinklers shall be permitted 
to be located not more than 9 ft (2.7 m) from any single wall, 
and sprinkler spacing limitations of 8.6.3 and area limitations 
of Table 8.6.2.2.1(a) shall not be exceeded. 

8.6.3.2.5 Under curved surfaces, the horizontal distance shall 
be measured at the floor level from the wall, or the intersec- 
tion of the curved surface and the floor to the nearest sprin- 
kler shall not be greater than one-half the allowable distance 
between sprinklers. 

8.6.3.3 Minimum Distances from Walls. Sprinklers shall be lo- 
cated a minimum of 4 in. (102 mm) from a wall. 

8.6.3.4 Minimum Distances Between Sprinklers. 

8.6.3.4.1 Unless the requirements of 8.6.3.4.2, 8.6.3.4.3, or 
8.6.3.4.4 are met, sprinklers shall be spaced not less than 6 ft 
(1.8 m) on center. 

8.6.3.4.2 Sprinklers shall be permitted to be placed less than 6 ft 
(1.8 m) on center where the following conditions are satisfied: 

( 1 ) Baffles shall be installed and located midway between sprin- 
klers and arranged to protect the actuating elements. 

(2) Baffles shall be of noncombustible or limited-combustible 
material that will stay in place before and during sprinkler 
operation. 

(3) Baffles shall be not less than 8 in. (203 mm) wide and 6 in. 
(152 mm) high. 

(4) The tops of baffles shall extend between 2 in. and 3 in. 
(51 mm and 76 mm) above the deflectors of upright 
sprinklers. 

(5) The bottoms of baffles shall extend downward to a level at 
least even with the deflectors of pendent sprinklers. 



2002 Edition 



INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS 



13-45 



Table 8.6.2.2.1 (a) Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing (Standard Spray Upright/Standard Spray Pendent) for Light Hazard 



Protection Area 



Construction Type 



System Type 



ft 2 



Spacing (maximum) 



ft 



Noncombustible obstructed and 
unobstructed and combustible 
unobstructed with members 
3 ft or more on center 

Noncombustible obstructed and 
unobstructed and combustible 
unobstructed with members 
3 ft or more on center 

Combustible obstructed with 
members 3 ft or more on 
center 

Combustible obstructed or 
unobstructed with members 
less than 3 ft on center 

Unoccupied attics having 

combustible wood joist or wood 
truss construction with 
members less than 3 ft on 
center with slopes having a 
pitch of 4 in 12 or greater 



Pipe schedule 



Hydraulically 
calculated 



All 



All 



All 



200 



225 



168 



130 



120 



18.6 



20.9 



15.6 



12.1 



11.1 



15 



15 



15 



15 



8*xl5 
(minimum 7 psi) 

10*xl2 
(minimum 20 psi) 



4.6 



4.6 



4.6 



4.6 



2.4* x 4.6 

(minimum 

0.48 bar) 

3* x 3.7 

(minimum 

1.34 bar) 



| *The smaller dimension shall be measured perpendicular to the slope. 



Table 8.6.2.2.1(b) Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing 
(Standard Spray Upright/Standard Spray Pendent) for 
Ordinary Hazard 



Table 8.6.2.2.1(c) Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing 
(Standard Spray Upright/Standard Spray Pendent) for Extra 
Hazard 



Construction 
Type 


System 
Type 


Protection 
Area 


Spacing 
(maximum) 


Construction 
Type 


System 
Type 


Protection 
Area 


Spacing 
(maximum) 


ft 2 m 2 


ft m 


ft 2 m 2 


ft m 


All 


All 


130 12.1 


15 4.6 


All 


Pipe 


90 8.4 


12 3.7 



8.6.3.4.3 In-rack sprinklers shall be permitted to be placed 
less than 6 ft (1.8 m) on center. 

8.6.3.4.4 Old-style sprinklers protecting fur storage vaults 
shall be permitted to be placed less than 6 ft (1.8 m) on center. 

8.6.4 Deflector Position (Standard Pendent and Upright 
Spray Sprinklers). 

8.6.4.1 Distance Below Ceilings. 

8.6.4.1.1 Unobstructed Construction. 

8.6.4.1.1.1 Under unobstructed construction, the distance 
between the sprinkler deflector and the ceiling shall be a mini- 
mum of 1 in. (25.4 mm) and a maximum of 12 in. (305 mm) 
throughout the area of coverage of the sprinkler. 

8.6.4.1.1.2 The requirements of 8.6.4.1.1.1 shall not apply 
where ceiling-type sprinklers (concealed, recessed, and flush 
types) have the operating element above the ceiling and the 
deflector located nearer to the ceiling where installed in ac- 
cordance with their listing. 



All 



All 



[In buildings with 
storage bays 25 ft 
(7.6 m) wide, 12 ft 
6 in. (3.8 m) shall 
be permitted] 



Hydraulically 

calculated 

with density 

>0.25 



100 9.3 



12 



3.7 



[In buildings with 
storage bays 25 ft 
(7.6 m) wide, 12 ft 
6 in. (3.8 m) shall 
be permitted] 



Hydraulically 

calculated 

with density 

<0.25 



130 12.1 



15 



4.6 



2002 Edition 



13-46 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Table 8.6.2.2.1(d) Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing 
(Standard Spray Upright/Standard Spray Pendent) for 
High-Piled Storage 



Construction 
Type 


System Type 


Protection 
Area 


Spacing 
(maximum) 


ft 2 


m 2 


ft m 


All 


Hydraulically 

calculated 

with density 

>0.25 


100 


9.3 


12 3.7 

[In buildings 

with storage 

bays 25 ft (7.6 

m) wide, 12 ft 

6 in. (3.8 m) 

shall be 

permitted] 



All 



Hydraulically 

calculated 

with density 

<0.25 



130 12.1 



15 



4.6 



8.6.4.1.1.3 The requirements of 8.6.4.1.1.1 shall not apply for 
light and ordinary hazard occupancies with ceilings of non- 
combustible or limited combustible construction. Where 
there is a vertical change in ceiling elevation within the area of 
coverage of the sprinkler creating a distance of more than 
36 in. between the upper ceiling and the sprinkler deflector, a 
vertical plane extending down from the ceiling at the change 
in elevation shall be considered a wall for the purpose of sprin- 
kler spacing. Where the distance between the upper ceiling 
and the sprinkler deflector is less than or equal to 36 in., the 
sprinklers shall be permitted to be spaced as though the ceil- 
ing was flat provided the obstruction rules and ceiling pocket 
rules are observed. (See Figure 8.6.4.1.1.3.) 

8.6.4.1.2 Obstructed Construction. Under obstructed con- 
struction, the sprinkler deflector shall be located in accor- 
dance with one of the following arrangements: 



(1) 



(2) 



(3) 



(4) 



Installed with the deflectors within the horizontal planes 
of 1 in. to 6 in. (25.4 mm to 152 mm) below the structural 
members and a maximum distance of 22 in. (559 mm) 
below the ceiling/ roof deck 

Installed with the deflectors at or above the bottom of the 
structural member to a maximum of 22 in. (559 mm) 
below the ceiling/roof deck where the sprinkler is in- 
stalled in conformance with 8.6.5.1.2 
Installed in each bay of obstructed construction, with the 
deflectors located a minimum of 1 in. (25.4 mm) and a 
maximum of 12 in. (305 mm) below the ceiling 
Installed with the deflectors within the horizontal 
planes 1 in. to 6 in. below composite wood joists to a 
maximum distance of 22 in. below the ceiling/roof 
deck only where joist channels are fire-stopped to the 
full depth of the joists with material equivalent to the 
web construction so that individual channel areas do 
not exceed 300 ft 2 (27.9 m 2 ) 
(5) installed with deflectors of sprinklers under concrete tee 
construction with stems spaced less than IV2 ft (2.3 m) but 
more than 3 ft (0.9 m) on centers, regardless of the depth 
of the tee, located at or above a horizontal plane 1 in. 
(25.4 mm) below the bottom of the stems of the tees and 
shall comply with Table 8.6.5.1.2 



sr 



TT 



■r 



x< 36 in. (0.91 m) 
s = Maximum allowable distance 
between sprinklers 

Maximum , 

y 2 s *A 



IT 



Maximum 

— y 2 s — h 



Vertical plane treated as wall 
for sprinkler spacing 



x> 36 in. (0.91 m) 
s = Maximum allowable distance 
between sprinklers 

FIGURE 8.6.4. 1.1.3 Vertical Changes in Ceiling Elevations. 



8.6.4.1.3 Peaked Roofs and Ceilings. 

8.6.4.1.3.1 Unless the requirements of 8.6.4.1.3.2 or 
8.6.4.1.3.3 are met, sprinklers under or near the peak of a 
roof or ceiling shall have deflectors located not more than 
3 ft (0.9 m) vertically down from the peak as indicated in 
Figure 8.6.4.1.3.1(a) and Figure 8.6.4.1.3.1(b). 

8.6.4.1.3.2* Under saw-toothed roofs, sprinklers at the highest 
elevation shall not exceed a distance of 3 ft (0.9 m) measured 
down the slope from the peak. 

8.6.4.1.3.3 Under a steeply pitched surface, the distance 
from the peak to the deflectors shall be permitted to be in- 
creased to maintain a horizontal clearance of not less than 2 ft 
(0.6 m) from other structural members as indicated in Figure 
8.6.4.1.3.3. 

8.6.4.1.4 Sprinklers Under a Roof or Ceiling in Combustible 
Concealed Spaces of Wood Joist or Wood Truss Construction 
with Members 3 ft or Less on Center and a Slope Having a 
Pitch of Four in 1 2 or Greater. ( See Figure 8. 6.4.1.4.) 

8.6.4.1.4.1 Sprinklers under a roof or ceiling in combustible 
concealed spaces of wood joist or wood truss construction with 
members 3 ft or less on center and a slope having a pitch of 
four in 12 or greater shall be quick response. 



2002 Edition 



INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS 



13-47 




"fcr h-s-4*-s-H 
-o o o 



-o 



-o- 



T 



Peak line 
-O O 



■O- 



-O- 



-O- 



-O 



-O- 



-o 



-o 



i 



-o- 



Measured on slope 



I 



FIGURE 8.6.4. 1 .3. 1 (a) Sprinklers Under Pitched Roofs with 
Sprinkler Directly Under Peak; Branch Lines Run Up the 
Slope. 



,^-J^V 



3 ft (0.9 m) 
maximum 




^ k>— o o o 



A 



-o— o- 



Peak line 
-O O 



■O— O 



-O 



•o-j-°~° ] 



O- 



<H^^K> 



o- 



-o- 



-o— o- 



Measured on slope 






1 



FIGURE 8.6.4. 1 .3. 1 (b) Sprinklers at Pitched Roofs; Branch 
Lines Run Up the Slope. 



8.6.4.1.4.2 Sprinklers under a roof or ceiling in combustible 
concealed spaces of wood joist or wood truss construction with 
members 3 ft or less on center and a slope having a pitch of 
four in 12 or greater shall be installed so that a row of sprin- 
klers is installed within 12 in. horizontally of the peak. 

8.6.4.1.4.3 Sprinklers under a roof or ceiling in combustible 
concealed spaces of woodjoist or wood truss construction with 




FIGURE 8.6.4.1.3.3 Horizontal Clearance for Sprinklers at 
Peak of Pitched Roof. 



members 3 ft or less on center and a slope having a pitch of 
four in 12 or greater shall be installed so that the sprinklers 
installed along the eave are located not less than 6 ft from the 
outer line of the concealed space. 

8.6.4.1.4.4 Nominal K-4.2 orifice sprinklers shall be permit- 
ted for use at the 20 psi minimum pressure option for wet pipe 
systems and dry pipe systems where piping is corrosion resis- 
tant or internally galvanized. 

8.6.4.1.5 Double Joist Obstructions. 

8.6.4.1.5.1 Unless the requirements of 8.6.4.1.5.2 are met, 
where there are two sets of joists under a roof or ceiling, and 
there is no flooring over the lower set, sprinklers shall be installed 
above and below the lower set of joists where there is a clearance 
of 6 in. (152 mm) or more between the top of the lower joist and 
the bottom of the upper joist as indicated in Figure 8.6.4.1.5.1. 

8.6.4.1.5.2 Sprinklers shall be permitted to be omitted from 
below the lower set of joists where at least 18 in. (0.46 m) is main- 
tained between the sprinkler deflector and the top of the lower 
joist. 

8.6.4.2* Deflector Orientation. 

8.6.4.2.1 Unless the requirements of 8.6.4.2.2, 8.6.4.2.3, or 
8.6.4.2.4 are met, deflectors of sprinklers shall be aligned par- 
allel to ceilings, roofs, or the incline of stairs. 

8.6.4.2.2 Where sprinklers are installed in the peak below a 
sloped ceiling or roof surface, the sprinkler shall be installed 
with the deflector horizontal. 

8.6.4.2.3 Pitched roofs having slopes less than 2 in. per foot 
(16.7 percent) are considered level in the application of 
8.6.4.2, and sprinklers shall be permitted to be installed with 
deflectors horizontal. 

8.6.4.2.4 Pitched roofs having slopes not exceeding a pitch of 
one in six (a rise of two units in a run of 12 units, a roof slope 
of 16.7 percent) are considered level in the application of this 
rule, and sprinklers shall be permitted to be installed with 
deflectors horizontal. 

8.6.5 Obstructions to Sprinkler Discharge (Standard Pendent 
and Upright Spray Sprinklers). 

8.6.5.1 Performance Objective. 

8.6.5.1.1 Sprinklers shall be located so as to minimize ob- 
structions to discharge as defined in 8.6.5.2 and 8.6.5.3, or 
additional sprinklers shall be provided to ensure adequate 
coverage of the hazard. 



2002 Edition 



13-48 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Additional sprinklers spaced 
along slope as required 



Subsection 8.6.4.1.4.3 
6 ft minimum 



Row of sprinklers required 
within this area (8.6.4.1.4.2) 

Additional sprinklers spaced 
along slope as needed 




Roof or ceiling 
combustible 
concealed space 



Ceiling to space below 



FIGURE 8.6.4.1.4 Sprinklers Under a Roof or Ceiling in Combustible Concealed Spaces of 
Wood Joist or Wood Truss Construction with Members 3 ft or Less on Center and a Slope Having 
a Pitch of Four in 12 or Greater. 



6 in. (152 mm) — . 



Open joists 




V- 



* 



Less than 6 in. 

~ (152 mm) ~ 

below only 



n nfn n n n 



\Z7 



i 



No ceiling 
or flooring 



FIGURE 8.6.4.1.5.1 Arrangement of Sprinklers Under Two 
Sets of Open Joists — No Sheathing on Lower Joists. 



8.6.5.1.2 Sprinklers shall be arranged to comply with one of 
the following arrangements: 

(1) Subsection 8.5.5.2, Table 8.6.5.1.2, and Figure 
8.6.5.1.2(a). 

(2) Sprinklers shall be permitted to be spaced on opposite 
sides of obstructions not exceeding 4 ft (1.2 m) in width 
provided the distance from the centerline of the obstruc- 
tion to the sprinklers does not exceed one-half the allow- 
able distance permitted between sprinklers. 

(3) Obstructions located against the wall and that are not 
over 30 in. (762 mm) in width shall be permitted to be 
protected in accordance with Figure 8.6.5.1.2(b). 

8.6.5.2 Obstructions to Sprinkler Discharge Pattern Develop- 
ment. 

8.6.5.2.1 General. 

8.6.5.2.1.1 Continuous or noncontinuous obstructions less 
than or equal to 18 in. (457 mm) below the sprinkler deflector 
that prevent the pattern from fully developing shall comply 
with 8.6.5.2. 



Table 8.6.5.1.2 Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid 
Obstructions to Discharge (SSU/SSP) 





Maximum Allowable 




Distance of 




Deflector above 


Distance from Sprinklers to 


Bottom of 


Side of Obstruction (A) 


Obstruction (in.) (B) 


Less than 1 ft 





1 ft to less than 1 ft 6 in. 


2¥t 


1 ft 6 in. to less than 2 ft 


VA 


2 ft to less than 2 ft 6 in. 


51/2 


2 ft 6 in. to less than 3 ft 


IVl 


3 ft to less than 3 ft 6 in. 


9V2 


3 ft 6 in. to less than 4 ft 


12 


4 ft to less than 4 ft 6 in. 


14 


4 ft 6 in. to less than 5 ft 


I6V2 


5 ft and greater 


18 



For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm; 1 ft = 0.3048 m. 
Note: For (A) and (B), refer to Figure 8.6.5.1.2(a). 



8.6.5.2.1.2 Regardless of the rules of 8.6.5.2, solid continuous 
obstructions shall meet the applicable requirements of 
8.6.5.1.2. 

8.6.5.2.1.3* Unless the requirements of 8.6.5.2.1.4 through 
8.6.5.2.1.10 are met, sprinklers shall be positioned away from 
obstructions a minimum distance of three times the maxi- 
mum dimension of the obstruction (e.g., structural members, 
pipe, columns, and fixtures). The maximum clear distance 
required shall be 24 in. (609 mm) in accordance with Figure 
8.6.5.2.1.3. 

8.6.5.2.1.4* For light and ordinary hazard occupancies, struc- 
tural members only shall be considered when applying the 
requirements of 8.6.5.2.1.3. 



2002 Edition 



INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS 



13-49 



Ceiling 




Elevation View 

FIGURE 8.6.5.1.2(a) Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid Ob- 
structions to Discharge (SSU/SSP). 




Y 



Ceiling 



4>(D-8in.) + B[>4>(D-0.2m) + e] 
D< 30 in. (0.8 m) 

Elevation View 
FIGURE 8.6.5.1.2(b) Obstructions Against Walls (SSU/SSP). 



8.6.5.2.1.5 Sprinklers shall be permitted to be spaced on op- 
posite sides of the obstruction where the distance from the 
centerline of the obstruction to the sprinklers does not exceed 
one-half the allowable distance between sprinklers. 

8.6.5.2.1.6 Sprinklers shall be permitted to be located one- 
half the distance between the obstructions where the obstruc- 
tion consists of open trusses 20 in. (0.51 m) or greater apart 
[24 in. (0.61 m) on center], provided that all truss members 
are not greater than 4 in. (102 mm) (nominal) in width. 

8.6.5.2.1.7 Sprinklers shall be permitted to be installed on 
the centerline of a truss or bar joist or directly above a beam 
provided that the truss chord or beam dimension is not more 
than 8 in. (203 mm) and the sprinkler deflector is located at 
least 6 in. (152 mm) above the structural member and where 
the sprinkler is positioned at a distance three times greater 



than the maximum dimension of the web members away from 
the web members. 

8.6.5.2.1.8 The requirements of 8.6.5.2.1.3 shall not apply to 
the piping to which an upright sprinkler is directly attached 
less than 3 in. (76 mm) in diameter. 

8.6.5.2.1.9 The requirements of 8.6.5.2.1.3 shall not apply to 
the piping to which pendent sprinklers are directly attached. 

8.6.5.2.1.10 The requirements of 8.6.5.2.1.3 shall not apply 
to sprinklers positioned with respect to obstructions in accor- 
dance with 8.6.5.1.2. 

8.6.5.2.2* Suspended or Floor-Mounted Vertical Obstruc- 
tions. The distance from sprinklers to privacy curtains, free 
standing partitions, room dividers, and similar obstructions in 
light hazard occupancies shall be in accordance with Table 
8.6.5.2.2 and Figure 8.6.5.2.2. 

8.6.5.3* Obstructions that Prevent Sprinkler Discharge from 
Reaching the Hazard. 

8.6.5.3.1 Continuous or noncontinuous obstructions that in- 
terrupt the water discharge in a horizontal plane more than 
18 in. (457 mm) below the sprinkler deflector in a manner to 
limit the distribution from reaching the protected hazard 
shall comply with 8.6.5.3. 

8.6.5.3.2 The requirements of 8.6.5.3 shall also apply to ob- 
structions 18 in. or less below the sprinkler for light and ordi- 
nary hazard occupancies. 

8.6.5.3.3 Sprinklers shall be installed under fixed obstruc- 
tions over 4 ft (1.2 m) wide such as ducts, decks, open grate 
flooring, cutting tables, and overhead doors. 

8.6.5.3.4 Sprinklers shall not be required below obstructions 
that are not fixed in place, such as conference tables. 

8.6.5.3.5 Sprinklers installed under open gratings shall be of 
the intermediate level/rack storage type or otherwise shielded 
from the discharge of overhead sprinklers. 

8.6.6* Clearance to Storage (Standard Pendent and Upright 
Spray Sprinklers). 

8.6.6.1 The clearance between the deflector and the top of 
storage shall be 18 in. (457 mm) or greater. 

8.6.6.2 Where other standards specify greater clearance to 
storage minimums, they shall be followed. 

8.6.7 Ceiling Pockets. 

8.6.7.1 Sprinklers shall be required in all ceiling pockets. 

8.6.7.2 The requirements of 8.6.7.1 shall not apply where all 
of the following are met: 

(1) The total volume of the unprotected ceiling pocket does 
not exceed 1000 ft 3 . 

(2) The depth of the unprotected pocket does not exceed 36 in. 

(3) The entire floor under the unprotected ceiling pocket is 
protected by the sprinklers at the lower ceiling elevation. 

(4) Each unprotected ceiling pocket is separated from any 
adjacent unprotected ceiling pocket by a minimum 10 ft 
horizontal distance. 

(5) The unprotected ceiling pocket is constructed of non- 
combustible or limited combustible construction. 

(6) Skylights not exceeding 32 ft 2 shall be permitted to have a 
plastic cover. 

(7) Quick response sprinklers are utilized throughout the 
compartment. 



2002 Edition 



13-50 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 




Sprinkler 



V 



Ceiling 



Open web steel 
or wood truss 



Plan View of Column 



Elevation View of Truss 



A>3Cor3D 

A< 24 in. (0.61 m) 

(Use dimension C or D, whichever is greater) 

FIGURE 8.6.5.2.1.3 Minimum Distance from Obstruction (SSU/SSP). 



Table 8.6.5.2.2 Suspended or Floor-Mounted Obstructions 
in Light Hazard Occupancies Only (SSU/SSP) 



Horizontal Distance (A) 



6 in. or less 

More than 6 in. to 9 in. 
More than 9 in. to 12 in. 
More than 12 in. to 15 in. 
More than 15 in. to 18 in. 
More than 18 in to 24 in. 
More than 24 in. to 30 in. 
More than 30 in. 



Minimum Vertical 

Distance below 
Deflector (in.) (B) 



3 

4 

6 

8 

9V* 

12V 2 

15V2 

18 



For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm. 

Note: For (A) and (B), refer to Figure 8.6.5.2.2. 



sz 



Ceiling or roof 



Floor 



FIGURE 8.6.5.2.2 Suspended or Floor-Mounted Obstruc- 
tions in Light Hazard Occupancies Only (SSU/SSP). 



8.7 Sidewall Standard Spray Sprinklers. 

8.7.1 General. All requirements of Section 8.5 shall apply to 
sidewall standard spray sprinklers except as modified in Sec- 
tion 8.7. 

8.7.2 Protection Areas per Sprinkler (Standard Sidewall Spray 
Sprinklers). 

8.7.2.1 Determination of the Protection Area of Coverage. 

8.7.2.1.1 The protection area of coverage per sprinkler (A 4 .) 
shall be determined as follows: 

(1) Along the wall as follows: 

(a) Determine the distance between sprinklers along the 
wall (or to the end wall or obstruction in the case of 
the end sprinkler on the branch line) upstream and 
downstream. 

(b) Choose the larger of either twice the distance to the 
end wall or the distance to the next sprinkler. 

(c) This dimension will be defined as 5. 



(2) Across the room as follows: 

(a) Determine the distance from the sprinkler to the wall 
opposite the sprinklers or to the midpoint of the 
room where sprinklers are installed on two opposite 
walls (see 8. 7.3.1.5 and 8. 7.3. 1.6). 

(b) This dimension will be defined as L. 

8.7.2.1.2 The protection area of the sprinkler shall be estab- 
lished by multiplying the 5 dimension by the L dimension, as 
follows: A s = S x L 

8.7.2.2 Maximum Protection Area of Coverage. 

8.7.2.2.1 The maximum allowable protection area of cover- 
age for a sprinkler (A s ) shall be in accordance with the value 
indicated in Table 8.7.2.2.1. 

8.7.2.2.2 In any case, the maximum area of coverage of a 
sprinkler shall not exceed 196 ft 2 (18.2 m 2 ). 



2002 Edition 



INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS 



13-51 



Table 8.7.2.2.1 Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing (Standard Sidewall Spray Sprinkler) 





Light 


Hazard 


Ordinary Hazard 




Combustible 
Finish 


Noncombustible 
or 
Limited- 
Combustible 
Finish 


Combustible 
Finish 


Noncombustible 
or 
Limited- 
Combustible 
Finish 


Maximum distance 
along the wall (S) 

Maximum room width 
(L) 

Maximum protection 
area 


14 ft 

12 ft 

120 ft 2 


14 ft 

14 ft 

196 ft 2 


10 ft 
10 ft 
80 ft 2 


10 ft 

10 ft 

100 ft 2 



For SI units, 1 ft = 0.3048 m; 1 ft 2 = 0.0929 m 2 . 

8.7.3 Sprinkler Spacing (Standard Sidewall Spray Sprinklers). 

8.7.3.1 Maximum Distance Between Sprinklers. 

8.7.3.1.1 The maximum distance permitted between sidewall 
spray sprinklers shall be based on the centerline distance be- 
tween sprinklers on the branch line. 

8.7.3.1.2 The maximum distance between sidewall spray sprin- 
klers or to a wall shall be measured along the slope of the ceiling. 

8.7.3.1.3 Where sidewall spray sprinklers are installed along 
the length of a single wall of rooms or bays, they shall be 
spaced in accordance with the maximum spacing provisions of 
Table 8.7.2.2.1. 

8.7.3.1.4 Sidewall spray sprinklers shall not be installed back-to- 
back without being separated by a continuous lintel or soffit. 

8.7.3.1.5 Where sidewall spray sprinklers are installed on two 
opposite walls or sides of bays, the maximum width of the 
room or bay shall be permitted to be up to 24 ft (7.32 m) for 
light hazard occupancy or 20 ft (6.1 m) for ordinary hazard 
occupancy, with spacing as required by Table 8.7.2.2.1. 

8.7.3.1.6 Sidewall spray sprinklers shall be permitted to be 
installed on opposing or adjacent walls provided no sprinkler 
is located within the maximum protection area of another 
sprinkler. 

8.7.3.2 Maximum Distance from Walls. The distance from 
sprinklers to the end walls shall not exceed one-half of the 
allowable distance permitted between sprinklers as indicated 
in Table 8.7.2.2.1. 

8.7.3.3 Minimum Distance from Walls. 

8.7.3.3.1 Sprinklers shall be located a minimum of 4 in. 
(102 mm) from an end wall. 

8.7.3.3.2 The distance from the wall to the sprinkler shall be 
measured perpendicular to the wall. 

8.7.3.4 Minimum Distance Between Sprinklers. Sprinklers 
shall be spaced not less than 6 ft (1.8 m) on center. 

8.7.4 Deflector Position from Ceilings and Walls (Standard 
Sidewall Spray Sprinklers). 

8.7.4.1 Distance Below Ceilings and from Walls. 

8.7.4.1.1 Ceilings. 

8.7.4.1.1.1 Unless the requirements of 8.7.4.1.1.2 are met, 
sidewall sprinkler deflectors shall be located not more than 
6 in. (152 mm) or less than 4 in. (102 mm) from ceilings. 



8.7.4.1.1.2 Horizontal sidewall sprinklers shall be permitted 
to be located in a zone 6 in. to 12 in. (152 mm to 305 mm) or 
12 in. to 18 in. (305 mm to 457 mm) below noncombustible 
and limited-combustible ceilings where listed for such use. 

8.7.4.1.2 Walls. 

8.7.4.1.2.1 Vertical sidewall sprinkler deflectors shall be lo- 
cated not more than 6 in. (152 mm) or less than 4 in. 
(102 mm) from the wall they are projecting from. 

8.7.4.1.2.2 Horizontal sidewall sprinkler deflectors shall be 
located no more than 6 in. (152 mm) and are permitted to be 
located with their deflectors less than 4 in. (102 mm) from the 
wall on which they are mounted. 

8.7.4.1.3 Lintels and Soffits. 

8.7.4.1.3.1 Sidewall sprinklers shall only be installed along 
walls, lintels, or soffits where the distance from the ceiling to 
the bottom of the lintel or soffit is at least 2 in. (51 mm) 
greater than the distances from the ceiling to sidewall sprin- 
kler deflectors. 

8.7.4.1.3.2 Where soffits used for the installation of sidewall 
sprinklers exceed 8 in. (203 mm) in width or projection from the 
wall, additional sprinklers shall be installed below the soffit. 

8.7.4.2 Deflector Orientation. 

8.7.4.2.1 Deflectors of sprinklers shall be aligned parallel to 
ceilings or roofs. 

8.7.4.2.2 Sidewall sprinklers, where installed under a sloped 
ceiling with a slope exceeding 2 in 12, shall be located at the 
high point of the slope and positioned to discharge downward 
along the slope. 

8.7.5 Obstructions to Sprinkler Discharge (Standard Sidewall 
Spray Sprinklers). 

8.7.5.1 Performance Objective. 

8.7.5.1.1 Sprinklers shall be located so as to minimize ob- 
structions to discharge as defined in 8.5.5.2 and 8.5.5.3, or 
additional sprinklers shall be provided to ensure adequate 
coverage of the hazard. 

8.7.5.1.2 Sidewall sprinklers shall be installed no closer than 
4 ft (1.2 m) from light fixtures or similar obstructions. 

8.7.5.1.3 The distance between light fixtures or similar obstruc- 
tions located more than 4 ft ( 1 .2 m) from the sprinkler shall be in 
conformity with Table 8.7.5.1.3 and Figure 8.7.5.1.3. 



2002 Edition 



13-52 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Table 8.7.5.1.3 Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid 
Obstructions (Standard Sidewall Spray Sprinklers) 



Distance from Sidewall Sprinkler 
to Side of Obstruction (A) 



Maximum Allowable 
Distance of Deflector 

above Bottom of 
Obstruction (in.) (B) 



Less than 4 ft 

4 ft to less than 5 ft 

5 ft to less than 5 ft 6 in. 

5 ft 6 in. to less than 6 ft 

6 ft to less than 6 ft 6 in. 

6 ft 6 in. to less than 7 ft 

7 ft to less than 7 ft 6 in. 

7 ft 6 in. to less than 8 ft 

8 ft to less than 8 ft 6 in. 
8 ft 6 in. or greater 



Not allowed 

1 

2 

3 

4 

6 

7 

9 
11 
14 



For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm; 1 ft = 0.3048 m. 
Note: For (A) and (B), refer to Figure 8.7.5.1.3. 



Ceiling or roof 




Obstruction 



Wall 



Elevation View 

FIGURE 8.7.5.1.3 Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid Ob- 
structions (Standard Sidewall Spray Sprinklers). 



Table 8.7.5.1.4 Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid 
Obstructions Along the Wall (Standard Sidewall Spray 
Sprinklers) 



Distance from Sidewall Sprinkler 
to Side of Obstruction (A) 



Maximum Allowable 
Distance of Deflector 

above Bottom of 
Obstruction (in.) (B) 



Less than 6 in. 

6 in. to less than 1 ft 

1 ft to less than 1 ft 6 in. 

1 ft 6 in. to less than 2 ft 

2 ft to less than 2 ft 6 in. 

2 ft 6 in. to less than 3 ft 

3 ft to less than 3 ft 6 in. 

3 ft 6 in. to less than 4 ft 

4 ft to less than 4 ft 6 in. 

4 ft 6 in. to less than 5 ft 

5 ft to less than 5 ft 6 in. 

5 ft 6 in. to less than 6 ft 

6 ft to less than 6 ft 6 in. 

6 ft 6 in. to less than 7 ft 

7 ft to less than 7 ft 6 in. 




Obstruction 



Elevation View 



1 

2 
3 

5 3 /4 

7 

8 

9 J / 4 

10 

IP/2 

12% 
14 
15 

16V4 

17V2 



For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm; 1 ft = 0.3048 m. 
Note: For (A) and (B), refer to Figure 8.7.5.1.4. 



Sidewall 
sprinkler 
on wall 



FIGURE 8.7.5.1.4 Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid Ob- 
structions Along the Wall (Standard Sidewall Spray Sprinklers) . 



8.7.5.1.4 Obstructions projecting from the same wall as the 
one on which the sidewall sprinkler is mounted shall be in 
accordance with Table 8.7.5.1.4 and Figure 8.7.5.1.4. 

8.7.5.2 Obstructions to Sprinkler Discharge Pattern Develop- 
ment. 

8.7.5.2.1 General. 

8.7.5.2.1.1 Continuous or noncontinuous obstructions less 
than or equal to 18 in. (457 mm) below the sprinkler deflector 
that prevent the pattern from fully developing shall comply 
with this section. 

8.7.5.2.1.2 Regardless of the rules of this section, solid con- 
tinuous obstructions shall meet the requirements of 8.7.5.1.2 
and 8.7.5.1.3. 

8.7.5.2.1.3* Unless the requirements of 8.7.5.2.1.4 or 8.7.5.2.1.5 
are met, sprinklers shall be positioned away from obstructions a 



minimum distance of three times the maximum dimension of 
the obstruction (e.g., truss webs and chords, pipe, columns, and 
fixtures). The maximum clear distance required shall be 24 in. 
(609 mm) and shall be positioned in accordance with Figure 

8.7.5.2.1.3 where obstructions are present. 

8.7.5.2.1.4 The requirements of 8.7.5.2.1.3 shall not apply to 
the piping to which sidewall sprinklers are directly attached. 

8.7.5.2.1.5 The requirements of 8.7.5.2.1.3 shall not apply 
where sprinklers are positioned with respect to obstructions in 
accordance with 8.7.5.1.2, 8.7.5.1.3, and 8.7.5.1.4. 

8.7.5.2.2 Suspended or Floor-Mounted Vertical Obstructions. 

The distance from sprinklers to privacy curtains, free-standing 
partitions, room dividers, and similar obstructions in light haz- 
ard occupancies shall be in accordance with Table 8.7.5.2.2 
and Figure 8.7.5.2.2. 



2002 Edition 



INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS 



13-53 




Sprinkler 



Wall 






4 



i 



i 



% 



Plan View of Column 



Ceiling 
Obstruction 


A/ 




/oooa 

D 


Wall 







Elevation View of Pipe Conduit or Light Fixture 



I 



; 



/4>3Cor3D 

>4 < 24 in. (0.61 m) 

(Use dimension C or D, whichever is greater) 
FIGURE 8.7.5.2.1.3 Minimum Distance from Obstruction (Standard Sidewall Spray Sprinkler) 



Table 8.7.5.2.2 Suspended or Floor-Mounted Obstructions 
(Standard Sidewall Spray Sprinklers) 







Minimum Vertical 






Distance below 


Horizontal Distance 


(A) 


Deflector (in.) (B) 


6 in. or less 




3 


More than 6 in. to 9 in. 




4 


More than 9 in. to 12 in. 




6 


More than 12 in. to 15 in. 




8 


More than 15 in. to 18 in. 




9Vfc 


More than 18 in. to 24 in. 




12V2 


More than 24 in. to 30 in. 




15V2 


More than 30 in. 




18 



For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm. 

Note: For (A) and (B), refer to Figure 8.7.5.2.2. 



8.7.5.3* Obstructions that Prevent Sprinkler Discharge from 
Reaching the Hazard. 

8.7.5.3.1 Continuous or noncontinuous obstructions that in- 
terrupt the water discharge in a horizontal plane more than 
18 in. (457 mm) below the sprinkler deflector in a manner to 
limit the distribution from reaching the protected hazard 
shall comply with this section. 

8.7.5.3.2 Sprinklers shall be installed under fixed obstruc- 
tions over 4 ft (1.2 m) wide such as ducts, decks, open grate 
flooring, cutting tables, and overhead doors. 

8.7.5.3.3 Sprinklers shall not be required under obstructions 
that are not fixed in place such as conference tables. 

8.7.6 Clearance to Storage (Standard Sidewall Spray Sprin- 
klers). The clearance between the deflector and the top of 
storage shall be 18 in. (457 mm) or greater. 



h 









■ 



Ceiling 



Obstruction 



Wall 



Floor 



Elevation View 

FIGURE 8.7.5.2.2 Suspended or Floor-Mounted Obstruc- 
tions (Standard Sidewall Spray Sprinklers). 



8.8 Extended Coverage Upright and Pendent Spray Sprinklers. 

8.8.1 General. All requirements of Section 8.5 shall apply to 
extended coverage upright and pendent sprinklers except as 
modified in Section 8.8. 

8.8.2 Protection Areas per Sprinkler (Extended Coverage Up- 
right and Pendent Spray Sprinklers). 

8.8.2.1* Determination of the Protection Area of Coverage. 

8.8.2.1.1 The protection area of coverage (A s ) for extended 
coverage sprinklers shall be not less than that prescribed by 
the listing. 



2002 Edition 



13-54 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



8.8.2.1.2 Listing dimensions shall be even-numbered square 
protection areas as shown in Table 8.8.2.1.2. 

8.8.2.1.3 Determination of the protection area of coverage 
and sprinkler spacing for sprinklers listed for extended cover- 
age extra hazard or high-piled storage shall be permitted to be 
spaced in accordance with the requirements of 8.5.2 and 8.5.3 
and shall not exceed 14 ft (4.3 m) maximum spacing and 
196 ft 2 (18.2 m 2 ) maximum area per sprinkler. 

8.8.2.2 Maximum Protection Area of Coverage. 

8.8.2.2.1 The maximum allowable area of coverage for a 
sprinkler (A s ) shall be in accordance with the value indicated 
in Table 8.8.2.1.2. 

8.8.2.2.2 In any case, the maximum area of coverage of a 
sprinkler shall not exceed 400 ft 2 (37.1 m 2 ). 

8.8.3 Sprinkler Spacing (Extended Coverage Upright and 
Pendent Spray Sprinklers). 

8.8.3.1 Maximum Distance Between Sprinklers. 

8.8.3.1.1 The maximum distance permitted between sprin- 
klers shall be based on the centerline distance between sprin- 
klers on the branch line or on adjacent branch lines. 

8.8.3.1.2 The maximum distance shall be measured along 
the slope of the ceiling. 

8.8.3.1.3 The maximum distance permitted between sprin- 
klers shall comply with Table 8.8.2.1.2. 

8.8.3.2 Maximum Distance from Walls. 

8.8.3.2.1 The distance from sprinklers to walls shall not ex- 
ceed one-half of the allowable distance permitted between 
sprinklers as indicated in Table 8.8.2.1.2. 

8.8.3.2.2 The distance from the wall to the sprinkler shall be 
measured perpendicular to the wall. 

8.8.3.2.3 Where walls are angled or irregular, the maximum 
horizontal distance between a sprinkler and any point of floor 
area protected by that sprinkler shall not exceed 0.75 times 
the allowable distance permitted between sprinklers. 



8.8.3.3 Minimum Distance from Walls. Sprinklers shall be lo- 
cated a minimum of 4 in. (102 mm) from a wall unless listed 
for distances less than 4 in. (102 mm). 

8.8.3.4 Minimum Distance Between Sprinklers. 

8.8.3.4.1 Unless the requirements of 8.8.3.4.2 are met, sprin- 
klers shall be spaced not less than 8 ft (2.4 m) on center. 

8.8.3.4.2 Sprinklers shall be permitted to be placed less 
than 8 ft (2.4 m) on center where the following conditions 
are satisfied: 

(1) Baffles shall be installed and located midway between 
sprinklers and arranged to protect the actuating ele- 
ments. 

(2) Baffles shall be of noncombustible or limited-combustible 
material that will stay in place before and during sprinkler 
operation. 

(3) Baffles shall be not less than 8 in. (203 mm) wide and 6 in. 
(152 mm) high. 

(4) The tops of baffles shall extend between 2 in. and 3 in. 
(51 mm and 76 mm) above the deflectors of upright 
sprinklers. 

(5) The bottoms of baffles shall extend downward to a level at 
least even with the deflectors of pendent sprinklers. 

8.8.4 Deflector Position (Extended Coverage Upright and 
Pendent Spray Sprinklers). 

8.8.4.1 Distance Below Ceilings. 

8.8.4.1.1 Unobstructed Construction. 

8.8.4.1.1.1 Under unobstructed construction, the distance 
between the sprinkler deflector and the ceiling shall be a mini- 
mum of 1 in. (25.4 mm) and a maximum of 12 in. (305 mm) 
throughout the area of coverage of the sprinkler. 

8.8.4.1.1.2 The requirements of 8.8.4.1.1.1 shall not apply 
where ceiling-type sprinklers (concealed, recessed, and flush 
types) have the operating element above the ceiling and the 
deflector located nearer to the ceiling where installed in ac- 
cordance with their listing. 



Table 8.8.2.1.2 Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing (Extended Coverage Upright and Pendent Spray Sprinklers) 





Light Hazard 


Ordinary 


Hazard 


Extra Hazard 


High-Piled 
Protection 


Storage 




Protection 




Protection 




Protection 








Area 


Spacing 


Area 


Spacing 


Area 


Spacing 


Area 


Spacing 


Construction Type 


(ft 2 ) 


(ft) 


(ft 2 ) 


(ft) 


(ft 2 ) 


(ft) 


(ft 2 ) 


(ft) 


Unobstructed 


400 


20 


400 


20 
















324 


18 


324 


18 


— 


— 


— 


— 




256 


16 


256 


16 


— 


— 


— 


— 




— 


— 


196 


14 


196 


14 


196 


14 




— 


— 


144 


12 


144 


12 


144 


12 


Obstructed 


400 


20 


400 


20 


— 


— 





— 


noncombustible (when 


324 


18 


324 


18 


— 


— 


— 


— 


specifically listed for 


256 


16 


256 


16 


— 


— 


— 


— 


such use) 


— 


— 


196 


14 


196 


14 


196 


14 




— 


— 


144 


12 


144 


12 


144 


12 


Obstructed combustible 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 



For SI units, 1 ft = 0.3048 m; 1 ft 2 = 0.0929 m 2 



2002 Edition 



INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS 



13-55 



8.8.4.1.1.3 The requirements of 8.8.4.1.1.1 shall not apply 
where sprinklers are listed for use under other ceiling con- 
struction features or for different distances where they shall be 
permitted to be installed in accordance with their listing. 

8.8.4.1.1.4 The requirements of 8.8.4.1.1.1 shall not apply for 
light and ordinary hazard occupancies with ceilings of non- 
combustible or limited combustible construction. Where 
there is a vertical change in ceiling elevation within the area of 
coverage of the sprinkler creating a distance of more than 
36 in. between the upper ceiling and the sprinkler deflector, a 
vertical plane extending down from the ceiling at the change 
in elevation shall be considered a wall for the purpose of sprin- 
kler spacing. Where the distance between the upper ceiling 
and the sprinkler deflector is less than or equal to 36 in., the 
sprinklers shall be permitted to be spaced as though the ceil- 
ing was flat provided the obstruction rules and ceiling pocket 
rules are observed. (See Figure 8.8.4.1.1.4.) 



Tfi- 



TT 



Tf 



x< 36 in. (0.91 m) 
s = Maximum allowable distance 
between sprinklers 

Maximum , 

y 2 s H 



ST 



Maximum 
— Vzs — 




Vertical plane treated as wall 
for sprinkler spacing 



x> 36 in. (0.91 m) 
s = Maximum allowable distance 
between sprinklers 

FIGURE 8.8.4.1.1.4 Vertical Changes in Ceiling Elevations. 



8.8.4.1.2 Obstructed Construction. Under obstructed con- 
struction, the sprinkler deflector shall be located in accor- 
dance with one of the following arrangements: 

(1) Installed with the deflectors within the horizontal planes 
of 1 in. to 6 in. (25.4 mm to 152 mm) below the structural 
members and a maximum distance of 22 in. (559 mm) 
beJow the ceiling/ roof deck. 



(2) Installed with the deflectors at or above the bottom of the 
structural member to a maximum of 22 in. (559 mm) 
below the ceiling/ roof deck where the sprinkler is in- 
stalled in conformance with 8.8.5.1.2. 

(3) Installed in each bay of obstructed construction, with the 
deflectors located a minimum of 1 in. (25.4 mm) and a 
maximum of 12 in. (305 mm) below the ceiling. 

(4) Where sprinklers are listed for use under other ceiling 
construction features or for different distances, they shall 
be permitted to be installed in accordance with their 
listing. 

8.8.4.1.3* Peaked Roofs and Ceilings. Sprinklers under or near 
the peak of a roof or ceiling shall have deflectors located not 
more than 3 ft (0.9 m) vertically down from the peak in accor- 
dance with Figure 8.6.4.1.3.1(a) and Figure 8.6.4.1.3.1(b). 

8.8.4.2 Deflector Orientation. Deflectors of sprinklers shall 
be aligned parallel to ceilings or roofs. 

8.8.5 Obstructions to Sprinkler Discharge (Extended Cover- 
age Upright and Pendent Spray Sprinklers). 

8.8.5.1 Performance Objective. 

8.8.5.1.1 Sprinklers shall be located so as to minimize ob- 
structions to discharge as defined in 8.8.5.2 and 8.8.5.3, or 
additional sprinklers shall be provided to ensure adequate 
coverage of the hazard. 

8.8.5.1.2 Sprinklers shall be arranged to comply with one of 
the following arrangements: 

(1) Sprinklers shall be in accordance with 8.5.5.2, Table 
8.8.5.1.2, and Figure 8.8.5.1.2(a). 

(2) Sprinklers shall be permitted to be spaced on opposite 
sides of obstructions not exceeding 4 ft (1.2 m) in width 
provided the distance from the centerline of the obstruc- 
tion to the sprinklers does not exceed one-half the allow- 
able distance permitted between sprinklers. 

(3) Obstructions located against the wall and that are not 
over 30 in. (762 mm) in width shall be permitted to be 
protected in accordance with Figure 8.8.5.1.2(b). 

8.8.5.2 Obstructions to Sprinkler Discharge Pattern Devel- 
opment. 

8.8.5.2.1 General. 

8.8.5.2.1.1 Continuous or noncontinuous obstructions less 
than or equal to 18 in. (457 mm) below the sprinkler deflector 
that prevent the pattern from fully developing shall comply 
with 8.8.5.2. 

8.8.5.2.1.2 Regardless of the rules of this section, solid con- 
tinuous obstructions shall meet the applicable requirements 
of 8.8.5.1.2. 

8.8.5.2.1.3* Unless the requirements of 8.8.5.2.1.4 through 
8.8.5.2.1.9 are met, sprinklers shall be positioned away from ob- 
structions a minimum distance of four times the maximum di- 
mension of the obstruction (e.g., truss webs and chords, pipe, 
columns, and fixtures). The maximum clear distance required 
shall be 36 in. (0.91 m) in accordance with Figure 8.8.5.2.1.3. 

8.8.5.2.1.4 Sprinklers shall be permitted to be spaced on op- 
posite sides of the obstruction where the distance from the 
centerline of the obstruction to the sprinklers does not exceed 
one-half the allowable distance between sprinklers. 



2002 Edition 



13-56 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Table 8.8.5.1.2 Position of Sprinklers to Avoid Obstructions 
to Discharge (Extended Coverage Upright and Pendent 
Spray Sprinklers) 



Distance from Sprinklers to 
Side of Obstruction (A) 



Maximum Allowable 
Distance of Deflector 

above Bottom of 
Obstruction (in.) (B) 



Less than 1 ft 

1 ft to less than 1 ft 6 in. 

1 ft 6 in. to less than 2 ft 

2 ft to less than 2 ft 6 in. 

2 ft 6 in. to less than 3 ft 

3 ft to less than 3 ft 6 in. 

3 ft 6 in. to less than 4 ft 

4 ft to less than 4 ft 6 in. 

4 ft 6 in. to less than 5 ft 

5 ft to less than 5 ft 6 in. 

5 ft 6 in. to less than 6 ft 

6 ft to less than 6 ft 6 in. 

6 ft 6 in. to less than 7 ft 

7 ft and greater 





1 
1 
1 
3 
3 
5 
7 
7 
7 
9 
11 
14 



For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm; 1 ft = 0.3048 m. 
Note: For (A) and (B), refer to Figure 8.8.5.1.2(a). 



Ceiling 



\L 




Elevation View 

FIGURE 8.8.5.1.2(a) Position of Sprinklers to Avoid Ob- 
structions to Discharge (Extended Coverage Upright and Pen- 
dent Spray Sprinklers). 



8.8.5.2.1.5 Sprinklers shall be permitted to be located one- 
half the distance between the obstructions where the obstruc- 
tion consists of open trusses 20 in. (0.51 m) or greater apart 
[24 in. (0.61 m) on center], provided that all truss members 
are not greater than 4 in. (102 mm) (nominal) in width and 
web members do not exceed 1 in. (25.4 mm) in width. 

8.8.5.2.1.6 Sprinklers shall be permitted to be installed on the 
centerline of a truss or bar joist or direcdy above a beam provided 
that the truss chord or beam dimension is not more than 8 in. 
(203 mm) and the sprinkler deflector is located at least 6 in. 
(152 mm) above the structural member and where the sprinkler 
is positioned at a distance four times greater than the maximum 
dimension of the web members away from the web members. 




Y 



Ceiling 



A > (D - 8 in.) + B [A > (D- 0.2 m) + B] 
D< 30 in. (0.8 m) 



Elevation View 



FIGURE 8.8.5.1.2(b) Obstructions Against Walls (Extended 
Coverage Upright and Pendent Spray Sprinklers). 



8.8.5.2.1.7 The requirements of 8.8.5.2.1.3 shall not apply to 
the piping to which an upright sprinkler is directly attached 
less than 3 in. (75 mm) in diameter. 

8.8.5.2.1.8 The requirements of 8.8.5.2.1.3 shall not apply to 
the piping to which pendent sprinklers are directly attached. 

8.8.5.2.1.9 The requirements of 8.8.5.2.1.3 shall not apply to 
sprinklers positioned with respect to obstructions in accor- 
dance with 8.8.5.1.2. 

8.8.5.2.2 Suspended or Floor-Mounted Vertical Obstructions. 

The distance from sprinklers to privacy curtains, free-standing 
partitions, room dividers, and similar obstructions in light haz- 
ard occupancies shall be in accordance with Table 8.8.5.2.2 
and Figure 8.8.5.2.2. 

8.8.5.3* Obstructions that Prevent Sprinkler Discharge from 
Reaching the Hazard. 

8.8.5.3.1 Continuous or noncontinuous obstructions that in- 
terrupt the water discharge in a horizontal plane more than 
18 in. (457 mm) below the sprinkler deflector in a manner to 
limit the distribution from reaching the protected hazard 
shall comply with 8.8.5.3. 

8.8.5.3.2 Sprinklers shall be installed under fixed obstruc- 
tions over 4 ft (1.2 m) wide such as ducts, decks, open grate 
flooring, cutting tables, and overhead doors. 

8.8.5.3.3 Sprinklers shall not be required under obstructions 
that are not fixed in place such as conference tables. 

8.8.5.3.4 Sprinklers installed under open gratings shall be of 
the intermediate level/rack storage type or otherwise shielded 
from the discharge of overhead sprinklers. 

8.8.6 Clearance to Storage (Extended Coverage Upright and 
Pendent Spray Sprinklers). 

8.8.6.1 The clearance between the deflector and the top of 
storage shall be 18 in. (457 mm) or greater. 



2002 Edition 



INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS 



13-57 




Sprinkler 




Ceiling 



Open web steel 
or wood truss 



Plan View of Column 



Elevation View of Truss 



>4>4Cor4D 
A < 36 in. (0.91 m) 
(Use dimension C or D, whichever is greater) 

FIGURE 8.8.5.2.1.3 Minimum Distance from Obstruction (Extended Coverage Upright and 
Pendent Spray Sprinklers). 



Table 8.8.5.2.2 Suspended or Floor-Mounted Obstructions 
(Extended Coverage Upright and Pendent Spray Sprinklers) 







Minimum Vertical 






Distance below 


Horizontal Distance 


(A) 


Deflector (in.) (B) 


6 in. or less 




3 


More than 6 in. to 9 in. 




4 


More than 9 in. to 12 in. 




6 


More than 12 in. to 15 in. 




8 


More than 15 in. to 18 in. 




9¥t 


More than 18 in. to 24 in. 




12 V* 


More than 24 in. to 30 in. 




15 V* 


More than 30 in. 




18 



For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm. 

Note: For (A) and (B), refer to Figure 8.8.5.2.2. 



8.8.6.2 Where other standards specify greater clearance to 
storage minimums, they shall be followed. 

8.8.7 Ceiling Pockets. 

8.8.7.1 Sprinklers shall be required in all ceiling pockets. 

8.8.7.2 The requirements of 8.8.7.1 shall not apply where all 
of the following are met: 

(1) The total volume of the unprotected ceiling pocket does 
not exceed 1000 ft 3 . 

(2) The depth of the unprotected pocket does not exceed 
36 in. 

(3) The entire floor under the unprotected ceiling pocket is 
protected by the sprinklers at the lower ceiling elevation. 

(4) Each unprotected ceiling pocket is separated from any 
adjacent unprotected ceiling pocket by a minimum 10 ft 
horizontal distance. 

(5) The unprotected ceiling pocket is constructed of non- 
combustible or Jimited combustible construction. 



2 



Ceiling or roof 



Floor 



Elevation View 

FIGURE 8.8.5.2.2 Suspended or Floor-Mounted Obstruc- 
tions (Extended Coverage Upright and Pendent Spray Sprin- 
klers). 

(6) Skylights not exceeding 32 ft 2 shall be permitted to have a 
plastic cover. 

(7) Quick response sprinklers are utilized throughout the 
compartment. 

8.9 Extended Coverage Sidewall Spray Sprinklers. 

8.9.1 General. All requirements of Section 8.5 shall apply to 
extended coverage sidewall spray sprinklers except as modi- 
fied in Section 8.9. 

8.9.2 Protection Areas per Sprinkler (Extended Coverage 
Sidewall Spray Sprinklers). 

8.9.2.1* Determination of the Protection Area of Coverage. 

8.9.2.1.1 The protection area of coverage per sprinkler (A s ) 
for extended coverage sidewall sprinklers shall be not less 
than that prescribed by the listing. 



2002 Edition 



13-58 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



8.9.2.1.2 Listing dimensions shall be in 2 ft (0.61 m) incre- 
ments up to 28 ft (8.5 m). 

8.9.2.2 Maximum Protection Area of Coverage. 

8.9.2.2.1 The maximum allowable protection area of cover- 
age for a sprinkler {A s ) shall be in accordance with the value 
indicated in Table 8.9.2.2.1. 

8.9.2.2.2 In any case, the maximum area of coverage of a 
sprinkler shall not exceed 400 ft 2 (37.1 m 2 ). 

8.9.3 Sprinkler Spacing (Extended Coverage Sidewall Spray 
Sprinklers). 

8.9.3.1 Maximum Distance Between Sprinklers. 

8.9.3.1.1 The maximum distance permitted between sprin- 
klers shall be based on the centerline distance between sprin- 
klers on the branch line along the wall. 

8.9.3.1.2 Where sprinklers are installed along the length of a 
single wall of rooms or bays they shall be spaced in accordance 
with the maximum spacing provisions of Table 8.9.2.2.1. 

8.9.3.1.3 Sidewall sprinklers shall not be installed back-to- 
back without being separated by a continuous lintel, soffit, 
or baffle. 

8.9.3.1.4 Sidewall sprinklers shall be permitted to be installed 
on opposing or adjacent walls provided no sprinkler is located 
within the maximum protection area of another sprinkler. 

8.9.3.2 Maximum Distance from Walls. The distance from 
sprinklers to the end walls shall not exceed one-half of the 
allowable distance permitted between sprinklers as indicated 
in Table 8.9.2.2.1. 

8.9.3.3 Minimum Distance from Walls. 

8.9.3.3.1 Sprinklers shall be located a minimum of 4 in. 
(102 mm) from an end wall. 

8.9.3.3.2 The distance from the wall to the sprinkler shall be 
measured perpendicular to the wall. 

8.9.3.4 Minimum Distance Between Sprinklers. No sprinklers 
shall be located within the maximum protection area of any 
other sprinkler. 

8.9.4 Deflector Position from Ceilings and Walls (Extended 
Coverage Sidewall Spray Sprinklers). 

8.9.4.1 Distance Below Ceilings and from Walls to Which 
Sprinklers are Mounted. 

8.9.4.1.1 Ceilings. 

8.9.4.1.1.1 Unless the requirements of 8.9.4.1.1.2 are met, 
sidewall sprinkler deflectors shall be located not more than 
6 in. (152 mm) nor less than 4 in. (102 mm) from ceilings. 



8.9.4.1.1.2 Horizontal sidewall sprinklers shall be permitted 
to be located in a zone 6 in. to 12 in. (152 mm to 305 mm) or 
12 in. to 18 in. (305 mm to 457 mm) below noncombustible or 
limited-combustible ceilings where listed for such use. 

8.9.4.1.2 Walls. 

8.9.4.1.2.1 Sidewall sprinkler deflectors shall be located not 
more than 6 in. (152 mm) or less than 4 in. (102 mm) from 
walls on which they are mounted. 

8.9.4.1.2.2 Horizontal sidewall sprinklers shall be permitted 
to be located with their deflectors less than 4 in. (102 mm) 
from the wall on which they are mounted. 

8.9.4.1.3 Lintels and Soffits. 

8.9.4.1.3.1 Sidewall sprinklers shall only be installed along 
walls, lintels, or soffits where the distance from the ceiling to 
the bottom of the lintel or soffit is at least 2 in. (51 mm) 
greater than the distances from the ceiling to sidewall sprin- 
kler deflectors. 

8.9.4.1.3.2 Where soffits used for the installation of side- 
wall sprinklers exceed 8 in. (203 mm) in width or projec- 
tion from the wall, additional sprinklers shall be installed 
below the soffit. 

8.9.4.2 Deflector Orientation. 

8.9.4.2.1 Deflectors of sprinklers shall be aligned parallel to 
ceilings or roofs. 

8.9.4.2.2 Sidewall sprinklers, where installed under a sloped 
ceiling with a slope exceeding 2 in 12, shall be located at the 
high point of the slope and positioned to discharge downward 
along the slope. 

8.9.4.2.3 Sidewall sprinklers specifically listed for other ceil- 
ing configurations shall be permitted to be installed in accor- 
dance with the listing requirements. 

8.9.5 Obstructions to Sprinkler Discharge (Extended Cover- 
age Sidewall Spray Sprinklers). 

8.9.5.1 Performance Objective. 

8.9.5.1.1 Sprinklers shall be located so as to minimize ob- 
structions to discharge as defined in 8.5.5.2 and 8.5.5.3, or 
additional sprinklers shall be provided to ensure adequate 
coverage of the hazard. 

8.9.5.1.2 Sidewall sprinklers shall be installed no closer than 
8 ft (2.4 m) from light fixtures or similar obstructions. 

8.9.5.1.3 The distance between light fixtures or similar obstruc- 
tions located more than 8 ft (2.4 m) from the sprinkler shall be in 
conformity with Table 8.9.5.1.3 and Figure 8.9.5.1.3. 



Table 8.9.2.2.1 Protection Area and Maximum Spacing for Extended Coverage Sidewall 
Sprinklers 



Light Hazard 



Ordinary Hazard 



Protection Area 



Spacing 



Construction Type ft 2 



ft 



Protection Area 



ft 2 



Spacing 



ft 



Unobstructed, 
smooth, flat 



400 



37.2 



28 



8.5 



400 



37.2 



24 



7.3 



2002 Edition 



INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS 



13-59 



Table 8.9.5.1.3 Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid 
Obstructions (Extended Coverage Sidewall Sprinklers) 



Distance from Sidewall Sprinkler 
to Side of Obstruction (A) 



Maximum Allowable 
Distance of Deflector 

above Bottom of 
Obstruction (in.) (B) 



Less than 8 ft 

8 ft to less than 10 ft 

10 ft to less than 11 ft 

11 ft to less than 12 ft 

12 ft to less than 13 ft 

13 ft to less than 14 ft 

14 ft to less than 15 ft 

15 ft to less than 16 ft 

16 ft to less than 17 ft 

17 ft or greater 



Not allowed 

1 

2 

3 

4 

6 

7 

9 
11 
14 



For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm; 1 ft = 0.3048 m. 
Note: For (A) and (B), refer to Figure 8.9.5.1.3. 



Ceiling or roof 




Obstruction 



Wall 



Elevation View 



FIGURE 8.9.5.1.3 Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid Ob- 
structions (Extended Coverage Sidewall Sprinklers). 



8.9.5.2 Obstructions to Sprinkler Discharge Pattern Devel- 
opment. 

8.9.5.2.1 General. 

8.9.5.2.1.1 Continuous or noncontinuous obstructions less 
than or equal to 18 in. (457 mm) below the sprinkler deflector 
that prevent the pattern from fully developing shall comply 
with this section. 

8.9.5.2.1.2 Regardless of the rules of this section, solid con- 
tinuous obstructions shall meet the requirements of 8.9.5.1.2 
and 8.9.5.1.3. 

8.9.5.2.1.3* Unless the requirements of 8.9.5.2.1.4 or 
8.9.5.2.1.5 are met, sprinklers shall be positioned away from 
obstrucdons a minimum distance of four times the maximum 
dimension of the obstruction (e.g., truss webs and chords, 



pipe, columns, and fixtures). The maximum clear distance 
required shall be 36 in. (0.91 m) from the sprinkler. 

8.9.5.2.1.4 Sidewall sprinklers shall be positioned in accor- 
dance with Figure 8.9.5.2.1.4 when obstructions are present. 

8.9.5.2.1.5 The requirements of 8.9.5.2.1.3 and 8.9.5.2.1.4 
shall not apply where sprinklers are positioned with respect to 
obstructions in accordance with 8.9.5.1.2 and 8.9.5.1.3. 

8.9.5.2.2 Suspended or Floor-Mounted Vertical Obstructions. 

The distance from sprinklers to privacy curtains, free-standing 
partitions, room dividers, and similar obstructions in light haz- 
ard occupancies shall be in accordance with Table 8.9.5.2.2 
and Figure 8.9.5.2.2. 

8.9.5.3* Obstructions that Prevent Sprinkler Discharge from 
Reaching the Hazard. 

8.9.5.3.1 Continuous or noncontinuous obstructions that in- 
terrupt the water discharge in a horizontal plane more than 
18 in. (457 mm) below the sprinkler deflector in a manner to 
limit the distribution from reaching the protected hazard 
shall comply with this section. 

8.9.5.3.2 Sprinklers shall be installed under fixed obstruc- 
tions over 4 ft (1.2 m) wide such as ducts, decks, open grate 
flooring, cutting tables, and overhead doors. 

8.9.5.3.3 Sprinklers shall not be required under obstructions 
that are not fixed in place such as conference tables. 

8.10 Residential Sprinklers. 

8.10.1 Reserved 

8.10.2 Areas of coverage shall be in accordance with the 
manufacturer's listing. 

8.10.3 Distances Between Sprinklers. 

8.10.3.1 Maximum distances between sprinklers shall be in 
accordance with the manufacturer's listing. 

8.10.3.2 The distance between the sprinkler and the wall 
shall not exceed half the maximum allowable distance be- 
tween sprinklers per the manufacturer's listing. 

8.10.3.3 The minimum distance between sprinklers within a 
compartment shall be 8 ft, unless the listing of the sprinkler 
requires a greater distance. 

8.10.4 Distance Below Ceilings. 

8.10.4.1 Pendent and upright sprinklers shall be positioned 
so that the deflectors are 1 in. to 4 in. from the ceiling unless 
the listing allows a greater distance. 

8.10.4.2 Sidewall sprinklers shall be positioned so that the 
deflectors are within 4 in. to 6 in. from the ceiling unless the 
listing allows greater distances. 

8.10.5 Residential sprinkler installed in conformance with 
this standard shall follow the sprinkler obstruction rules of 

8.10.6 or 8.10.7 as appropriate for their installation orienta- 
tion (upright, pendent, or sidewall) and the obstruction crite- 
ria specified in the manufacturer's installation instructions. 

8.10.6 Obstructions to Sprinkler Discharge (Residential Up 
right and Pendent Spray Sprinklers). 

8.10.6.1 Performance Objective. 

8.10.6.1.1 Sprinklers shall be located so as to minimize ob- 
structions to discharge as defined in 8.10.6.2 and 8.10.6.3, or 
additional sprinklers shall be provided to ensure adequate 
coverage of the hazard. 



2002 Edition 



13-60 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 




Sprinkler 



Wall 






>! 



i 



Plan View of Column 



Ceiling 


Ay 




Obstruction 






c - /oooa 




D 












Wall 



Elevation View of Pipe Conduit or Light Fixture 



A> AC or AD 
A < 36 in. (0.91 m) 
(Use dimension C or D, whichever is greater) 

FIGURE 8.9.5.2.1.4 Minimum Distance from Obstruction (Extended Coverage Sidewall). 



I 



I 



I 



Table 8.9.5.2.2 Suspended or Floor-Mounted Obstructions 
(Extended Coverage Sidewall Sprinklers) 



Horizontal Distance (A) 



Minimum Allowable 

Distance below 
Deflector (in.) (B) 



6 in. or less 

More than 6 in. to 9 in. 
More than 9 in. to 12 in. 
More than 12 in. to 15 in. 
More than 15 in. to 18 in. 
More than 18 in. to 24 in. 
More than 24 in. to 30 in. 
More than 30 in. 



3 
4 
6 

8 

9 ] /2 

12 V* 

I51/2 
18 



For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm. 

Note: For (A) and (B), refer to Figure 8.9.5.2.2. 



8.10.6.1.2 Sprinklers shall be arranged to comply with one of 
the following arrangements: 

(1) Sprinklers shall be in accordance with 8.5.5.2, Table 
8.10.6.1.2, and Figure 8.10.6.1.2(a). 

(2) Sprinklers shall be permitted to be spaced on opposite 
sides of obstructions not exceeding 4 ft (1.2 m) in width 
provided the distance from the centerline of the obstruc- 
tion to the sprinklers does not exceed one-half the allow- 
able distance permitted between sprinklers. 

(3) Obstructions located against the wall and that are not 
over 30 in. (762 mm) in width shall be permitted to be 
protected in accordance with Figure 8.10.6.1.2(b). 

8.10.6.2 Obstructions to Sprinkler Discharge Pattern Devel- 
opment. 

8.10.6.2.1 General. 

8.10.6.2.1.1 Continuous or noncontinuous obstructions less 
than or equal to 18 in. (457 mm) below the sprinkler deflector 



r 



i 






Wall 



Floor 



Ceiling 



Obstruction 



Elevation View 

FIGURE 8.9.5.2.2 Suspended or Floor-Mounted Obstruc- 
tions (Extended Coverage Sidewall Sprinklers). 



that prevent the pattern from fully developing shall comply 
with 8.10.6.2. 

8.10.6.2.1.2 Regardless of the rules of this section, solid con- 
tinuous obstructions shall meet the applicable requirements 
of 8.10.6.1.2. 

8.10.6.2.1.3* Unless the requirements of 8.10.6.2.1.4 through 
8.10.6.2.1.9 are met, sprinklers shall be positioned away from 
obstructions a minimum distance of four times the maximum 
dimension of the obstruction (e.g., truss webs and chords, 
pipe, columns, and fixtures). The maximum clear distance 
required shall be 36 in. (0.91 m) in accordance with Fig- 
ure 8.10.6.2.1.3. 



2002 Edition 



INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS 



13-61 



Table 8.10.6.1.2 Position of Sprinklers to Avoid 
Obstructions to Discharge (Residential Upright and Pendent 
Spray Sprinklers) 



Distance from Sprinklers to 
Side of Obstruction (A) 



Maximum Allowable 
Distance of Deflector 

above Bottom of 
Obstruction (in.) (B) 



Less than 1 ft 

1 ft to less than 1 ft 6 in. 

1 ft 6 in. to less than 2 ft 

2 ft to less than 2 ft 6 in. 

2 ft 6 in. to less than 3 ft 

3 ft to less than 3 ft 6 in. 

3 ft 6 in. to less than 4 ft 

4 ft to less than 4 ft 6 in. 

4 ft 6 in. to less than 5 ft 

5 ft to less than 5 ft 6 in. 

5 ft 6 in. to less than 6 ft 

6 ft to less than 6 ft 6 in. 

6 ft 6 in. to less than 7 ft 

7 ft and greater 





1 
1 

1 
3 
3 

5 
7 
7 
7 
9 
11 
14 



For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm; 1 ft = 0.3048 m. 
Note: For (A) and (B), refer to Figure 8.10.6.1.2(a). 



Ceiling 



£ 




Elevation View 

FIGURE 8.10.6.1.2(a) Position of Sprinklers to Avoid Ob- 
structions to Discharge (Residential Upright and Pendent 
Spray Sprinklers). 

8.10.6.2.1.4 Sprinklers shall be permitted to be spaced on 
opposite sides of the obstruction where the distance from the 
centerline of the obstruction to the sprinklers does not exceed 
one-half the allowable distance between sprinklers. 

8.10.6.2.1.5 Sprinklers shall be permitted to be located one- 
half the distance between the obstructions where the obstruc- 
tion consists of open trusses 20 in. (0.51 m) or greater apart 
[24 in. (0.61 m) on center], provided that all truss members 
are not greater than 4 in. (102 mm) (nominal) in width and 
web members do not exceed 1 in. (25.4 mm) in width. 

8.10.6.2.1.6 Sprinklers shall be permitted to be installed on 
the centerline of a truss or bar joist or directly above a beam 
provided that the truss chord or beam dimension is not more 




Y 



Ceiling 



A>(D-8\n.) + B[A>(D-0.2m) + B] 
D< 30 in. (0.8 m) 



Elevation View 



FIGURE 8.10.6.1.2(b) Obstructions Against Walls (Residen- 
tial Upright and Pendent Spray Sprinklers). 



than 8 in. (203 mm) and the sprinkler deflector is located at 
least 6 in. (152 mm) above the structural member and where 
the sprinkler is positioned at a distance four times greater 
than the maximum dimension of the web members away from 
the web members. 

8.10.6.2.1.7 The requirements of 8.10.6.2.1.3 shall not apply 
to the piping to which an upright sprinkler is directly attached 
less than 3 in. (75 mm) in diameter. 

8.10.6.2.1.8 The requirements of 8.10.6.2.1.3 shall not ap- 
ply to the piping to which pendent sprinklers are directly 
attached. 

8.10.6.2.1.9 The requirements of 8.10.6.2.1.3 shall not apply 
to sprinklers positioned with respect to obstructions in accor- 
dance with 8.10.6.1.2. 

8.10.6.2.2 Suspended or Floor-Mounted Vertical Obstruc- 
tions. The distance from sprinklers to privacy curtains, free- 
standing partitions, room dividers, and similar obstructions in 
light hazard occupancies shall be in accordance with 
Table 8.10.6.2.2 and Figure 8.10.6.2.2. 

8.10.6.3* Obstructions that Prevent Sprinkler Discharge from 
Reaching the Hazard. 

8.10.6.3.1 Continuous or noncontinuous obstructions that 
interrupt the water discharge in a horizontal plane more than 
18 in. (457 mm) below the sprinkler deflector in a manner to 
limit the distribution from reaching the protected hazard 
shall comply with 8.10.6.3. 

8.10.6.3.2 Sprinklers shall be installed under fixed obstruc- 
tions over 4ft (1.2 m) wide such as ducts, decks, open grate 
flooring, cutting tables, and overhead doors. 

8.10.6.3.3 Sprinklers shall not be required under obstruc- 
tions that are not fixed in place such as conference tables. 

8.10.6.3.4 Sprinklers installed under open gratings shall be 
of the intermediate level/rack storage type or otherwise 
shielded from the discharge of overhead sprinklers. 



2002 Edition 



13-62 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 




Sprinkler 



Plan View of Column 




Ceiling 



Open web steel 
or wood truss 



Elevation View of Truss 



A> AC or 4D 
A < 36 in. (0.91 m) 
(Use dimension C or D, whichever is greater) 

FIGURE 8.10.6.2.1.3 Minimum Distance from Obstruction (Residential Upright and Pendent 
Spray Sprinklers). 



Table 8.10.6.2.2 Suspended or Floor-Mounted Obstructions 
(Residential Upright and Pendent Spray Sprinklers) 



Horizontal Distance (A) 



Minimum Vertical 

Distance below 
Deflector (in.) (B) 



6 in. or less 

More than 6 in. to 9 in. 
More than 9 in. to 12 in. 
More than 12 in. to 15 in. 
More than 15 in. to 18 in. 
More than 18 in. to 24 in. 
More than 24 in. to 30 in. 
More than 30 in. 



3 

4 

6 

8 

9V 2 

12M> 

15V2 

18 



For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm. 

Note: For (A) and (B), refer to Figure 8.10.6.2.2. 

8.10.7 Obstructions to Sprinkler Discharge (Residential Side- 
wall Spray Sprinklers). 

8.10.7.1 Performance Objective. 

8.10.7.1.1 Sprinklers shall be located so as to minimize ob- 
structions to discharge as defined in 8.5.5.2 and 8.5.5.3, or 
additional sprinklers shall be provided to ensure adequate 
coverage of the hazard. 

8.10.7.1.2 Sidewall sprinklers shall be installed no closer than 
8 ft (2.4 m) from light fixtures or similar obstructions. 

8.10.7.1.3 The distance between light fixtures or similar ob- 
structions located more than 8 ft (2.4 m) from the sprinkler shall 
be in conformity with Table 8.10.7.1.3 and Figure 8.10.7.1.3. 

8.10.7.2 Obstructions to Sprinkler Discharge Pattern Devel- 
opment. 

8.10.7.2.1 General. 

8.10.7.2.1.1 Continuous or noncontinuous obstructions less 
than or equal to 18 in. (457 mm) below the sprinkler deflector 



V 



Ceiling or roof 



Floor 



Elevation View 

FIGURE 8.10.6.2.2 Suspended or Floor-Mounted Obstruc- 
tions (Residential Upright and Pendent Spray Sprinklers). 

that prevent the pattern from fully developing shall comply 
with this section. 

8.10.7.2.1.2 Regardless of the rules of this section, solid con- 
tinuous obstructions shall meet the requirements of 8.10.7.1.2 
and 8.10.7.1.3. 

8.10.7.2.1.3* Unless the requirements of 8.10.7.2.1.4 or 
8.10.7.2.1.5 are met, sprinklers shall be positioned away from 
obstructions a minimum distance of four times the maximum 
dimension of the obstruction. The maximum clear distance 
required shall be 36 in. (0.91 m) from the sprinkler (e.g., truss 
webs and chords, pipe, columns, and fixtures). 

8.10.7.2.1.4 Sidewall sprinklers shall be positioned in accor- 
dance with Figure 8.10.7.2.1.4 when obstructions are present. 

8.10.7.2.1.5 The requirements of 8.10.7.2.1.3 and 8.10.7.2.1.4 
shall not apply where sprinklers are positioned with respect to 
obstructions in accordance with 8.10.7.1.2 and 8.10.7.1.3. 



2002 Edition 



INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS 



13-63 



Table 8.10.7.1.3 Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid 
Obstructions (Residential Sidewall Sprinklers) 



Distance from Sidewall Sprinkler to 
Side of Obstruction (A) 



Maximum Allowable 
Distance of Deflector 

above Bottom of 
Obstruction (in.) (B) 



Less than 8 ft 

8 ft to less than 10 ft 

10 ft to less than 11 ft 

11 ft to less than 12 ft 

12 ft to less than 13 ft 

13 ft to less than 14 ft 

14 ft to less than 15 ft 

15 ft to less than 16 ft 

16 ft to less than 17 ft 

1 7 ft or greater 



Not Allowed 

1 

2 

3 

4 

6 

7 

9 
11 
14 



For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm; 1 ft = 0.3048 m. 
Note: For (A) and (B), refer to Figure 8.10.7.1.3. 




Ceiling or roof 




Obstruction 



Wall 



Elevation View 



FIGURE 8.10.7.1.3 Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid Ob- 
structions (Residential Sidewall Sprinklers). 




Sprinkler 



Wall 



1 






1 



i 





Ceiling 
Obstruction 


A/ 


n 


/ooocx 

D 


Wall 







i 



Plan View of Column 



Elevation View of Pipe Conduit or Light Fixture 



A>4Cor4D 
A<36 in. (0.91 m) 
(Use dimension C or D, whichever is greater) 

FIGURE 8.10.7.2.1.4 Minimum Distance from Obstruction (Residential Sidewall). 



8.10.7.2.2 Suspended or Floor-Mounted Vertical Obstruc- 
tions. The distance from sprinklers to privacy curtains, free- 
standing partitions, room dividers, and similar obstructions in 
light hazard occupancies shall be in accordance with Table 
8.10.7.2.2 and Figure 8.10.7.2.2. 

8.10.7.3* Obstructions that Prevent Sprinkler Discharge from 
Reaching the Hazard. 

8.10.7.3.1 Continuous or noncontinuous obstructions that 
interrupt the water discharge in a horizontal plane more than 
18 in. (457 mm) below the sprinkler deflector in a manner to 
limit the distribution from reaching the protected hazard 
shall comply with this section. 

8.10.7.3.2 Sprinklers shall be installed under fixed obstruc- 
tions over 4 ft (1.2 m) wide such as ducts, decks, open grate 
flooring, cutting tables, and overhead doors. 



8.10.7.3.3 Sprinklers shall not be required under obstruc- 
tions that are not fixed in place such as conference tables. 

8. 11 Large Drop Sprinklers in All Applications and Other Spe- 
cific Application Sprinklers Used for Storage Protection. 

8.11.1 General. All requirements of Section 8.5 shall apply to 
large drop sprinklers except as modified in Section 8.11. 

8.11.2* Protection Areas per Sprinkler (Large Drop Sprinklers). 

8.11.2.1 Determination of the Protection Area of Coverage. 

The protection area of coverage per sprinkler (A s ) shall be 
determined in accordance with 8.5.2.1. 

8.11.2.2 Maximum Protection Area of Coverage. 

8.11.2.2.1 The maximum allowable protection area of cover- 
age for a sprinkler (A s ) shall be in accordance with the value 
indicated in Table 8.11.2.2.1. 



2002 Edition 



13-64 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Table 8.10.7.2.2 Suspended or Floor-Mounted Obstructions 
(Residential Sidewall Sprinklers) 



Horizontal Distance (A) 



Minimum Allowable 

Distance below 
Deflector (in.) (B) 



6 in. or less 

More than 6 in. to 9 in. 
More than 9 in. to 12 in. 
More than 12 in. to 15 in. 
More than 15 in. to 18 in. 
More than 18 in. to 24 in. 
More than 24 in. to 30 in. 
More than 30 in. 



3 

4 

6 

8 

9V 2 

12 V* 

15V2 

18 



For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm. 

Note: For (A) and (B), refer to Figure 8.10.7.2.2. 



I< 



I 



1 



1 



I 



Ceiling 



Obstruction 



Wall 



Floor 



Elevation View 

FIGURE 8.10.7.2.2 Suspended or Floor-Mounted Obstruc- 
tions (Residential Sidewall Sprinklers). 



Table 8.11.2.2.1 Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing for 
Large Drop Sprinklers 









Maximum 




Protection Area 


Spacing 


Construction Type 


ft 2 


m 2 


ft m 


Noncombustible 


130 


12.1 


12 3.7 


unobstructed 








Noncombustible 


130 


12.1 


12 3.7 


obstructed 








Combustible 


130 


12.1 


12 3.7 


unobstructed 








Combustible 


100 


9.3 


10 3.1 


obstructed 








Rack storage 


100 


9.3 


10 3.1 


applications 









8.11.2.2.2 In any case, the maximum area of coverage of any 
sprinkler shall not exceed 130 ft 2 (12.9 m 2 ). 

8.11.2.3 Minimum Protection Area of Coverage. The mini- 
mum allowable protection area of coverage for a sprinkler 
(A s ) shall be not less than 80 ft 2 (7.4 m 2 ). 

8.11.3 Sprinkler Spacing (Large Drop Sprinklers). 
8.11.3.1* Maximum Distance Between Sprinklers. 

8.11.3.1.1 Under unobstructed and obstructed noncombus- 
tible construction and unobstructed combustible construction, 
the distance between sprinklers shall be limited to not more than 
12 ft (3.7 m) between sprinklers, as shown in Table 8.11.2.2.1. 

8.11.3.1.2 Under obstructed combustible construction, the 
maximum distance shall be limited to 10 ft (3 m). 

8.11.3.2 Maximum Distance from Walls. The distance from 
sprinklers to walls shall not exceed one-half of the allowable 
distance permitted between sprinklers as indicated in 
Table 8.11.2.2.1. 

8.11.3.3 Minimum Distance from Walls. Sprinklers shall be lo- 
cated a minimum of 4 in. (102 mm) from a wall. 

8.11.3.4 Minimum Distance Between Sprinklers. Sprinklers 
shall be spaced not less than 8 ft (2.4 m) on center. 

8.11.4 Deflector Position (Large Drop Sprinklers). 
8.11.4.1* Distance Below Ceilings. 

8.11.4.1.1 Unobstructed Construction. Under unobstructed 
construction, the distance between the sprinkler deflector and 
the ceiling shall be a minimum of 6 in. (152 mm) and a maxi- 
mum of 8 in. (203 mm). 

8.11.4.1.2 Obstructed Construction. Under obstructed con- 
struction, the sprinkler deflector shall be located in accor- 
dance with one of the following arrangements: 

(1) Installed with the deflectors located a minimum of 6 in. 
(152 mm) and a maximum of 12 in. (305 mm) from the 
ceiling. 

(2) Installed with the deflectors within the horizontal planes 
1 in. to 6 in. below wood joist or composite wood joist 
construction, to a maximum distance of 22 in. (559 mm) 
below the ceiling/ roof or deck. 

(3) Installed with deflectors of sprinklers under concrete tee 
construction with stems spaces less than 7V2 ft (2.3 m) but 
more than 3 ft (0.9 m) on centers, regardless of the depth 
of the tee, located at or above a horizontal plane 1 in. 
(25.4 mm) below the bottom of the stems of the tees and 
shall comply with Table 8.11.5.1.2. 

8.11.4.2 Deflector Orientation. Deflectors of sprinklers shall 
be aligned parallel to ceilings or roofs. 

8.11.5* Obstructions to Sprinkler Discharge (Large Drop 
Sprinklers). 

8.11.5.1 Performance Objective. 

8.11.5.1.1 Sprinklers shall be located so as to minimize ob- 
structions to discharge as defined in 8.5.5.2 and 8.5.5.3, or 
additional sprinklers shall be provided to ensure adequate 
coverage of the hazard. 

8.11.5.1.2 Sprinklers shall be arranged to comply with 
8.5.5.2, Table 8.11.5.1.2, and Figure 8.11.5.1.2. 



2002 Edition 



INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS 



13-65 



Table 8.11.5.1.2 Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid 
Obstructions to Discharge (Large Drop Sprinkler) 





Maximum Allowable 




Distance of Deflector 


Distance from Sprinkler to 


above Bottom of 


Side of Obstruction (A) 


Obstruction (in.) (B) 


Less than 1 ft 





1 ft to less than 1 ft 6 in. 


P/2 


1 ft 6 in. to less than 2 ft 


3 


2 ft to less than 2 ft 6 in. 


5V 2 


2 ft 6 in. to less than 3 ft 


8 


3 ft to less than 3 ft 6 in. 


10 


3 ft 6 in. to less than 4 ft 


12 


4 ft to less than 4 ft 6 in. 


15 


4 ft 6 in. to less than 5 ft 


18 


5 ft to less than 5 ft 6 in. 


22 


5 ft 6 in. to less than 6 ft 


26 


6 ft 


31 



For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm; 1 ft = 0.3048 m. 
Note: For (A) and (B), refer to Figure 8.11.5.1.2. 




FIGURE 8.11.5.1.2 Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid Ob- 
structions to Discharge (Large Drop Sprinkler). 



8.11.5.1.3 The requirements of 8.1 1.5. 1.2 shall not apply, where 
sprinklers are positioned on opposite sides of the obstruction. 

8.11.5.2 Obstructions to Sprinkler Discharge Pattern Devel- 
opment. 

8.11.5.2.1 General. 

8.11.5.2.1.1 Continuous or noncontinuous obstructions less 
than or equal to 36 in. (914 mm) below the sprinkler deflector 
that prevent the pattern from fully developing shall comply 
with 8.11.5.2. 

8.11.5.2.1.2 Regardless of the rules of this section, solid con- 
tinuous obstructions shall meet the requirements of 8.11.5.1.2 
or 8.11.5.1.3. 

8.11.5.2.1.3* Unless the requirements of 8.11.5.1.2 or 8.11.5.1.3 
are met, for obstructions 8 in. (203 mm) or less in width, as 
shown in Figure 8.11.5.2.1.3, sprinklers shall be positioned such 
that they are located at least a distance three times greater than 



the maximum dimension of the obstruction from the sprinkler 
(e.g., webs and chord members, pipe, columns, and fixtures). 

8.11.5.2.2 Branch Lines. Sprinklers shall be positioned with re- 
spect to branch lines in accordance with one of the following: 

(1) Sprinklers shall be permitted to be attached directly to 
branch lines less than 2 in. (51 mm) in diameter. 

(2) Sprinklers shall be permitted to be offset horizontally a 
minimum of 12 in. (305 mm) from the pipe. 

(3) Sprinklers shall be permitted to be supplied by a riser 
nipple to elevate the sprinkler deflector a minimum of 
13 in. (330 mm) from the centerline of 2 1 /2-in. (64-mm) 
pipe. 

(4) Sprinklers shall be permitted to be supplied by a riser 
nipple to elevate the sprinkler deflector a minimum of 
15 in. (380 mm) from the centerline of 3-in. (76-mm) 
pipe. 

8.11.5.3* Obstructions that Prevent Sprinkler Discharge from 
Reaching the Hazard. 

8.11.5.3.1 Continuous or noncontinuous obstructions that 
interrupt the water discharge in a horizontal plane below the 
sprinkler deflector in a manner to limit the distribution from 
reaching the protected hazard shall comply with 8.11.5.3. 

8.11.5.3.2 Sprinklers shall be positioned with respect to fluo- 
rescent lighting fixtures, ducts, and obstructions more than 
24 in. (610 mm) wide and located entirely below the sprinklers 
so that the minimum horizontal distance from the near side of 
the obstruction to the center of the sprinkler is not less than 
the value specified in Table 8.11.5.3.2 and Figure 8.11.5.3.2. 

8.11.5.3.3 Sprinklers installed under open gratings shall be 
shielded from the discharge of overhead sprinklers. 

8.11.5.3.4 Where the bottom of the obstruction is located 
24 in. (610 mm) or more below the sprinkler deflectors, the 
following shall occur: 

(1) Sprinklers shall be positioned so that the obstruction is 
centered between adjacent sprinklers in accordance with 
Figure 8.11.5.3.4. 

(2) The obstruction width shall meet the following require- 
ments: 

(a) The obstruction shall be limited to a maximum width of 
24 in. (610 mm) in accordance with Figure 8.11.5.3.4. 

(b) Where the obstruction is greater than 24 in. 
(610 mm) wide, one or more lines of sprinklers shall 
be installed below the obstruction. 

(3) The obstruction extension shall meet the following re- 
quirements: 

(a) The obstruction shall not extend more than 12 in. 
(305 mm) to either side of the midpoint between 
sprinklers in accordance with Figure 8.11.5.3.4. 

(b) Where the extensions of the obstruction exceed 
12 in. (305 mm), one or more lines of sprinklers shall 
be installed below the obstruction. 

(4) At least 18 in. (457 mm) clearance shall be maintained 
between the top of storage and the bottom of the obstruc- 
tion in accordance with Figure 8.11.5.3.4. 

8.11.5.3.5 In the special case of an obstruction running parallel 
to and directly below a branch line, the following shall occur: 

(1) The sprinkler shall be located at least 36 in. (914 mm) 
above the top of the obstruction in accordance with Fig- 
ure 8.11.5.3.5. 



2002 Edition 



13-66 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 




Sprinkler 




Ceiling 



Open web steel 
or wood truss 



Plan View of Column 



Elevation View of Truss 



A>3Cor3D 
(Use dimension C or D, whichever is greater) 

FIGURE 8.11.5.2.1.3 Minimum Distance from Obstruction (Large Drop Sprinkler). 



Table 8.11.5.3.2 Obstruction Entirely Below the Sprinkler 
(Large Drop Sprinkler) 





Minimum Distance to 


Distance of Deflector above Bottom 


Side of Obstruction 


of Obstruction (B) 


(ft) (A) 


Less than 6 in. 


1V 2 


6 in. to less than 12 in. 


3 


12 in. to less than 18 in. 


4 


18 in. to less than 24 in. 


5 


24 in. to less than 30 in. 


5V2 


30 in. less than 36 in. 


6 



For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm; 1 ft = 0.3048 m. 
Note: For (A) and (B), refer to Figure 8.11.5.3.2. 



Ceiling 



24 in. (61 mm) or more 



r s 



/oooo\ 



Pipe, conduit, 
or fixture 



FIGURE 8.11.5.3.2 Obstruction Entirely Below the Sprinkler 
(Large Drop Sprinkler). 



(2) The obstruction shall be limited to a maximum width of 
12 in. (305 mm) in accordance with Figure 8.11.5.3.5. 

(3) The obstruction shall be limited to a maximum extension 
of 6 in. (152 mm) to either side of the centerline of the 
branch line in accordance with Figure 8.11.5.3.5. 

8.11.6 Clearance to Storage (Large Drop Sprinklers). The 

clearance between the deflector and the top of storage shall 
be 36 in. (914 mm) or greater. 

8.12 Early Suppression Fast-Response Sprinklers. 

8.12.1 General. All requirements of Section 8.5 shall apply 
except as modified in Section 8.12. 

8.12.2 Protection Areas per Sprinkler (Early Suppression 
Fast-Response Sprinklers). 

8.12.2.1 Determination of the Protection Area of Coverage. 

The protection area of coverage per sprinkler (A s ) shall be 
determined in accordance with 8.5.2.1. 

8.12.2.2 Maximum Protection Area of Coverage. 

8.12.2.2.1 The maximum allowable protection area of cover- 
age for a sprinkler (A s ) shall be in accordance with the value 
indicated in Table 8.12.2.2.1. 

8.12.2.2.2 Unless the requirements of 8.12.2.2.3 are met, the 
maximum area of coverage of any sprinkler shall not exceed 
100 ft 2 (9.3 m 2 ). 

8.12.2.2.3* It shall be permitted to deviate from the maximum 
sprinkler spacing to eliminate obstructions created by trusses 
and bar joists by moving a sprinkler along the branch line a 
maximum of 1 ft (0.31 m) from its allowable spacing provided 
coverage for that sprinkler does not exceed 110 ft 2 (10.2 m 2 ) 
per sprinkler where all of the following conditions are met: 

(1) The average actual floor area protected by the moved 
sprinkler and the adjacent sprinklers does not exceed 
100 ft 2 (9.3 m 2 ). 

(2) Adjacent branch lines shall maintain the same pattern. 

(3) In no case shall the distance between sprinklers exceed 
12 ft (3.7 m). 



2002 Edition 



INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS 



13-67 



Ceiling 



s 



A 



Not less 
than 18 in. 
(457 mm) 







24 in. (610 mm) 
maximum 
















>24 in. (610 mm) 








Obstruction 












I ,r 


— > 


< 


V2S 


<12 in. 


Centerline 


V2S 


(305 mm) 

> 


< 


< 












— *■ 



Top of storage 



FIGURE 8.11.5.3.4 Obstruction More Than 24 in. (610 mm) Below the Sprinkler (Large Drop Sprinkler). 



S 



Ceiling 



Not less 
than 36 in. 
(914 mm) 



6 in. 
(152 mm) 
maximum 



Obstruction 





(305 mm) 
maximum 



FIGURE 8.11.5.3.5 Obstruction More Than 36 in. (914 mm) 
Below the Sprinkler (Large Drop Sprinkler). 

8.12.2.2.4 Where branch lines are parallel to trusses and bar 
joists it shall be permitted to deviate from the maximum sprin- 
kler spacing to eliminate obstructions created by trusses and 
bar joists by moving a single branch line a maximum of 1 ft 
(0.31 m) from its allowable spacing provided coverage for the 
sprinklers on that branch line and the sprinklers on the 
branch line it is moving away from does not exceed 110 ft 2 per 
sprinkler where all of the following conditions are met: 

(1) The average actual floor area protected by the sprinklers 
on the moved branch line and the sprinklers on the adja- 
cent branch lines does not exceed 100 ft 2 per sprinkler. 

(2) In no case shall the distance between sprinklers exceed 
12 ft (3.7 m). 



(3) It shall not be permitted to move a branch line where 
there are moved sprinklers on a branch line that exceed 
the maximum sprinkler spacing. 

8.12.2.3 Minimum Protection Area of Coverage. The mini- 
mum allowable protection area of coverage for a sprinkler (A s ) 
shall be not less than 80 ft 2 (7.4 m 2 ). 

8.12.3 Sprinkler Spacing (Early Suppression Fast-Response 
Sprinklers) . 

8.12.3.1 Maximum Distance Between Sprinklers. The maxi- 
mum distance between sprinklers shall be in accordance with 
the following: 

(1) Where the storage height is less than or equal to 25 ft 
(7.6 m) and the ceiling height is less than or equal to 
30 ft (9.1 m), the distance between sprinklers shall be 
limited to not more than 12 ft (3.7 m) between sprin- 
klers as shown in Table 8.12.2.2.1. 

(2) Unless the requirements of 8.12.3.1(3) are met, where the 
storage height exceeds 25 ft (7.6 m) and ceiling height ex- 
ceeds 30 ft (9.1 m), the distance between sprinklers shall be 
limited to not more than 10 ft (3 m) between sprinklers. 

(3)*Regardless of the storage or ceiling height arrangement, it 
shall be permitted to deviate from the maximum sprinkler 
spacing to eliminate obstructions created by trusses and bar 
joists by moving a sprinkler along the branch line a maxi- 
mum of 1 ft (0.31 m) from its allowable spacing provided 
coverage for that sprinkler does not exceed 110 ft (10.2 m 2 ) 
where all of the following conditions are met: 

(a) The average actual floor area protected by the moved 
sprinkler and the adjacent sprinklers shall not exceed 
100 ft 2 (9.3 m 2 ). 

(b) Adjacent branch lines shall maintain the same pattern. 

(c) In no case shall the distance between sprinklers ex- 
ceed 12 ft (3.7 m). 



2002 Edition 



13-68 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Table 8.12.2.2.1 Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing of ESFR Sprinklers 



Ceiling/Roof Heights up to 30 ft (9.1 m) 



Ceiling/Roof Heights over 30 ft (9.1 m) 



Construction Type 



Protection Area 



ft 2 



Spacing 



ft 



Protection Area 



ft 2 



Spacing 



ft 



Noncombustible 
unobstructed 
Noncombustible obstructed 
Combustible unobstructed 
Combustible obstructed 



100 



9.3 



12 



3.7 



100 9.3 

100 9.3 

N/A 



12 3.7 

12 3.7 

N/A 



100 



9.3 



100 9.3 

100 9.3 

N/A 



10 



3.1 



10 3.1 

10 3.1 

N/A 



(4) Where branch lines are parallel to trusses and bar joists it 
shall be permitted to deviate from the maximum sprin- 
kler spacing to eliminate obstructions created by trusses 
and bar joists by moving a single branch line a maximum 
of 1 ft (0.31 m) from its allowable spacing provided cover- 
age for the sprinklers on that branch line and the sprin- 
klers on the branch line it is moving away from does not 
exceed 110 ft 2 per sprinkler where all of the following 
conditions are met: 

(a) The average actual floor area protected by the sprin- 
klers on the moved branch line and the sprinklers on 
the adjacent branch lines shall not exceed 100 ft 2 per 
sprinkler. 

(b) In no case shall the distance between sprinklers ex- 
ceed 12 ft (3.7 m). 

(c) It shall not be permitted to move a branch line where 
there are moved sprinklers on a branch line that ex- 
ceed the maximum sprinkler spacing. 

8.12.3.2 Maximum Distance from Walls. The distance from 
sprinklers to walls shall not exceed one-half of the allowable 
distance permitted between sprinklers as indicated in 
Table 8.12.2.2.1. 

8.12.3.3 Minimum Distance from Walls. Sprinklers shall be 
located a minimum of 4 in. (102 mm) from a wall. 

8.12.3.4 Minimum Distance Between Sprinklers. Sprinklers 
shall be spaced not less than 8 ft (2.4 m) on center. 

8.12.4 Deflector Position (Early Suppression Fast-Response 
Sprinklers). 

8.12.4.1 Distance Below Ceilings. 

8.12.4.1.1 Pendent sprinklers with a nominal K-factor of 14 
shall be positioned so that deflectors are a maximum 14 in. 
(356 mm) and a minimum 6 in. (152 mm) below the ceiling. 

8.12.4.1.2 Pendent sprinklers with a nominal K-factor of 25.2 
shall be positioned so that deflectors are a maximum 18 in. 
(457 mm) and a minimum 6 in. (152 mm) below the ceiling. 

8.12.4.1.3 Upright sprinklers with a nominal K-factor of 11.2 
shall be positioned so that the deflector is 3 in. to 5 in. (76 mm 
to 127 mm) below the ceiling. 

8.12.4.1.4 Upright sprinklers with a nominal K-factor of 14 
shall be positioned so that the deflector is 3 in. to 12 in. 
(76 mm to 304 mm) below the ceiling. 

8.12.4.1.5 With obstructed construction, the branch lines 
shall be permitted to be installed across the beams, but sprin- 
klers shall be located in the bays and not under the beams. 



8.12.4.2 Deflector Orientation. Deflectors of sprinklers shall 
be aligned parallel to ceilings or roofs. 

8.12.5 Obstructions to Sprinkler Discharge (Early Suppres- 
sion Fast-Response Sprinklers). 

8.12.5.1 Obstructions at or Near the Ceiling. 

8.12.5.1.1 Sprinklers shall be arranged to comply with 
Table 8.12.5.1.1 and Figure 8.12.5.1.1 for obstructions at 
the ceiling such as beams, ducts, lights, and top chords of 
trusses and bar joists. 



Table 8.12.5.1.1 Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid 
Obstructions to Discharge (ESFR Sprinkler) 





Maximum Allowable 




Distance of Deflector 


Distance from Sprinkler to 


above Bottom of 


Side of Obstruction (A) 


Obstruction (in.) (B) 


Less than 1 ft 





1 ft to less than 1 ft 6 in. 


IV* 


1 ft 6 in. to less than 2 ft 


3 


2 ft to less than 2 ft 6 in. 


5V& 


2 ft 6 in. to less than 3 ft 


8 


3 ft to less than 3 ft 6 in. 


10 


3 ft 6 in. to less than 4 ft 


12 


4 ft to less than 4 ft 6 in. 


15 


4 ft 6 in. to less than 5 ft 


18 


5 ft to less than 5 ft 6 in. 


22 


5 ft 6 in. to less than 6 ft 


26 


6 ft 


31 



For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm; 1 f t = 0.3048 m. 
Note: For (A) and (B), refer to Figure 8.12.5.1.1. 



8.12.5.1.2 The requirements of 8.12.5.1.1 shall not apply 
where sprinklers are spaced on opposite sides of obstructions 
less than 24 in. wide provided the distance from the centerline 
on the obstructions to the sprinklers does not exceed one-half 
the allowable distance between sprinklers. 

8.12.5.1.3 Sprinklers with a special obstruction allowance 
shall be installed according to their listing. 

8.12.5.2* Isolated Obstructions Below the Elevation of Sprin- 
klers. Sprinklers shall be arranged with respect to obstructions 
in accordance with one of the following: 



2002 Edition 



INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS 



13-69 




FIGURE 8.12.5.1.1 Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid Ob- 
structions to Discharge (ESFR Sprinkler). 



(1) Sprinklers shall be installed below isolated noncontinu- 
ous obstructions that restrict only one sprinkler and are 
located below the elevation of sprinklers such as light fix- 
tures and unit heaters. 

(2) Additional sprinklers shall not be required where the ob- 
struction is 2 ft (0.6 m) or less in width and the sprinkler is 
located horizontally 1 ft (0.3 m) or greater from the near- 
est edge of the obstruction. 

(3) Additional sprinklers shall not be required where sprin- 
klers are positioned with respect to the bottom of obstruc- 
tions in accordance with 8.12.5.1. 

(4) Additional sprinklers shall not be required where the ob- 
struction is 2 in. (51 mm) or less in width and is located a 
minimum of 2 ft (0.6 m) below the elevation of the sprin- 
kler deflector or is positioned a minimum of 1 ft (0.3 m) 
horizontally from the sprinkler. 

(5) Sprinklers with a special obstruction allowance shall be 
installed according to their listing. 

8.12.5.3 Continuous Obstructions Below the Sprinklers. 

8.12.5.3.1 General Continuous Obstructions. Sprinklers shall 
be arranged with respect to obstructions in accordance with 
one of the following: 

(1) Sprinklers shall be installed below continuous obstruc- 
tions or they shall be arranged to comply with Table 
8.12.5.1.1 for horizontal obstructions entirely below the 
elevation of sprinklers that restrict sprinkler discharge 
pattern for two or more adjacent sprinklers such as ducts, 
lights, pipes, and conveyors. 

(2) Additional sprinklers shall not be required where the ob- 
struction is 2 in. (51 mm) or less in width and is located a 
minimum of 2 ft (0.6 m) below the elevation of the sprin- 
kler deflector or is positioned a minimum of 1 ft (0.3 m) 
horizontally from the sprinkler. 

(3) Additional sprinklers shall not be required where the ob- 
struction is 1 ft (0.3 m) or less in width and located a 
minimum of 1 ft (0.3 m) horizontally from the sprinkler. 

(4) Additional sprinklers shall not be required where the ob- 
struction is 2 ft (0.6 m) or less in width and located a 
minimum of 2 ft (0.6 m) horizontally from the sprinkler. 

(5) Ceiling sprinklers shall not be required to comply with 
Table 8.12.5.1.1 where a row of sprinklers is installed un- 
der the obstruction. 



8.12.5.3.2 Upright Sprinklers. 

8.12.5.3.2.1 Upright sprinklers shall be installed on sprigs 
arranged so that the deflector is a minimum of 7 in. (178 mm) 
above the top of the sprinkler pipe. 

8.12.5.3.2.2 K-11.2 upright sprinklers shall be permitted to 
be installed on sprigs arranged so that the deflector is a mini- 
mum of 7 in. (178 mm) above the top of the sprinkler pipe. 

8.12.5.3.3 Bottom Chords of Bar Joists or Open Trusses. 

ESFR sprinklers shall be positioned a minimum of 1 ft (0.3 m) 
horizontally from the nearest edge to any bottom chord of a 
bar joist or open truss. 

8.12.5.3.4 Open Gratings. Sprinklers installed under open 
gratings shall be of the intermediate level/rack storage type or 
otherwise shielded from the discharge of overhead sprinklers. 

8.12.5.3.5 Overhead Doors. Quick response spray sprinklers 
shall be permitted to be utilized under overhead doors. 

8.12.5.3.6 Special Obstruction Allowance. Sprinklers with a 
special obstruction allowance shall be installed according to 
their listing. 

8.12.6 Clearance to Storage (Early Suppression Fast- 
Response Sprinklers). The clearance between the deflector 
and the top of storage shall be 36 in. (914 mm) or greater. 

8.13 In-Rack Sprinklers. 

8.13.1 System Size. The area protected by a single system of 
sprinklers in racks shall not exceed 40,000 ft 2 (3716 m 2 ) of 
floor area occupied by the racks, including aisles, regardless of 
the number of levels of in-rack sprinklers. 

8.13.2 Type of In-Rack Sprinklers. 

8.13.2.1 Sprinklers in racks shall be ordinary-temperature 
standard-response or quick-response classification with a 
nominal K-factor of 5.6 or 8.0, pendent or upright. 

8.13.2.2 Sprinklers with intermediate- and high-temperature 
ratings shall be used near heat sources as required by 8.3.2. 

8.13.3 In-Rack Sprinkler Water Shields. 

8.13.3.1 In-Rack Sprinkler Water Shields for Storage of Class 
I through rV Commodities. Water shields shall be provided di- 
recdy above in-rack sprinklers, or listed intermediate level/rack 
storage sprinklers shall be used where there is more than one 
level, if not shielded by horizontal barriers. (See Section C.3.) 

8.13.3.2 In-Rack Sprinkler Water Shields for Plastic Storage. 

Where in-rack sprinklers are not shielded by horizontal barri- 
ers, water shields shall be provided above the sprinklers, or 
listed intermediate level/rack storage sprinklers shall be used. 

8.13.4 Location, Position, and Spacing of In-Rack Sprinklers. 

See Section 12.3. 

8.13.5 Obstructions to In-Rack Sprinkler Discharge. In-rack 
sprinklers shall not be required to meet the obstruction crite- 
ria and clearance from storage requirements of Section 8.5. 

8.14 Special Situations. 
8.14.1 Concealed Spaces. 

8.14.1.1 Concealed Spaces Requiring Sprinkler Protection. 

All concealed spaces enclosed wholly or partly by exposed 
combustible construction shall be protected by sprinklers ex- 
cept in concealed spaces where sprinklers are not required to 
be installed by 8.14.1.2.1 through 8.14.1.2.15. 



2002 Edition 



13-70 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



8. 14. 1 .2* Concealed Spaces Not Requiring Sprinkler Protection. 

8.14.1.2.1 Noncombustible and limited combustible con- 
cealed spaces with no combustible loading having no access 
shall not require sprinkler protection. The space shall be con- 
sidered a concealed space even with small openings such as 
those used as return air for a plenum. 

8.14.1.2.2 Noncombustible and limited combustible concealed 
spaces with limited access and not permitting occupancy or stor- 
age of combustibles shall not require sprinkler protection. The 
space shall be considered a concealed space even with small 
openings such as those used as return air for a plenum. 

8.14.1.2.3 Concealed spaces formed by studs or joists with 
less than 6 in. (152 mm) between the inside or near edges of 
the studs or joists shall not require sprinkler protection. (See 
Figure 8.6.4.1.5.1.) 

8.14.1.2.4 Concealed spaces formed by bar joists with less 
than 6 in. (152 mm) between the roof or floor deck and ceil- 
ing shall not require sprinkler protection. 

8.14.1.2.5 Concealed spaces formed by ceilings attached di- 
rectly to or within 6 in. (152 mm) of wood joist construction 
shall not require sprinkler protection. 

8.14.1.2.6* Concealed spaces formed by ceilings attached to 
composite wood joist construction either directly or onto metal 
channels not exceeding 1 in. in depth, provided the joist chan- 
nels are firestopped into volumes each not exceeding 160 ft 3 
(4.53 m 3 ) using materials equivalent to the web construction and 
at least 314 in. of batt insulation is installed at the bottom of the 
joist channels when the ceiling is attached utilizing metal chan- 
nels, shall not require sprinkler protection. 

8.14.1.2.7 Concealed spaces entirely filled with noncombus- 
tible insulation shall not require sprinkler protection. 

8.14.1.2.8 Concealed spaces within wood joist construction and 
composite wood joist construction having noncombustible insu- 
lation filling the space from the ceiling up to the bottom edge of 
the joist of the roof or floor deck, provided that in composite 
wood joist construction the joist channels are firestopped into 
volumes each not exceeding 160 ft 3 (4.53 m 3 ) to the full depth of 
the joist with material equivalent to the web construction, shall 
not require sprinkler protection. 

8.14.1.2.9 Concealed spaces over isolated small rooms not 
exceeding 55 ft 2 (4.6 m ) in area shall not require sprinkler 
protection. 

8.14.1.2.10 Concealed spaces where rigid materials are used 
and the exposed surfaces have a flame spread rating of 25 or 
less and the materials have been demonstrated not to propa- 
gate fire in the form in which they are installed shall not re- 
quire sprinkler protection. 

8.14.1.2.11 Concealed spaces in which the exposed materials 
are constructed entirely of fire-retardant treated wood as de- 
fined by NFPA 703, Standard for Fire Retardant Impregnated Wood 
and Fire Retardant Coatings for Building Materials, shall not re- 
quire sprinkler protection. 

8.14.1.2.12 Noncombustible concealed spaces having exposed 
combustible insulation where the heat content of the facing and 
substrate of the insulation material does not exceed 1000 Btu/ft 
(11,356 kj/m 2 ) shall not require sprinkler protection. 

8.14.1.2.13 Concealed spaces below insulation that is laid di- 
rectly on top of or within the ceiling joists in an otherwise 
sprinklered attic shall not require sprinkler protection. 



8.14.1.2.14 Vertical pipe chases under 10 ft 2 (0.93 m 2 ), where 
provided that in multifloor buildings the chases are fire 
stopped at each floor using materials equivalent to the floor 
construction, and where such pipe chases shall contain no 
sources of ignition, piping shall be noncombustible, and pipe 
penetrations at each floor shall be properly sealed and shall 
not require sprinkler protection. 

8.14.1.2.15 Exterior columns under 10 ft 2 in area formed by 
studs or wood joist, supporting exterior canopies that are fully 
protected with a sprinkler system, shall not require sprinkler 
protection. 

8.14.1.3 Concealed Space Design Requirements. Sprinklers 
in concealed spaces having no access for storage or other use 
shall be installed in accordance with the requirements for 
light hazard occupancy. 

8.14.1.4 Heat Producing Devices with Composite Wood Joist 
Construction. Where heat-producing devices such as furnaces 
or process equipment are located in thejoist channels above a 
ceiling attached directly to the underside of composite wood 
joist construction that would not otherwise require sprinkler 
protection of the spaces, thejoist channel containing the heat- 
producing devices shall be sprinklered by installing sprinklers 
in each joist channel, on each side, adjacent to the heat- 
producing device. 

8.14.1.5 Localized Protection of Exposed Combustible Con- 
struction or Exposed Combustibles. In concealed spaces hav- 
ing exposed combustible construction, or containing exposed 
combustibles, in localized areas, the combustibles shall be pro- 
tected as follows: 

(1) If the exposed combustibles are in the vertical partitions 
or walls around all or a portion of the enclosure, a single 
row of sprinklers spaced not over 12 ft (3.7 m) apart nor 
more than 6 ft (1.8 m) from the inside of the partition 
shall be permitted to protect the surface. The first and last 
sprinklers in such a row shall not be over 5 ft (1.5 m) from 
the ends of the partitions. 

(2) If the exposed combustibles are in the horizontal plane, the 
area of the combustibles shall be permitted to be protected 
with sprinklers on a light hazard spacing. Additional sprin- 
klers shall be installed no more than 6 ft (1.8 m) outside the 
oudine of the area and not more than 12 ft (3.7 m) on cen- 
ter along the oudine. When the oudine returns to a wall or 
other obstruction, the last sprinkler shall not be more than 
6 ft (1.8 m) from the wall or obstruction. 

8.14.1.6* Sprinklers used in horizontal combustible con- 
cealed spaces (with a slope not exceeding 2 in 12) having a 
combustible upper surface where the assembly or supporting 
members channel heat and where the depth of the space is 
less than 36 in. from deck to deck or with double wood joist 
construction with a maximum of 36 in. between the top of the 
bottom joist and the bottom of the upper joist shall be listed 
for such use. 

8.14.2 Vertical Shafts. 

8.14.2.1 General. Unless the requirements of 8.14.2.1.1 or 
8.14.2.1.2 are met, one sprinkler shall be installed at the top 
of shafts. 

8.14.2.1.1 Noncombustible or limited-combustible, nonacces- 
sible vertical duct shafts shall not require sprinkler protection. 

8.14.2.1.2 Noncombustible or limited-combustible, nonac- 
cessible vertical electrical or mechanical shafts shall not re- 
quire sprinkler protection. 



2002 Edition 



INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS 



13-71 



8.14.2.2* Shafts with Combustible Surfaces. 

8.14.2.2.1 Where vertical shafts have combustible surfaces, 
one sprinkler shall be installed at each alternate floor level. 

8.14.2.2.2 Where a shaft having combustible surfaces is 
trapped, an additional sprinkler shall be installed at the top of 
each trapped section. 

8.14.2.3 Accessible Shafts with Noncombustible Surfaces. 

Where accessible vertical shafts have noncombustible sur- 
faces, one sprinkler shall be installed near the bottom. 

8.14.3 Stairways. 

8.14.3.1 Combustible Construction. Sprinklers shall be in- 
stalled beneath all stairways of combustible construction. 

8.14.3.2 Noncombustible Construction. 

8.14.3.2.1 In noncombustible stair shafts with noncombus- 
tible stairs, sprinklers shall be installed at the top of the shaft 
and under the first landing above the bottom of the shaft. 

8.14.3.2.2 Where noncombustible stair shafts are divided by 
walls or doors, sprinklers shall be provided on each side of the 
separation. 

8.14.3.2.3 Sprinklers shall be installed beneath landings or 
stairways where the area beneath is used for storage. 

8.14.3.3* Stairs Serving Two or More Fire Divisions. Sprinklers 
shall be installed in the stair shaft at each floor landing where 
two or more doors open from that landing into separate fire 
divisions. 

8.14.4* Vertical Openings. 

8.14.4.1 General. Unless the requirements of 8.14.4.4 or 
8.14.4.5 are met, where moving stairways, staircases, or similar 
floor openings are unenclosed, the floor openings involved 
shall be protected by closely spaced sprinklers in combination 
with draft stops in accordance with 8.14.4.2 and 8.14.4.3. 

8.14.4.2 Draft Stops. Draft stops shall meet all of the following: 

(1) The draft stops shall be located immediately adjacent to 
the opening. 

(2) The draft stops shall be at least 18 in. (457 mm) deep. 

(3) The draft stops shall be of noncombustible or limited- 
combustible material that will stay in place before and 
during sprinkler operation. 

8.14.4.3 Sprinklers. 

8.14.4.3.1 Sprinklers shall be spaced not more than 6 ft 
(1.8 m) apart and placed 6 in. to 12 in. (152 mm to 305 mm) 
from the draft stop on the side away from the opening. 

8.14.4.3.2 Where sprinklers are closer than 6 ft (1.8 m), cross 
baffles shall be provided in accordance with 8.6.3.4.2. 

8.14.4.4 Large Openings. Closely spaced sprinklers and draft 
stops are not required around large openings such as those 
found in shopping malls, atrium buildings, and similar struc- 
tures where all adjoining levels and spaces are protected by 
automatic sprinklers in accordance with this standard and 
where the openings have all horizontal dimensions between 
opposite edges of 20 ft (6 m) or greater and an area of 1000 ft 2 
(93 m 2 ) or greater. 



8.14.4.5 Convenience Openings in Individual Dwelling Units. 

Draft stops and closely spaced sprinklers are not required for 
convenience openings within individual dwelling units that 
meet all of the following criteria: 

(1) Such openings shall connect a maximum of two adjacent 
stories (pierce one floor only). 

(2)*Such openings shall be separated from unprotected verti- 
cal openings serving other floors by a barrier with a fire 
resistance rating equal to that required for enclosure of 
floor openings by NFPA 101®, Life Safety Code®. 

(3) Such openings shall be separate from corridors. 

(4) Such openings shall not serve as a required means of egress, 
although they can serve as a required means of escape. 

8.14.5 Elevator Hoistways and Machine Rooms. 

8.14.5.1* Sidewall spray sprinklers shall be installed at the bot- 
tom of each elevator hoistway not more than 2 ft (0.61 m) 
above the floor of the pit. 

8.14.5.2 The sprinkler required at the bottom of the elevator 
hoistway by 8.14.5.1 shall not be required for enclosed, non- 
combustible elevator shafts that do not contain combustible 
hydraulic fluids. 

8.14.5.3* Automatic sprinklers in elevator machine rooms or 
at the tops of hoistways shall be of ordinary- or intermediate- 
temperature rating. 

8.14.5.4* Upright or pendent spray sprinklers shall be in- 
stalled at the top of elevator hoistways. 

8.14.5.5 The sprinkler required at the top of the elevator 
hoistway by 8.14.5.4 shall not be required where the hoistway 
for passenger elevators is noncombustible and the car enclo- 
sure materials meet the requirements of ASME A17.1, Safety 
Code for Elevators and Escalators. 

8.14.6 Spaces Under Ground Floors, Exterior Docks, and 
Platforms. 

8.14.6.1 Unless the requirements of 8.14.6.2 are met, sprin- 
klers shall be installed in spaces under all combustible ground 
floors, exterior docks, and platforms. 

8.14.6.2 Sprinklers shall be permitted to be omitted from 
spaces under ground floors, exterior docks, and platforms 
where all of the following conditions prevail: 

(1) The space is not accessible for storage purposes and is 
protected against accumulation of wind-borne debris. 

(2) The space contains no equipment such as conveyors or 
fuel-fired heating units. 

(3) The floor over the space is of tight construction. 

(4) No combustible or flammable liquids or materials that 
under fire conditions would convert into combustible or 
flammable liquids are processed, handled, or stored on 
the floor above the space. 

8.14.7* Exterior Roofs or Canopies. 

8.14.7.1* Unless the requirements of 8.14.7.2 or 8.14.7.3 are 
met, sprinklers shall be installed under exterior roofs or cano- 
pies exceeding 4 ft (1.2 m) in width. 

8.14.7.2 Sprinklers shall be permitted to be omitted where 
the canopy or roof is of noncombustible or limited combus- 
tible construction. 



2002 Edition 



13-72 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



8.14.7.3 Sprinklers shall be permitted to be omitted from 
exterior exit corridors when the exterior walls of the corridor 
are at least 50 percent open and when the corridor is entirely 
of noncombustible construction. 

8.14.7.4* Sprinklers shall be installed under roofs or canopies 
over areas where combustibles are stored and handled. 

8.14.8 Dwelling Units. 
8.14.8.1 Bathrooms. 

8.14.8.1.1 Unless sprinklers are required by 8.14.8.1.2 or 
8.14.8.1.3, sprinklers shall not be required in bathrooms that are 
located within dwelling units, that do not exceed 55 ft 2 (5.1 m 2 ) 
in area, and that have walls and ceilings of noncombustible or 
limited-combustible materials with a 15-minute thermal barrier 
rating including the walls and ceilings behind fixtures. 

8.14.8.1.2 Sprinklers shall be required in bathrooms of nurs- 
ing homes, as defined in NFPA 101, Life Safety Code. 

8.14.8.1.3 Sprinklers shall be required in bathrooms opening 
directly onto public corridors or exitways. 

8.14.8.2* Closets and Pantries. Sprinklers are not required in 
clothes closets, linen closets, and pantries within dwelling 
units in hotels and motels where the area of the space does not 
exceed 24 ft 2 (2.2 m 2 ), the least dimension does not exceed 
3 ft (0.9 m), and the walls and ceilings are surfaced with non- 
combustible or limited-combustible materials. 

8.14.9 Library Stack Rooms. Sprinklers shall be installed in 
accordance with one of the following: 

(1) Sprinklers shall be permitted to be installed without re- 
gard to aisles where there is 18 in. (457 mm) or more 
clearance between sprinkler deflectors and tops of racks. 

(2) Where the 18 in. (457 mm) clearance between sprinkler 
deflectors and tops of racks cannot be maintained, sprin- 
klers shall be installed in every aisle and at every tier of 
stacks with distance between sprinklers along aisles not to 
exceed 12 ft (3.7 m) in accordance with Figure 8.14.9(a). 

(3) Where the 18 in. (457 mm) clearance between sprinkler 
deflectors and tops of racks cannot be maintained and 
where vertical shelf dividers are incomplete and allow wa- 
ter distribution to adjacent aisles, sprinklers shall be per- 
mitted to be omitted in alternate aisles on each tier, and 
where ventilation openings are also provided in tier 
floors, sprinklers shall be staggered vertically in accor- 
dance with Figure 8.14.9(b). 



H £ h 

■H h 

■H h 

H h 



H h 

H ZX h 
H h 

■H h 

H h 



-H S h-- 



l-H 



H ZX h 

H h 

H h 

H h 



H h 

H £ h 
H h 

H h 

H h 



H S I- 

H h 

H h 

H h 



H £ h 

H h 

H h 

H h 



H £ h 

H h 

H h 

H h 



H A h 

H h 

H h 

H h 




Complete 
~i^-^~f r ~ vertical 
^T^ I divider 



•or 



H £H: Floor o. 
. _i / — lT _ walkway — 
/ either solid 

. -I / | — or with 

/ ventilation 

H / r~ openings 



H S I- 

H I- 

■H I- 

■H I- 



FIGURE 8. 14.9(a) Sprinklers in Multitier Library Bookstacks 
with Complete Vertical Dividers. 



t-i 


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h-H 


S 


i i i 
h-H 


i i i 
h + H 


i 
Ah- 


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HtH 




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h+H 




j^ Incomplete 
"i vertical 


^H 


HtH 




h-H 


h^f 




1 divider 


-H 

u i 


HtH 

1 1 1 




h-H 
i i i 


h + H 
i i i 




h" 
1 


A 1 

0) 


1 1 1 




i i i 

h-H 


l I 1 
ZXh-H 




1 

h^- Ventilation 


SH 


H-H 




h-H 


h + H 




1 — openings 


8-H 


h+H 




h-H 


h+H 




h" 


i 


h-H 
i i i 




h-H 
i I i 


h+H, 
iii 




h" 
1 


i 
-4 


i i i 

h-H 


A 


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i i i 

h + H 


ZX 


1 
h" 


■S-H 


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h4H 


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h" 


n 


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h- 

i 



FIGURE 8.14.9(b) Sprinklers in Multitier Library Bookstacks 
with Incomplete Vertical Dividers. 



8.14.10 Electrical Equipment. 

8.14.10.1 Unless the requirements of 8.14.10.3 are met, sprin- 
kler protection shall be required in electrical equipment rooms. 

8.14.10.2 Hoods or shields installed to protect important 
electrical equipment from sprinkler discharge shall be non- 
combustible. 

8.14.10.3 Sprinklers shall not be required in electrical equip- 
ment rooms where all of the following conditions are met: 

(1) The room is dedicated to electrical equipment only. 

(2) Only dry-type electrical equipment is used. 

(3) Equipment is installed in a 2-hour fire-rated enclosure 
including protection for penetrations. 

(4) No combustible storage is permitted to be stored in the 
room. 



8.14.11* Industrial Ovens and Furnaces. 

8.14.12* Open-Grid Ceilings. Open-grid ceilings shall only be 
installed beneath sprinklers where one of the following is met: 

(1) Open-grid ceilings in which the openings are l A in. 
(6.4 mm) or larger in the least dimension, where the 
thickness or depth of the material does not exceed the 
least dimension of the opening, and where such openings 
constitute 70 percent of the area of the ceiling material. 
The spacing of the sprinklers over the open-grid ceiling 
shall then comply with the following: 
(a) In light hazard occupancies where sprinkler spac- 
ing (either spray or old-style sprinklers) is less than 
10 ft x 10 ft (3 m x 3 m), a minimum clearance of at 
least 18 in. (457 mm) shall be provided between 



2002 Edition 



INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS 



13-73 



the sprinkler deflectors and the upper surface of 
the open-grid ceiling. Where spacing is greater 
than 10 ft x 10 ft (3 m x 3 m) but less than 10 ft 
x 12 ft (3 m x 3.7 m), a clearance of at least 24 in. 
(610 mm) shall be provided from spray sprinklers 
and at least 36 in. (914 mm) from old-style sprin- 
klers. Where spacing is greater than 10 ft x 12 ft 
(3 m x 3.7 m), a clearance of at least 48 in. 
(1219 mm) shall be provided, 
(b) In ordinary hazard occupancies, open-grid ceilings 
shall be permitted to be installed beneath spray sprin- 
klers only. Where sprinkler spacing is less than 10 ft 
x 10 ft (3 m x 3 m), a minimum clearance of at least 
24 in. (610 mm) shall be provided between the sprin- 
kler deflectors and the upper surface of the open-grid 
ceiling. Where spacing is greater than 10 ft x 10 ft 
(3 m x 3 m), a clearance of at least 36 in. (914 mm) 
shall be provided. 

(2) Other types of open-grid ceilings shall be permitted to be 
installed beneath sprinklers where they are listed for such 
service and are installed in accordance with instructions 
contained in each package of ceiling material. 

8.14.13 Drop-Out Ceilings. 

8.14.13.1 Drop-out ceilings shall be permitted to be installed 
beneath sprinklers where ceilings are listed for that service 
and are installed in accordance with their listings. 

8.14.13.2 Special sprinklers shall not be installed above drop- 
out ceilings unless specifically listed for this purpose. 

8.14.13.3 Drop-out ceilings shall not be considered ceilings 
within the context of this standard. 

8.14.13.4* Piping installed above drop-out ceilings shall not 
be considered concealed piping. 

8.14.13.5* Sprinklers shall not be installed beneath drop-out 
ceilings. 

8.14.14 Old-Style Sprinklers. 

8.14.14.1 Unless required by 8.14.14.2 or 8.14.14.3, old-style 
sprinklers shall not be used in a new installation. 

8.14.14.2* Old-style sprinklers shall be installed in fur stor- 
age vaults. 

8.14.14.3 Use of old-style sprinklers shall be permitted where 
construction features or other special situations require 
unique water distribution. 

8.14.15 Stages. 

8.14.15.1 Sprinklers shall be installed under the roof at the 
ceiling, in spaces under the stage either containing combus- 
tible materials or constructed of combustible materials, and 
in all adjacent spaces and dressing rooms, storerooms, and 
workshops. 

8.14.15.2 Where proscenium opening protection is required, 
a deluge system shall be provided with open sprinklers located 
not more than 3 ft (0.9 m) away from the stage side of the 
proscenium arch and spaced up to a maximum of 6 ft (1.8 m) 
on center. (See Chapter 11 for design criteria.) 

8.14.16 Provision for Flushing Systems. 

8.14.1 6.1 All sprinkler systems shall be arranged for flushing. 



8.14.16.2 Readily removable fittings shall be provided at the 
end of all cross mains. 

8.14.16.3 All cross mains shall terminate in VA in. (31.8 mm) 
or larger pipe. 

8.14.16.4 All branch lines on gridded systems shall be ar- 
ranged to facilitate flushing. 

8.14.17 Stair Towers. Stairs, towers, or other construction 
with incomplete floors, if piped on independent risers, shall 
be treated as one area with reference to pipe sizes. 

8.14.18 Return Bends. 

8.14.18.1 Unless the requirements of 8.14.18.3 or 8.14.18.4 
are met, return bends shall be used where pendent sprinklers 
are supplied from a raw water source, a mill pond, or open-top 
reservoirs. 

8.14.18.2 Return bends shall be connected to the top of 
branch lines in order to avoid accumulation of sediment in 
the drop nipples in accordance with Figure 8.14.18.2. 



Ceiling 



7 



i — r 



FIGURE 8.14.18.2 Return Bend Arrangement. 

8.14.18.3 Return bends shall not be required for deluge 
systems. 

8.14.18.4 Return bends shall not be required where dry- 
pendent sprinklers are used. 

8.14.19 Piping to Sprinklers Below Ceilings. 

8.14.19.1* In new installations expected to supply sprinklers 
below a ceiling, minimum 1-in. (25.4-mm) outlets shall be 
provided. 

8.14.19.2 The 1-in. (25.4-mm) oudets required by 8.14.19.1 
shall be permitted to utilize hexagonal bushings to accommo- 
date temporary sprinklers and shall be removed with the tem- 
porary sprinklers when the permanent ceiling sprinklers are 
installed. 

8.14.19.3 Revamping of Pipe Schedule Systems. 

8.14.19.3.1 When pipe schedule systems are revamped, a 
nipple not exceeding 4 in. (102 mm) in length shall be permit- 
ted to be installed in the branch line fitting. 

8.14.19.3.2 All piping other than the nipple permitted in 
8.14.19.3.1 and 8.14.19.3.3 shall be a minimum of 1 in. 
(25.4 mm) in diameter in accordance with Figure 8.14.19.3.2. 



2002 Edition 



13-74 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



7 



Main ceiling 



aV 



Reducing elbow 



dz^— Lfci 



,4 in. (100 mm) 
maximum length 



2 



3 /^-n\ Suspended 

/ceiling 



FIGURE 8.14.19.3.2 Nipple and Reducing Elbow Supplying 
Sprinkler Below Ceiling. 

8.14.19.3.3 When it is necessary to pipe two new ceiling sprin- 
klers from an existing outlet in an overhead system, the use of a 
nipple not exceeding 4 in. (102 mm) in length and of the same 
pipe thread size as the existing outlet shall be permitted, pro- 
vided that a hydraulic calculation verifies that the design flow rate 
will be achieved in accordance with Figure 8.14.19.3.3. 



7 



Main ceiling 



Drop 
nipple 



Reducer 




Nipple 

[4 in. (100 mm) 

maximum length] 

Branch line 



Suspended 
/ ceiling 



Ceiling plate 



FIGURE 8.14.19.3.3 Sprinklers in Concealed Space and Be- 
low Ceiling. 

8.14.19.3.4 The use of pipe nipples less than 1 in. (25.4 mm) in 
diameter shall not be permitted in areas subject to earthquakes. 

8.14.19.4 Revamping of Hydraulic Design Systems. 

8.14.19.4.1 When hydraulically designed systems are re- 
vamped, any existing bushing shall be removed and a nipple 
not exceeding 4 in. (102 mm) in length shall be permitted to 
be installed in the branch line fitting. 

8.14.19.4.2 Calculations shall be provided to verify that the 
system design flow rate will be achieved. 

8.14.19.4.3 When it is necessary to pipe two new ceiling sprin- 
klers from an existing outlet in an overhead system, any bushings 



shall be removed and the use of a nipple not exceeding 4 in. 
(102 mm) in length and of the same pipe thread size as the exist- 
ing oudet shall be permitted, provided that a hydraulic calcula- 
tion verifies that the design flow rate will be achieved. 

8.14.19.4.4 The use of pipe nipples less than 1 in. (25.4 mm) 
in diameter is not permitted in areas subject to earthquakes. 

8.14.20 Dry Pipe Underground. 

8.14.20.1 Where necessary to place pipe that will be under air 
pressure underground, the pipe shall be protected against 
corrosion. 

8.14.20.2 Unprotected cast-iron or ductile-iron pipe shall be 
permitted where joined with a gasketed joint listed for air ser- 
vice underground. 

8.14.21* System Subdivision. Where individual floor/ zone con- 
trol valves are not provided, a flanged joint or mechanical cou- 
pling shall be used at the riser at each floor for connections to 
piping serving floor areas in excess of 5000 ft 2 (465 m 2 ). 

8.14.22 Spaces Above Ceilings. 

8.14.22.1 Where spaces have ceilings that are lower than the 
rest of the area, the space above this lower ceiling shall be 
sprinklered unless it complies with the rules of 8.14.1.2 for 
allowable unsprinklered concealed spaces. 

8.14.22.2 Where the space above a drop ceiling is sprinklered, 
the sprinkler system shall conform to the rules of 12.1.13. 

8.15 Piping Installation. 

8.15.1 Valves. 

8.15.1.1* Control Valves. 

8.15.1.1.1* General. 

8.15.1.1.1.1 Each sprinkler system shall be provided with a 
listed indicating valve in an accessible location, so located as to 
control all automatic sources of water supply. 

8.15.1.1.1.2 At least one listed indicating valve shall be in- 
stalled in each source of water supply. 

8.15.1.1.1.3 The requirements of 8.15.1.1.1.2 shall not apply 
to the fire department connection, and there shall be no shut- 
off valve in the fire department connection. 

8.15.1.1.2* Supervision. 

8.15.1.1.2.1 Valves on connections to water supplies, sectional 
control and isolation valves, and other valves in supply pipes to 
sprinklers and other fixed water-based fire suppression systems 
shall be supervised by one of the following methods: 

(1) Central station, proprietary, or remote station signaling 
service 

(2) Local signaling service that will cause the sounding of an 
audible signal at a constantly attended point 

(3) Valves locked in the correct position 

(4) Valves located within fenced enclosures under the control 
of the owner, sealed in the open position, and inspected 
weekly as part of an approved procedure 

8.15.1.1.2.2 Floor control valves in high-rise buildings and 
valves controlling flow to sprinklers in circulating closed loop 
systems shall comply with 8.15.1.1.2.1(1) or 8.15.1.1.2.1(2). 

8.15.1.1.2.3 The requirements of 8.15.1.1.2.1 shall not apply 
to underground gate valves with roadway boxes. 



2002 Edition 



INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS 



13-75 



8.15.1.1.2.4 Where control valves are installed overhead, they 
shall be positioned so that the indicating feature is visible from 
the floor below. 

8.15.1.1.3 Check Valves. 

8.15.1.1.3.1 Where there is more than one source of water 
supply, a check valve shall be installed in each connection. 

8.15.1.1.3.2 A listed backflow prevention device shall be con- 
sidered a check valve, and an additional check valve shall not 
be required. 

8.15.1.1.3.3 Where cushion tanks are used with automatic 
fire pumps, no check valve is required in the cushion tank 
connection. 

8.15.1.1.3.4 Check valves shall be installed in a vertical or 
horizontal position in accordance with their listing. 

8.15.1.1.3.5* Where a single wet pipe sprinkler system is 
equipped with a fire department connection, the alarm valve 
is considered a check valve, and an additional check valve shall 
not be required. 

8.15.1.1.4* Control Valves with Check Valves. 

8.15.1.1.4.1 In a connection serving as one source of supply, 
listed indicating valves or post-indicator valves shall be in- 
stalled on both sides of all check valves required in 8.15.1.1.3. 

8.15.1.1.4.2 The requirements of 8.15.1.1.4.1 shall not apply 
to the check valve located in the fire department connection 
piping, and there shall be no control valves in the fire depart- 
ment connection piping. 

8.15.1.1.4.3 The requirements of 8.15.1.1.4.1 shall not apply, 
where the city connection serves as the only automatic source 
of supply to a wet pipe sprinkler system, a control valve is not 
required on the system side of the check valve or the alarm 
check valve. 

8.15.1.1.5* Gravity Tanks. 

8.15.1.1.5.1 Where a gravity tank is located on a tower in the 
yard, the control valve on the tank side of the check valve shall 
be an outside screw and yoke or listed indicating valve; the 
other shall be either an outside screw and yoke, a listed indi- 
cating valve, or a listed valve having a post-type indicator. 

8.15.1.1.5.2 Where a gravity tank is located on a building, 
both control valves shall be outside screw and yoke or listed 
indicating valves, and all fittings inside the building except the 
drain tee and heater connections shall be under the control of 
a listed valve. 

8.15.1.1.6* Pumps. When a pump is located in a combustible 
pump house or exposed to danger from fire or falling walls, or 
when a tank discharges into a private fire service main fed by 
another supply, either the check valve in the connection shall 
be located in a pit or the control valve shall be of the post- 
indicator type located a safe distance outside buildings. 

8.15.1.1.7* Control Valve Accessibility. All control valves shall 
be located where readily accessible and free of obstructions. 

8.15.1.1.8 Control Valve Identification. Identification signs 
shall be provided at each valve to indicate its function and 
what it controls. 

8.15.1.2 Pressure-Reducing Valves. 

8.15.1.2.1 In portions of systems where all components are 
not listed for pressure greater than 175 psi (12.1 bar) and the 



potential exists for normal (nonfire condition) water pressure 
in excess of 175 psi (12.1 bar), a listed pressure-reducing valve 
shall be installed and set for an outlet pressure not exceeding 
165 psi (2.4 bar) at the maximum inlet pressure. 

8.15.1.2.2 Pressure gauges shall be installed on the inlet and 
outlet sides of each pressure-reducing valve. 

8.15.1.2.3* A relief valve of not less than V2 in. (13 mm) in size 
shall be provided on the discharge side of the pressure- 
reducing valve set to operate at a pressure not exceeding 
175 psi (12.1 bar). 

8.15.1.2.4 A listed indicating valve shall be provided on the 
inlet side of each pressure-reducing valve, unless the pressure- 
reducing valve meets the listing requirements for use as an 
indicating valve. 

8.15.1.2.5 Means shall be provided downstream of all 
pressure-reducing valves for flow tests at sprinkler system 
demand. 

8. 15. 1 .3* Post-Indicator Valves. 

8.15.1.3.1 Post-indicator valves shall be set so that the top of 
the post will be 36 in. (0.9 m) above the final grade. 

8.15.1.3.2 Post-indicator valves shall be properly protected 
against mechanical damage where needed. 

8.15.1.4 Valves in Pits. 

8.15.1.4.1 General. Where it is impractical to provide a post- 
indicator valve, valves shall be permitted to be placed in pits 
with permission of the authority having jurisdiction. 

8.15.1.4.2* Valve Pit Construction. 

8.15.1.4.2.1 When used, valve pits shall be of adequate size 
and readily accessible for inspection, operation, testing, main- 
tenance, and removal of equipment contained therein. 

8.15.1.4.2.2 Valve pits shall be constructed and arranged to 
properly protect the installed equipment from movement of 
earth, freezing, and accumulation of water. 

8.15.1.4.2.3 Poured-in-place or precast concrete, with or 
without reinforcement, or brick (all depending upon soil con- 
ditions and size of pit) shall be appropriate materials for con- 
struction of valve pits. 

8.15.1.4.2.4 Other approved materials shall be permitted to 
be used for valve pit construction. 

8.15.1.4.2.5 Where the water table is low and the soil is porous, 
crushed stone or gravel shall be permitted to be used for the floor 
of the pit. [See Figure A. 8. 16.2(b) for a suggested arrangement.] 

8.15.1.4.2.6 Valve pits located at or near the base of the riser of 
an elevated tank shall be designed in accordance with Chapter 9 
of NFPA 22, Standard for Water Tanks for Private Fire Protection. 

8.15.1.4.3 Valve Pit Marking. The location of the valve shall be 
clearly marked, and the cover of the pit shall be kept free of 
obstructions. 

8.15.1.5 Sectional Valves. 

8.15.1.5.1 Large private fire service main systems shall have 
sectional controlling valves at appropriate points in order to 
permit sectionalizing the system in the event of a break or for 
the making of repairs or extensions. 



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INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



8.15.1.5.2 A valve shall be provided on each bank where a 
main crosses water and outside the building foundation (s) 
where the main or section of main runs under a building. 

8.15.1.6* In-Rack Sprinkler System Control Valves. 

8.15.1.6.1 Unless the requirements of 8.15.1.6.2 or 8.15.1.6.3 
are met, where sprinklers are installed in racks, separate indi- 
cating control valves and drains shall be provided and ar- 
ranged so that ceiling and in-rack sprinklers can be controlled 
independentiy. 

8.15.1.6.2 Installation of 20 or fewer in-rack sprinklers sup- 
plied by any one ceiling sprinkler system shall not require a 
separate indicating control valve. 

8.15.1.6.3 The separate indicating valves shall be permitted to 
be arranged as sectional control valves where the racks occupy 
only a portion of the area protected by the ceiling sprinklers. 

8.15.2 Drainage. 

8.15.2.1* General. All sprinkler pipe and fittings shall be so 
installed that the system can be drained. 

8.15.2.2 Wet Pipe Systems. 

8.15.2.2.1 On wet pipe systems, sprinkler pipes shall be per- 
mitted to be installed level. 

8.15.2.2.2 Trapped piping shall be drained in accordance 
with 8.15.2.5. 

8.15.2.3 Dry Pipe and Preaction Systems. Piping shall be 
pitched to drain as stated in 8.15.2.3.1 through 8.15.2.3.4. 

8.15.2.3.1 Dry Pipe Systems in Non-Refrigerated Areas. In dry 

pipe systems branch lines shall be pitched at least Vs> in. per 
10 ft (4 mm/m) and mains shall be pitched at least l A in. per 
10ft(2mm/m). 

8.15.2.3.2 Preaction Systems Subject to Freezing. In preaction 
systems where a portion of the piping is subject to freezing, 
branch lines shall be pitched at least M> in. per 10 ft (4 mm/m) 
and mains shall be pitched at least ] /4 in. per 10 ft (2 mm/m). 

8.15.2.3.3 Preaction Systems Not Subject to Freezing. Preac- 
tion systems located entirely in areas not subject to freezing 
shall not be required to be pitched. 

8. 15.2.3.4 Dry Pipe and Preaction Systems in Refrigerated Ar- 
eas. Branch lines shall be pitched at least Vi in. per 10 ft 
(4 mm/m), and mains shall be pitched at least V2 in. per 10 ft 
(4 mm/m) in refrigerated areas. 

8.15.2.4* System, Main Drain, or Sectional Drain Connec- 
tions. See Figure 8.15.2.4. 

8.15.2.4.1 Provisions shall be made to properly drain all parts 
of the system. 

8.15.2.4.2 Drain connections for systems supply risers and 
mains shall be sized as shown in Table 8.15.2.4.2. 

8.15.2.4.3 Where an interior sectional or floor control valve (s) 
is provided, it shall be provided with a drain connection having a 
minimum size as shown in Table 8.15.2.4.2 to drain that portion 
of the system controlled by the sectional valve. 

8.15.2.4.4 Drains shall discharge outside or to a drain con- 
nection. [See Figure A. 8. 1 6. 4. 2(b).] 

8.15.2.4.5 For those drains serving pressure-reducing valves, 
the drain, drain connection, and all other downstream drain 



Pressure gauge . 




Inspector's 
!4-in. (6.4-mm) 
test plug 



Not less than 4 ft (1.22 m) 
of exposed drain pipe in 
warm room beyond 
valve when pipe extends 
through wall to outside 



FIGURE 8.15.2.4 Drain Connection for System Riser. 



Table 8.15.2.4.2 Drain Size 



Riser or Main Size 



Size of Drain Connection 



Up to 2 in. 

2V2 in., 3 in., 3M* in. 

4 in. and larger 



% in. or larger 

1V4 in. or larger 

2 in. only 



For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm. 



piping shall be sized to permit a flow of at least the greatest 
system demand supplied by the pressure-reducing valve. 

8.15.2.4.6 The test connections required by 8.16.4.1 shall be 
permitted to be used as main drain connections. 

8.15.2.4.7 Where drain connections for floor control valves are 
tied into a common drain riser, the drain riser shall be one pipe 
size larger than the largest size drain connection tying into it. 

8.15.2.5 Auxiliary Drains. 

8.15.2.5.1 Auxiliary drains shall be provided where a change 
in piping direction prevents drainage of system piping 
through the main drain valve. 

8.15.2.5.2 Auxiliary Drains for Wet Pipe Systems and Preac- 
tion Systems in Areas Not Subject to Freezing. 

8.15.2.5.2.1* Where the capacity of isolated trapped sections 
of pipe is 50 gal (189 L) or more, the auxiliary drain shall 
consist of a valve not smaller than 1 in. (25.4 mm) , piped to an 
accessible location. 

8.15.2.5.2.2 Where the capacity of isolated trapped sections 
of pipe is more than 5 gal (18.9 L) and less than 50 gal (189 L), 
the auxiliary drain shall consist of a valve % in. (19 mm) or 
larger and a plug or a nipple and cap. 

8.15.2.5.2.3 Where the capacity of trapped sections of pipes 
in wet systems is less than 5 gal (18.9 L), one of the following 
arrangements shall be provided: 

( 1 ) An auxiliary drain shall consist of a nipple and cap or plug 
not less than x h in. (12 mm) in size. 



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INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS 



13-77 



(2) An auxiliary drain shall not be required for trapped sec- 
tions less than 5 gal (18.9 L) where the system piping can 
be drained by removing a single pendent sprinkler. 

(3) Where flexible couplings or other easily separated con- 
nections are used, the nipple and cap or plug shall be 
permitted to be omitted. 

8.15.2.5.2.4 Tie-in drains shall not be required on wet pipe 
systems and preaction systems protecting non-freezing envi- 
ronments. 

8.15.2.5.3 Auxiliary Drains for Dry Pipe Systems and Preac- 
tion Systems in Areas Subject to Freezing. 

8.15.2.5.3.1 Where the capacity of trapped sections of pipe is 
less than 5 gal (18.9 L) , the auxiliary drain shall consist of a valve 
not smaller than l A in. (12 mm) and a plug or a nipple and cap. 

8.15.2.5.3.2 Auxiliary drains are not for pipe drops supplying 
dry-pendent sprinklers installed in accordance with 7.2.2. 

8.15.2.5.3.3 Where the capacity of isolated trapped sections of 
system piping is more than 5 gal (18.9 L) , the auxiliary drain shall 
consist of two 1-in. (25.4-mm) valves and one 2-in. x 12-in. 
(51-mm x 305-mm) condensate nipple or equivalent, accessibly 
located in accordance with Figure 8.15.2.5.3.3. 



Dry system 

auxiliary 

drain 




1-in. (25.4-mm) valve 



2-in. (51-mm) x 12-in. (305-mm) 
nipple or equivalent 




1-in. (25.4-mm) valve 

1-in. (25.4-mm) nipple and cap or plug 
FIGURE 8. 15.2.5.3.3 Dry System Auxiliary Drain. 



8.15.2.5.3.4 Tie-in drains shall be provided for multiple adja- 
cent trapped branch pipes and shall be only 1 in. (25.4 mm). 
Tie-in drain lines shall be pitched a minimum of V2 in. per 10 ft 
(4 mm/m). 

8.15.2.6 Discharge of Drain Valves. 

8.15.2.6.1* Direct interconnections shall not be made be- 
tween sprinkler drains and sewers. 

8.15.2.6.2 The drain discharge shall conform to any health or 
water department regulations. 

8.15.2.6.3 Where drain pipes are buried underground, ap- 
proved corrosion-resistant pipe shall be used. 



8.15.2.6.4 Drain pipes shall not terminate in blind spaces un- 
der the building. 

8.15.2.6.5 Where exposed to the atmosphere, drain pipes 
shall be fitted with a turned-down elbow. 

8.15.2.6.6 Drain pipes shall be arranged to avoid exposing 
any part of the sprinkler system to freezing conditions. 

8.15.3 Protection of Piping. 

8.15.3.1 Protection of Piping Against Freezing. 

8.15.3.1.1 Unless the requirements of 8.15.3.1.2 are met, 
where portions of systems are subject to freezing and tempera- 
tures cannot reliably be maintained at or above 40°F (4°C), 
sprinklers shall be installed as a dry pipe or preaction system. 

8.15.3.1.2 Small unheated areas are permitted to be pro- 
tected by antifreeze systems or by other systems specifically 
listed for this purpose. 

8.15.3.1.3* Where aboveground water-filled supply pipes, ris- 
ers, system risers, or feed mains pass through open areas, cold 
rooms, passageways, or other areas exposed to freezing tem- 
peratures, the pipe shall be protected against freezing by insu- 
lating coverings, frostproof casings, or other reliable means 
capable of maintaining a minimum temperature between 
40°F (4°C) and 120°F (48.9°C). 

8.15.3.2 Protection of Piping Against Corrosion. 

8.15.3.2.1* Where corrosive conditions are known to exist due 
to moisture or fumes from corrosive chemicals or both, special 
types of fittings, pipes, and hangers that resist corrosion shall 
be used, or a protective coating shall be applied to all unpro- 
tected exposed surfaces of the sprinkler system. 

8. 1 5.3.2.2 Where water supplies are known to have unusual cor- 
rosive properties and threaded or cut-groove steel pipe is to be 
used, wall thickness shall be in accordance with Schedule 30 [in 
sizes 8 in. (200 mm) or larger] or Schedule 40 [in sizes less than 
8 in. (200 mm)]. 

8.15.3.2.3 Where corrosive conditions exist or piping is ex- 
posed to the weather, corrosion-resistant types of pipe, fittings, 
and hangers or protective corrosion-resistant coatings shall be 
used. 

8.15.3.2.4 Where steel pipe is used underground, the pipe 
shall be protected against corrosion. 

8.15.3.3 Protection of Piping in Hazardous Areas. 

8.15.3.3.1 Private service main aboveground piping shall not 
pass through hazardous areas and shall be located so that it is 
protected from mechanical and fire damage. 

8.15.3.3.2 Private service main aboveground piping shall be 
permitted to be located in hazardous areas protected by an 
automatic sprinkler system. 

8.15.4 Protection of Risers Subject to Mechanical Damage. 

Sprinkler risers subject to mechanical damage shall be protected 
by steel posts, concrete barriers, or other approved means. 

8.16 System Attachments. 

8.16.1* Sprinkler Alarms/Waterflow Alarms. 

8.16.1.1 Local Waterflow Alarms. Local waterflow alarms 
shall be provided on all sprinkler systems having more than 
20 sprinklers. 



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INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



8.16.1.2 Retarding Devices. 

8.16.1.2.1 On each alarm check valve used under conditions 
of variable water pressure, a retarding device shall be installed. 

8.16.1.2.2 Valves shall be provided in the connections to re- 
tarding devices to permit repair or removal without shutting 
off sprinklers; these valves shall be so arranged that they can 
be locked or sealed in the open position. 

8.16.1.3 Alarm Bypass Test Connections. 

8.16.1.3.1 Alarm, dry pipe, preaction, and deluge valves shall 
be fitted with an alarm bypass test connection for an electric 
alarm switch, water motor gong, or both. 

8.16.1.3.2 The alarm bypass test connection for alarm, dry 
pipe, preaction, and deluge valves shall be made on the water 
supply side of the system and provided with a control valve and 
drain for the alarm piping. 

8.16.1.3.3 The alarm bypass test connection for alarm valves 
at the riser shall be permitted to be made on the system side of 
an alarm valve. 

8.16.1.3.4 A check valve shall be installed in the pipe connec- 
tion from the intermediate chamber of a dry pipe valve. 

8.16.1.4 Indicating Control Valves. 

8.16.1.4.1 An indicating control valve shall be installed in the 
connection to pressure-type contactors or water motor- 
operated alarm devices. 

8.16.1.4.2 Such valves shall be sealed, locked, or electrically 
supervised in the open position. 

8.16.1.4.3 The control valve for the retarding chamber on 
alarm check valves shall be accepted as complying with the 
requirements of 8.16.1.4. 

8.16.1.5* Attachments — Mechanically Operated. 

8.16.1.5.1 For all types of sprinkler systems employing water 
motor-operated alarms, a listed %-in. (19-mm) strainer shall be 
installed at the alarm oudet of the waterflow detecting device. 

8.16.1.5.2 Where a retarding chamber is used in connection 
with an alarm valve, the strainer shall be located at the outlet 
of the retarding chamber unless the retarding chamber is pro- 
vided with an approved integral strainer in its outlet. 

8.16.1.6* Alarm Attachments — High-Rise Buildings. When a 
fire must be fought internally due to the height of a building, 
the following additional alarm apparatus shall be provided: 

(1) Where each sprinkler system on each floor is equipped 
with a separate waterflow device, it shall be connected to 
an alarm system in such a manner that operation of one 
sprinkler will actuate the alarm system, and the location 
of the operated flow device shall be indicated on an an- 
nunciator and/or register. The annunciator or register 
shall be located at grade level at the normal point of fire 
department access, at a constantly attended building secu- 
rity control center, or at both locations. 

(2) Where the location within the protected buildings where 
supervisory or alarm signals are received is not under con- 
stant supervision by qualified personnel in the employ of 
the owner, a connection shall be provided to transmit a 
signal to a remote central station. 

(3) A distinct trouble signal shall be provided to indicate a 
condition that will impair the satisfactory operation of the 
sprinkler system. 



8.16.1.7* Alarm Service. 

8.16.1.7.1 A central station, auxiliary, remote station, or propri- 
etary sprinkler waterflow alarm shall be provided for sprinkler 
systems protecting storage in accordance with Section 12.2. 

8.16.1.7.2 A local waterflow alarm shall be permitted where 
recorded guard service is provided. 

8.16.1.8 Sprinkler Waterflow Alarm for In-Rack Sprinklers. 

See Section C.4. 

8.16.2* Fire Department Connections. 

8.16.2.1* Unless the requirements of 8.16.2.2 are met, a fire 
department connection shall be provided as described in 
8.16.2 in accordance with Figure 8.16.2.1. 



1 in. to 3 in. (25.4 mm to 76.2 mm) 
waterproof mastic 



Fire 

department 

connection 




= lll = m=lll = \U=I|I =/|| =l|l = ||l=lll =iii : 

in sui .__ 

Automatic drip =ni=iii = in = = nl 



FIGURE 8.16.2.1 Fire Department Connections. 



8.16.2.2 The following systems shall not require a fire depart- 
ment connection: 

( 1 ) Buildings located in remote areas that are inaccessible for 
fire department support 

(2) Large-capacity deluge systems exceeding the pumping ca- 
pacity of the fire department 

(3) Single-story buildings not exceeding 2000 ft 2 (186 m 2 ) in 
area 

8.16.2.3 Size. The size of the pipe for the fire department 
connection shall be in accordance with one of the following: 

(1) Pipe size shall be a minimum of 4 in. (102 mm) for fire 
engine connections 

(2) Pipe size shall be a minimum of 6 in. (152 mm) for fire 
boat connections 

(3) For hydraulically calculated systems, the fire department 
connection shall be permitted to be less than 4 in. (102 mm) 



2002 Edition 



INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS 



13-79 



and no less than the size of system riser, where serving one 
system riser 
(4) A single-outlet fire department connection shall be ac- 
ceptable where piped to a 3-in. (76-mm) or smaller riser 

8.16.2.4* Arrangement. See Figure 8.16.2.1. 

8.16.2.4.1* The fire department connection shall be on the 
system side of the water supply check valve. 

8.16.2.4.2 For single systems, the fire department connection 
shall be installed as follows: 

(1) Wet system — on the system side of system control, check, 
and alarm valves (see Figure A. 8. 15. 1 .1 ) 

(2) Dry system — between the system control valve and the 
dry pipe valve 

(3) Preaction system — between the preaction valve and the 
check valve on the system side of the preaction valve 

(4) Deluge system — on the system side of the deluge valve 

8.16.2.4.3 For multiple systems, the fire department connec- 
tion shall be connected between the supply control valves and 
the system control valves. 

8.16.2.4.4 The requirements of 8.16.2.4.2 and 8.16.2.4.3 shall 
not apply where the fire department connection is connected 
to the underground piping. 

8.16.2.4.5 Where a fire department connection services only 
a portion of a building, a sign shall be attached indicating the 
portions of the building served. 

8.16.2.4.6 Fire department connections shall be on the street 
side of buildings and shall be located and arranged so that 
hose lines can be readily and conveniently attached to the 
inlets without interference from any nearby objects including 
buildings, fences, posts, or other fire department connections. 

8.16.2.4.7 Signs. 

8.16.2.4.7.1 Each fire department connection to sprinkler 
systems shall be designated by a sign having raised or engraved 
letters at least 1 in. (25.4 mm) in height on plate or fitting 
reading service design — for example, AUTOSPKR., OPEN 
SPKR., AND STANDPIPE. 

8.16.2.4.7.2 A sign shall also indicate the pressure required at 
the inlets to deliver the greatest system demand. 

8.16.2.4.7.3 The sign required in 8.16.2.4.7.2 shall not be re- 
quired where the system demand pressure is less than 150 psi 
(10.3 bar). 

8.16.2.4.8 Fire department connections shall not be con- 
nected on the suction side of fire pumps. 

8.16.2.4.9 Fire department connections shall be properly 
supported. 

8.16.2.5 Valves. 

8.16.2.5.1 A listed check valve shall be installed in each fire 
department connection. 

8.16.2.5.2 There shall be no shutoff valve in the fire depart- 
ment connection piping. 

8.16.2.6 Drainage. The piping between the check valve and 
the outside hose coupling shall be equipped with an approved 
automatic drip in areas subject to freezing. 



8.16.3 Gauges. 

8.16.3.1 A pressure gauge with a connection not smaller than 
X A in. (6.4 mm) shall be installed at the system main drain, at 
each main drain associated with a floor control valve, and on 
the inlet and outlet side of each pressure reducing valve. 

8.16.3.2 Each gauge connection shall be equipped with a 
shutoff valve and provisions for draining. 

8.16.3.3 The required pressure gauges shall be listed and 
shall have a maximum limit not less than twice the normal 
system working pressure at the point where installed. 

8.16.3.4 Gauges shall be installed to permit removal and shall 
be located where they will not be subject to freezing. 

8.16.4 System Connections. 
8.16.4.1* Main Drain Test Connections. 

8.16.4.1.1 Main drain test connections shall be provided at 
locations that will permit flow tests of water supplies and con- 
nections. 

8.16.4.1.2 They shall be so installed that the valve can be 
opened wide for a sufficient time to assure a proper test with- 
out causing water damage. 

8.16.4.1.3 Main drain connections shall be sized in accor- 
dance with 8.15.2.4 and 8.15.2.6. 

8.16.4.2* Wet Pipe Systems. 

8.16.4.2.1 An alarm test connection not less than 1 in. 
(25.4 mm) in diameter, terminating in a smooth bore 
corrosion-resistant orifice, giving a flow equivalent to one 
sprinkler of a type having the smallest orifice installed on the 
particular system, shall be provided to test each waterflow 
alarm device for each system. 

8.16.4.2.2 The test connection valve shall be readily accessible. 

8.16.4.2.3 The discharge shall be to the outside, to a drain con- 
nection capable of accepting full flow under system pressure, or 
to another location where water damage will not result. 

8.16.4.3* Dry Pipe Systems. 

8.16.4.3.1 Atrip test connection not less than 1 in. (25.4 mm) 
in diameter, terminating in a smooth bore corrosion-resistant 
orifice, to provide a flow equivalent to one sprinkler of a type 
installed on the particular system, shall be installed. 

8.16.4.3.2 The trip test connection shall be located on the 
end of the most distant sprinkler pipe in the upper story and 
shall be equipped with a readily accessible shutoff valve and 
plug not less than 1 in. (25.4 mm), at least one of which shall 
be brass. 

8.16.4.3.3 In lieu of a plug, a nipple and cap shall be acceptable. 

8.16.4.4 Preaction Systems. 

8.16.4.4.1 A test connection shall be provided on a preaction 
system using supervisory air. 

8.16.4.4.2 The connection used to control the level of prim- 
ing water shall be considered adequate to test the operation of 
the alarms monitoring the supervisory air pressure. 

8.16.4.5 Deluge Systems. A test connection is not required on 
a deluge system. 



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INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



8.16.4.6* Backflow Devices. 

8.16.4.6.1* Backflow Prevention Valves. Means shall be pro- 
vided downstream of all backflow prevention valves for flow 
tests at system demand. 

8.16.4.6.2 Retroactive Installation. When backflow prevention 
devices are to be retroactively installed on existing systems, a thor- 
ough hydraulic analysis, including revised hydraulic calculations, 
new fire flow data, and all necessary system modifications to ac- 
commodate the additional friction loss, shall be completed as a 
part of the installation. 

8.16.5 Hose Connections. 

8.16.5.1 Small (lV^-in.) Hose Connections. See Section C.5. 

8.16.5.1.1* Where required by Chapter 12, small (1V6 in.) hose 
lines shall be available to reach all portions of the storage area. 

8.16.5.1.2 The hose connections shall not be required to 
meet the requirements of Class II hose systems defined by 
NFPA 14, Standard for the Installation of Standpipe, Private Hy- 
drant, and Hose Systems. 

8.16.5.1.3 Hose connections shall be supplied from one of 
the following: 

(1) Outside hydrants 

(2) A separate piping system for small hose stations 

(3) Valved hose connections on sprinkler risers where such con- 
nections are made upstream of all sprinkler control valves 

(4) Adjacent sprinkler systems 

(5) In rack storage areas, the ceiling sprinkler system in the 
same area (as long as in-rack sprinklers are provided in 
the same area and are separately controlled) 

8.16.5.1.4* Hose used for fire purposes only shall be permit- 
ted to be connected to wet sprinkler systems only, subject to 
the following restrictions: 

( 1 ) Hose station's supply pipes connected to shall not be con- 
nected to any pipe smaller than 2V£ in. (64 mm). 

(2) The requirements of 8.16.5.1.4 shall not apply to hydrau- 
lically designed loops and grids, where the minimum size 
pipe between the hose station's supply pipe and the 
source shall be permitted to be 2 in. (51 mm). 

(3) For piping serving a single hose station, pipe shall be a 
minimum of 1 in. (25.4 mm) for horizontal runs up to 
20 ft (6. 1 m) , a minimum of 1 X A in. (33 mm) for the entire 
run for runs between 20 ft and 80 ft (6.1 m and 24.4 m), 
and a minimum of IV2 in. (38 mm) for the entire run for 
runs greater than 80 ft (24.4 m). For piping serving mul- 
tiple hose stations, runs shall be a minimum of IV2 in. 
(38 mm) throughout. 

(4) Piping shall be at least 1 in. (25 mm) for vertical runs. 

(5) When the pressure at any hose station outlet exceeds 100 psi 
(6.9 bar), an approved device shall be installed at the outlet 
to reduce the pressure at the oudet to 100 psi (6.9 bar). 

8.16.5.2* Hose Connections for Fire Department Use. 

8.16.5.2.1 In buildings of light or ordinary hazard occupancy, 
2V / 2-in. (64-mm) hose valves for fire department use shall be 
permitted to be attached to wet pipe sprinkler system risers. 

8.16.5.2.2 The following restrictions shall apply: 

( 1 ) Sprinklers shall be under separate floor control valves. 

(2) The minimum size of the riser shall be 4 in. (102 mm) 
unless hydraulic calculations indicate that a smaller size 
riser will satisfy sprinkler and hose stream demands. 



(3) Each combined sprinkler and standpipe riser shall be 
equipped with a riser control valve to permit isolating a 
riser without interrupting the supply to other risers from 
the same source of supply. (For fire department connections 
serving standpipe and sprinkler systems, refer to Section 6.8.) 



Chapter 9 Hanging, Bracing, and Restraint of System 
Piping 

9.1 Hangers. 
9.1.1* General. 

9.1.1.1 Unless the requirements of 9.1.1.2 are met, types of 
hangers shall be in accordance with the requirements of Sec- 
tion 9.1. 

9.1.1.2 Hangers certified by a registered professional engi- 
neer to include all of the following shall be an acceptable al- 
ternative to the requirements of Section 9.1: 



(1) 



(2) 

(3) 

(4) 
(5) 



Hangers shall be designed to support five times the 

weight of the water-filled pipe plus 250 lb (114 kg) at each 

point of piping support. 

These points of support shall be adequate to support the 

system. 

The spacing between hangers shall not exceed the value 

given for the type of pipe as indicated in Table 9.2.2.1. 

Hanger components shall be ferrous. 

Detailed calculations shall be submitted, when required 

by the reviewing authority, showing stresses developed in 

hangers, piping, and fittings and safety factors allowed. 



9.1.1.3 Where water-based fire protection systems are re- 
quired to be protected against damage from earthquakes, 
hangers shall also meet the requirements of 9.3.7. 

9.1.1.4 Listing. 

9.1.1.4.1 Unless permitted by 9.1.1.4.2 or 9.1.1.4.3, the com- 
ponents of hanger assemblies that directly attach to the pipe 
or to the building structure shall be listed. 

9.1.1.4.2 Mild steel hangers formed from rods shall be per- 
mitted to be not listed. 

9.1.1.4.3 Fasteners as specifically identified in 9.1.5 shall be 
permitted to be not listed. 

9.1.1.4.4 Other fasteners shall be permitted as part of the 
hanger assembly that has been tested, listed, and installed in 
accordance with the listing requirements. 

9.1.1.5 Component Material. 

9.1.1.5.1 Unless permitted by 9.1.1.5.2 or 9.1.1.5.3, hangers 
and their components shall be ferrous. 

9.1.1.5.2 Nonferrous components that have been proven by 
fire tests to be adequate for the hazard application, that are 
listed for this purpose, and that are in compliance with the 
other requirements of this section shall be acceptable. 

9.1.1.5.3 Holes through solid structural members shall be 
permitted to serve as hangers for the support of system piping 
provided such holes are permitted by applicable building 
codes and the spacing and support provisions for hangers of 
this standard are satisfied. 



2002 Edition 



HANGING, BRACING, AND RESTRAINT OF SYSTEM PIPING 



13-81 



9.1.1.6* Trapeze Hangers. 

9.1.1.6.1 For trapeze hangers, the minimum size of steel 
angle or pipe span between purlins or joists shall be such that 
the available section modulus of the trapeze member from 
Table 9.1.1.6.1(a) equals or exceeds the section modulus re- 
quired in Table 9.1.1.6.1(b). 



Table 9.1.1.6.1(a) Available Section Moduli of Common 
Trapeze Hangers (in. 3 ) 



Pipe (in.) 


Modulus 


Angles 


Modulus 


Schedule 10 








1 


0.12 


P/2X1 V2X3/16 


0.10 


VA 


0.19 


2x2xi/8 


0.13 


m 


0.26 


2X 11/2X3/16 


0.18 


2 


0.42 


2 X 2 X 3/l6 


0.19 


2V6 


0.69 


2x2xi/4 


0.25 


3 


1.04 


2V2 X 11/2X3/ 16 


0.28 


3V 2 


1.38 


2V2 X 2 X 3/l6 


0.29 


4 


1.76 


2 X 2 X 5/l6 


0.30 


5 


3.03 


2 ] /2 X 21/2 X 3/ 16 


0.30 


6 


4.35 


2x2x3/8 


0.35 






2 ] /2 X 2Vfc X 1/4 


0.39 






3 X 2 X 3/ 16 


0.41 


Schedule 40 






1 


0.13 


3 X 2V2 X 3/ 16 


0.43 


P/4 


0.23 


3 X 3 X 3/ 16 


0.44 


V/2 


0.33 


21/2 X 2V2 X 5/16 


0.48 


2 


0.56 


3x2xi/4 


0.54 


2V2 


1.06 


21/2 X 2 X % 


0.55 


3 


1.72 


2M> x 21/2 x % 


0.57 


3V2 


2.39 


3x3xi/4 


0.58 


4 


3.21 


3 x 3 x 5 /i6 


0.71 


5 


5.45 


2V2 X 21/2 X 1/2 


0.72 


6 


8.50 


3 a /2 X 21/2 X 1/4 


0.75 






3 X 2 ! /2 X % 


0.81 






3 x3 X 3/ 8 


0.83 






3 J /2 X 2V2 X 5/16 


0.93 






3 x 3 x Vie 


0.95 






4x4xV4 


1.05 






3x3xy 2 


1.07 






4 X 3 X 5/l6 


1.23 






4 X 4 X 5 /] 6 


1.29 






4 x 3 x 3/ 8 


1.46 






4 x4 xYs 


1.52 






5 X 3V2 X 5/l 6 


1.94 






4x4xi/2 


1.97 






4 x 4 x % 


2.40 






4x4x3/4 


2.81 






6x4x3/8 


3.32 






6x4xi/2 


4.33 






6 x 4 x 34 


6.25 






6x6x1 


8.57 



For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm; 1 ft = 0.3048 m. 



9.1.1.6.2 Any other sizes or shapes giving equal or greater 
section modulus shall be acceptable. 

9.1.1.6.3 All angles shall be used with the longer leg vertical. 



9.1.1.6.4 The trapeze member shall be secured to prevent 
slippage. 

9.1.1.6.5 Where a pipe is suspended from a pipe trapeze of a 
diameter less than the diameter of the pipe being supported, 
ring, strap, or clevis hangers of the size corresponding to the 
suspended pipe shall be used on both ends. 

9.1.1.6.6 The size of hanger rods and fasteners required to sup- 
port the steel angle iron or pipe indicated in Table 9.1.1.6.1(a) 
shall comply with 9.1.2 dirough 9.1.5. 

9.1.1.6.7 Holes for bolts shall not exceed 1/16 in. greater than 
the diameter of the bolt. 

9.1.1.6.8 Bolts shall be provided with a flat washer and nut. 

9.1.1.7* Support of Non-System Components. Sprinkler pip- 
ing or hangers shall not be used to support non-system com- 
ponents. 

9.1.2 Hanger Rods. 

9.1.2.1 Unless the requirements of 9.1.2.2 are met, hanger 
rod size shall be the same as that approved for use with the 
hanger assembly, and the size of rods shall not be less than that 
given in Table 9.1.2.1. 

9.1.2.2 Rods of smaller diameters than indicated in 
Table 9.1.2.1 shall be permitted where the hanger assembly 
has been tested and listed by a testing laboratory and in- 
stalled within the limits of pipe sizes expressed in individual 
listings. 

9.1.2.3 U-Hooks. The size of the rod material of U-hooks shall 
not be less than that given in Table 9.1.2.3. 

9.1.2.4 Eye Rods. 

9.1.2.4.1 The size of the rod material for eye rods shall not be 
less than specified in Table 9.1.2.4.1. 

9.1.2.4.2 Eye rods shall be secured with lock washers to pre- 
vent lateral motion. 

9.1.2.4.3 Where eye rods are fastened to wood structural 
members, the eye rod shall be backed with a large flat washer 
bearing direcdy against the structural member, in addition to 
the lock washer. 

9.1.2.5 Threaded Sections of Rods. Threaded sections of rods 
shall not be formed or bent. 

9.1.3 Fasteners in Concrete. 

9.1.3.1 Unless prohibited by 9.1.3.2 or 9.1.3.3, the use of listed 
inserts set in concrete and listed expansion shields to support 
hangers shall be permitted for mains and branch lines. 

9.1.3.2 Expansion shields shall not be used in cinder con- 
crete, except for branch lines where the expansion shields are 
alternated with through-bolts or hangers attached to beams. 

9.1.3.3 Expansion shields shall not be used in ceilings of gyp- 
sum or other similar soft material. 

9.1.3.4 Unless the requirements of 9.1.3.5 are met, expan- 
sion shields shall be installed in a horizontal position in the 
sides of concrete beams. 



2002 Edition 



13-82 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Table 9.1.1.6.1(b) Section Modulus Required for Trapeze Members (in. 3 ) 



Span of 
Trapeze 








Nominal Diameter of 


Pipe Being Supported 








lin. 


1 V* in. 


1 Vi in. 


2 in. 


Vh in. 


3 in. 


3V2 in. 


4 in. 


5 in. 


6 in. 


8 in. 


10 in. 


1 ft 6 in. 


0.08 


0.09 


0.09 


0.09 


0.10 


0.11 


0.12 


0.13 


0.15 


0.18 


0.24 


0.32 




0.08 


0.09 


0.09 


0.10 


0.11 


0.12 


0.13 


0.15 


0.18 


0.22 


0.30 


0.41 


2 ft in. 


0.11 


0.12 


0.12 


0.13 


0.13 


0.15 


0.16 


0.17 


0.20 


0.24 


0.32 


0.43 




0.11 


0.12 


0.12 


0.13 


0.15 


0.16 


0.18 


0.20 


0.24 


0.29 


0.40 


0.55 


2 ft 6 in. 


0.14 


0.14 


0.15 


0.16 


0.17 


0.18 


0.20 


0.21 


0.25 


0.30 


0.40 


0.54 




0.14 


0.15 


0.15 


0.16 


0.18 


0.21 


0.22 


0.25 


0.30 


0.36 


0.50 


0.68 


3 ft in. 


0.17 


0.17 


0.18 


0.19 


0.20 


0.22 


0.24 


0.26 


0.31 


0.36 


0.48 


0.65 




0.17 


0.18 


0.18 


0.20 


0.22 


0.25 


0.27 


0.30 


0.36 


0.43 


0.60 


0.82 


4 ft in. 


0.22 


0.23 


0.24 


0.25 


0.27 


0.29 


0.32 


0.34 


0.41 


0.48 


0.64 


0.87 




0.22 


0.24 


0.24 


0.26 


0.29 


0.33 


0.36 


0.40 


0.48 


0.58 


0.80 


1.09 


5 ft in. 


0.28 


0.29 


0.30 


0.31 


0.34 


0.37 


0.40 


0.43 


0.51 


0.59 


0.80 


1,08 




0.28 


0.29 


0.30 


0.33 


0.37 


0.41 


0.45 


0.49 


0.60 


0.72 


1.00 


1.37 


6 ft in. 


0.33 


0.35 


0.36 


0.38 


0.41 


0.44 


0.48 


0.51 


0.61 


0.71 


0.97 


1.30 




0.34 


0.35 


0.36 


0.39 


0.44 


0.49 


0.54 


0.59 


0.72 


0.87 


1.20 


1.64 


7 ft in. 


0.39 


0.40 


0.41 


0.44 


0.47 


0.52 


0.55 


0.60 


0.71 


0.83 


1.13 


1.52 




0.39 


0.41 


0.43 


0.46 


0.51 


0.58 


0.63 


0.69 


0.84 


1.01 


1.41 


1.92 


8 ft in. 


0.44 


0.46 


0.47 


0.50 


0.54 


0.59 


0.63 


0.68 


0.81 


0.95 


1.29 


1.73 




0.45 


0.47 


0.49 


0.52 


0.59 


0.66 


0.72 


0.79 


0.96 


1.16 


1.61 


2.19 


9 ft in. 


0.50 


0.52 


0.53 


0.56 


0.61 


0.66 


0.71 


0.77 


0.92 


1.07 


1.45 


1.95 




0.50 


0.53 


0.55 


0.59 


0.66 


0.74 


0.81 


0.89 


1.08 


1.30 


1.81 


2.46 


10 ft in. 


0.56 


0.58 


0.59 


0.63 


0.68 


0.74 


0.79 


0.85 


1.02 


1.19 


1.61 


2.17 




0.56 


0.59 


0.61 


0.65 


0.74 


0.82 


0.90 


0.99 


1.20 


1.44 


2.01 


2.74 



For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm; 1 ft = 0.3048 m. 
Notes: 

1. Top values are for Schedule 10 pipe; bottom values are for Schedule 40 pipe. 

2. The table is based on a maximum allowable bending stress of 15 ksi and a midspan concentrated load from 15 ft (4.6 m) of water-filled pipe, plus 
2501b (114 kg). 



Table 9.1.2.1 Hanger Rod Sizes 



Table 9.1.2.4.1 Eye Rod Sizes 





Diameter of Rod 


Pipe Size 


in. mm 


Up to and including 4 in. 
5 in., 6 in., and 8 in. 
10 in. and 12 in. 


% 9.5 
1/2 12.7 
5 / 8 15.9 


Table 9.1.2.3 U-Hook Rod Sizes 



Hook Material 
Diameter 



Pipe Size 



Up to 2 in. 
2V2 in. to 6 in. 
8 in. 



5 /l6 
% 
1/2 



7.9 

9.5 

12.7 



9.1.3.5 Expansion shields shall be permitted to be installed in 
the vertical position under the following conditions: 

(1) When used in concrete having gravel or crushed stone ag- 
gregate to support pipes 4 in. (102 mm) or less in diameter 







Diameter of Rod 




With Bent Eye 


With Welded Eye 


Pipe Size 


in. 


mm 


in. mm 


Up to 4 in. 
5 in. to 6 in. 
8 in. 


% 

1/2 
3 /4 


9.5 
12.7 
19.1 


% 9.5 
1/2 12.7 
1/2 12.7 



(2) 



(3) 



When expansion shields are alternated with hangers con- 
nected directly to the structural members, such as trusses 
and girders, or to the sides of concrete beams [to support 
pipe 5 in. (127 mm) or larger] 

When expansion shields are spaced not over 10 ft (3 m) 
apart [to support pipe 4 in. (102 m) or larger] 

9. 1 .3.6 Holes for expansion shields in the side of beams shall 
be above the centerline of the beam or above the bottom rein- 
forcement steel rods. 

9.1.3.7 Holes for expansion shields used in the vertical posi- 
tion shall be drilled to provide uniform contact with the shield 
over its entire circumference. 

9.1.3.8 The depth of the expansion shield hole shall not be 
less than specified for the type of shield used. 



2002 Edition 



HANGING, BRACING, AND RESTRAINT OF SYSTEM PIPING 



13-83 



9.1.3.9 Powder-Driven Studs. 

9.1.3.9.1 Powder-driven studs, welding studs, and the tools 
used for installing these devices shall be listed. 

9.1.3.9.2 Pipe size, installation position, and construction 
material into which they are installed shall be in accordance 
with individual listings. 

9.1.3.9.3* Representative samples of concrete into which 
studs are to be driven shall be tested to determine that the 
studs will hold a minimum load of 750 lb (341 kg) for 2-in. 
(51-mm) or smaller pipe, 1000 lb (454 kg) for 2V2-in., 3-in., 
or 3V2-in. (64-mm, 76-mm, or 89-mm) pipe, and 1200 lb 
(545 kg) for 4-in. or 5-in. (102-mm or 127-mm) pipe. 

9.1.3.9.4 Increaser couplings shall be attached direcdy to the 
powder-driven studs. 

9.1.3.10 Minimum Bolt Size for Concrete. 

9.1.3.10.1 The size of a bolt used with a hanger and in- 
stalled through concrete shall not be less than specified in 
Table 9.1.3.10.1. 



Table 9.1.3.10.1 Minimum Bolt Size for Concrete 



Table 9.1.4.5.1 Minimum Bolt Size for Steel 





Size of Bolt 


Pipe Size 


in. mm 


Up to and including 4 in. 
5 in. to 8 in. 
10 in. 
12 in. 


3 /s 9.5 
V2 12.7 
5 /s 15.9 
% 19.1 



9.1.3.10.2 Holes for bolts shall not exceed Vie in. (1.6 mm) 
greater than the diameter of the bolt. 

9.1.3.10.3 Bolts shall be provided with a flat washer and nut. 

9.1.4 Fasteners in Steel. 

9.1.4.1* Powder-driven studs, welding studs, and the tools 
used for installing these devices shall be listed. 

9.1.4.2 Pipe size, installation position, and construction ma- 
terial into which they are installed shall be in accordance with 
individual listings. 

9.1.4.3 Increaser couplings shall be attached direcdy to the 
powder-driven studs or welding studs. 

9.1.4.4 Welding studs or other hanger parts shall not be at- 
tached by welding to steel less than U.S. Standard, 12 gauge. 

9.1.4.5 Minimum Bolt Size for Steel. 

9.1.4.5.1 The size of a bolt used with a hanger and installed 
through steel shall not be less than specified in Table 9.1 .4.5.1 . 

9.1.4.5.2 Holes for bolts shall not exceed Vi6 in. (1.6 mm) 
greater than the diameter of the bolt. 

9.1.4.5.3 Bolts shall be provided with a flat washer and nut. 

9.1.5 Fasteners in Wood. 

9.1.5.1 Drive Screws. 

9.1.5.1.1 Drive screws shall be used only in a horizontal posi- 
tion as in the side of a beam and only for 2-in. pipe or smaller. 





Size of Bolt 


Pipe Size 


in. mm 


Up to and including 4 in. 
5 in. to 8 in. 
10 in. 
12 in. 


% 9.5 
1/2 12.7 
5 /s 15.9 
% 19.1 



9.1.5.1.2 Drive screws shall only be used in conjunction with 
hangers that require two points of attachments. 

9.1.5.2 Ceiling Flanges and U-hooks with Screws. 

9.1.5.2.1 Unless the requirements of 9.1.5.2.2 or 9.1.5.2.3 are 
met, for ceiling flanges and U-hooks, screw dimensions shall 
not be less than those given in Table 9.1.5.2.1. 



Table 9.1.5.2.1 Screw Dimensions for Ceiling Flanges and 
U-Hooks 



Pipe Size 



Two Screw Ceiling Flanges 



Up to 2 in. Wood screw No. 18 x IV2 in. 

or 
Lag screw 5 /i6 in. x \V% in. 



Pipe Size 



Three Screw Ceiling Flanges 



Wood screw No. 18 x \y% in. 
Lag screw % in. x 2 in. 



Up to 2 in. 
2V2 in., 3 in., 

3V2 in. 
4 in., 5 in., 6 in. Lag screw V2 in. x 2 in. 
8 in. Lag screw % in. x 2 in. 



Pipe Size 



Four Screw Ceiling Flanges 



Wood screw No. 18 x IV2 in. 
Lag screw % in. x 1 V2 in. 



Up to 2 in. 
2V2 in., 3 in., 

3V& in. 

4 in., 5 in., 6 in. Lag screw V2 in. x 2 in 
8 in. Lag screw 5 /s in. x 2 in 



Pipe Size 



U-Hooks 



Drive screw No. 16 x 2 in. 
Lag screw % in. x 2V£ in. 



Up to 2 in. 
2V2 in., 3 in., 

3V2 in. 

4 in., 5 in., 6 in. Lag screw V2 in. x 3 in 
8 in. Lag screw % in. x 3 in 



I For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm. 



9.1.5.2.2 When the thickness of planking and thickness of 
flange do not permit the use of screws 2 in. (51 mm) long, 
screws 1% in. (44 mm) long shall be permitted with hangers 
spaced not over 10 ft (3 m) apart. 

9.1.5.2.3 When the thickness of beams or joists does not per- 
mit the use of screws 2V2 in. (64 mm) long, screws 2 in. 
(51 mm) long shall be permitted with hangers spaced not over 
10 ft (3 m) apart. 



2002 Edition 



13-84 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



9.1.5.3 Bolt or Lag Screw. 

9.1.5.3.1 Unless the requirements of 9.1.5.3.2 are met, the size 
of bolt or lag screw used with a hanger and installed on the side of 
the beam shall not be less than specified in Table 9.1.5.3.1. 



Table 9.1.5.3.1 Minimum Bolt or Lag Screw Sizes for Side of 
Beam Installation 



Size of Bolt or 
Lag Screw 



Length of Lag 

Screw Used with 

Wood Beams 



Pipe Size 



Up to and including 

2 in. 
2V2 in. to 6 in. 

(inclusive) 



y 2 

5 /8 



9.5 
12.7 
15.9 



2 J /2 

3 
3 



64 
76 

76 



9.1.5.3.2 Where the thickness of beams or joists does not per- 
mit the use of screws 2Vfc in. (64 mm) long, screws 2 in. 
(51 mm) long shall be permitted with hangers spaced not over 
10 ft (3 m) apart. 

9.1.5.3.3 All holes for lag screws shall be pre-drilled Vs in. 
(3.2 mm) less in diameter than the maximum root diameter of 
the lag screw thread. 

9.1.5.3.4 Holes for bolts shall not exceed V\% in. (1.6 mm) 
greater than the diameter of the bolt. 

9.1.5.3.5 Bolts shall be provided with a flat washer and nut. 

9.1.5.4 Wood Screws. Wood screws shall be installed with a 
screwdriver. 

9.1.5.5 Nails. Nails shall not be acceptable for fastening 
hangers. 

9.1.5.6 Screws in Side of Timber or Joists. 

9.1.5.6.1 Screws in the side of a timber or joist shall be not 
less than 2M> in. (64 mm) from the lower edge where support- 
ing branch lines and not less than 3 in. (76 mm) where sup- 
porting main lines. 

9.1.5.6.2 The requirements of 9.1.5.6.1 shall not apply to 2-in. 
(51-mm) or thicker nailing strips resting on top of steel beams. 

9. 1 .5.7 Coach Screw Rods. 

9.1.5.7.1 Minimum Coach Screw Rod Size. The size of coach 
screw rods shall not be less than the requirements of 
Table 9.1.5.7.1. 



Table 9.1.5.7.1 Minimum Coach Screw Rod Size 



Pipe Size 


Diameter of Rod 
in. mm 


- Minimum 
Penetration 


Up to 4 in. 
Larger than 4 in. 


% 

Not 
permitted 


9.5 

Not 

permitted 


3 in. 

Not 

permitted 



9.1.5.7.2 The minimum plank thickness and the minimum 
width of the lower face of beams or joists in which coach 
screw rods are used shall be not less than that specified in 
Table 9.1.5.7.2. 

Table 9.1.5.7.2 Minimum Plank Thicknesses and Beam or 
Joist Widths 



Nominal Plank 
Thickness 



Nominal Width 

of Beam or Joist 

Face 



Pipe Size 



Up to 2 in. 
2V4 in. to 3 J /2 in. 
4 in. and 5 in. 
6 in. 



76 
102 
102 
102 



51 

51 

76 

102 



9.1.5.7.3 Coach screw rods shall not be used for support of 
pipes larger than 4 in. in diameter. 

9.1.5.7.4 All holes for coach screw rods shall be predrilled 
Vs in. (3.2 mm) less in diameter than the maximum root diam- 
eter of the wood screw thread. 

9.2 Installation of Pipe Hangers. 

9.2.1 General. 

9.2.1.1 Ceiling Sheathing. 

9.2.1.1.1 Unless the requirements of 9.2.1.1.2 are met, sprin- 
kler piping shall be supported independendy of the ceiling 
sheathing. 

9.2.1.1.2 Toggle hangers shall be permitted only for the sup- 
port of pipe IV2 in. (38 mm) or smaller in size under ceilings 
of hollow tile or metal lath and plaster. 

9.2.1.2 Storage Racks. Where sprinkler piping is installed in 
storage racks, piping shall be supported from the storage rack 
structure or building in accordance with all applicable provi- 
sions of Sections 9.2 and 9.3. 

9.2.1.3* Building Structure. 

9.2.1.3.1 Sprinkler piping shall be substantially supported 
from the building structure, which must support the added 
load of the water-filled pipe plus a minimum of 2501b (114 kg) 
applied at the point of hanging. 

9.2.1.3.2 Trapeze hangers shall be used where necessary to 
transfer loads to appropriate structural members. 

9.2.1.4 Metal Deck. 

9.2.1.4.1 Branch line hangers under metal deck shall be per- 
mitted only for the support of pipe 1 in. (25.4 mm) or smaller 
in size, by drilling or punching vertical members and using 
through bolts. 

9.2.1.4.2 The distance from the bottom of the bolt hole to 
the bottom of the vertical member shall be not less than % in. 
(9.5 mm). 

9.2.1.5 Where sprinkler piping is installed below ductwork, 
piping shall be supported from the building structure or from 
the ductwork supports, provided such supports are capable of 
handling both the load of the ductwork and the load specified 
in 9.2.1.3.1. 



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HANGING, BRACING, AND RESTRAINT OF SYSTEM PIPING 



13-85 



9.2.2* Maximum Distance between Hangers. 

9.2.2.1 The maximum distance between hangers shall not 
exceed that specified in Table 9.2.2.1. 

9.2.2.2 The maximum distance between hangers for listed 
nonmetallic pipe shall be modified as specified in the indi- 
vidual product listings. 

9.2.3 Location of Hangers on Branch Lines. 

9.2.3.1 Subsection 9.2.3 shall apply to the support of steel 
pipe or copper tube as specified in 6.3.1 and subject to the 
provisions of 9.2.2. 

9.2.3.2 Minimum Number of Hangers. 

9.2.3.2.1 Unless the requirements of 9.2.3.2.2 or 9.2.3.2.3 are 
met, there shall be not less than one hanger for each section 
of pipe. 

9.2.3.2.2* Where sprinklers are spaced less than 6 ft (1.8 m) 
apart, hangers spaced up to a maximum of 12 ft (3.7 m) shall 
be permitted. 

9.2.3.2.3 Starter lengths less than 6 ft (1.8 m) shall not re- 
quire a hanger, unless on the end line of a sidefeed system or 
where an intermediate cross main hanger has been omitted. 

9.2.3.3 Clearance to Hangers. The distance between a hanger 
and the centerline of an upright sprinkler shall not be less 
than 3 in. (76 mm). 

9.2.3.4* Unsupported Lengths. 

9.2.3.4.1 The unsupported length between the end sprinkler 
and the last hanger on the line shall not be greater than 36 in. 
(0.9 m) for 1-in. pipe, 48 in. (1.2 m) for IVi-in. pipe, and 60 in. 
(1.5 m) for 114-in. or larger pipe. 

9.2.3.4.2 Where the limits of 9.2.3.4.1 are exceeded, the pipe 
shall be extended beyond the end sprinkler and shall be sup- 
ported by an additional hanger. 

9.2.3.4.3* Unsupported Length with Maximum Pressure Ex- 
ceeding 100 psi. 

9.2.3.4.3.1 When the maximum static or flowing pressure, 
whichever is greater at the sprinkler, applied other than through 
the fire department connection, exceeds 100 psi (6.9 bar) and a 
branch line above a ceiling supplies sprinklers in a pendent posi- 
tion below the ceiling, the hanger assembly supporting the pipe 



supplying an end sprinkler in a pendent position shall be of a 
type that prevents upward movement of the pipe. 

9.2.3.4.3.2 The unsupported length between the end sprin- 
kler in a pendent position or drop nipple and the last hanger 
on the branch line shall not be greater than 12 in. (305 mm) 
for steel pipe or 6 in. (152 mm) for copper pipe. 

9.2.3.4.3.3 When the limit of 9.2.3.4.3.2 is exceeded, the pipe 
shall be extended beyond the end sprinkler and supported by 
an additional hanger. 

9.2.3.4.3.4 The hanger closest to the sprinkler shall be of a 
type that prevents upward movement of the piping. 

9.2.3.5* Unsupported Armover Length. 

9.2.3.5.1 The cumulative horizontal length of an unsup- 
ported armover to a sprinkler, sprinkler drop, or sprig-up shall 
not exceed 24 in. (610 mm) for steel pipe or 12 in. (305 mm) 
for copper tube. 

9.2.3.5.2* Unsupported Armover Length with Maximum Pres- 
sures Exceeding 100 psi. 

9.2.3.5.2.1 Where the maximum static or flowing pressure, 
whichever is greater at the sprinkler, applied other than 
through the fire department connection, exceeds 100 psi 
(6.9 bar) and a branch line above a ceiling supplies sprinklers 
in a pendent position below the ceiling, the cumulative hori- 
zontal length of an unsupported armover to a sprinkler or 
sprinkler drop shall not exceed 12 in. (305 mm) for steel pipe 
and 6 in. (152 mm) for copper tube. 

9.2.3.5.2.2 The hanger closest to the sprinkler shall be of a 
type that prevents upward movement of the piping. 

9.2.3.6 Wall-mounted sidewall sprinklers shall be restrained 
to prevent movement. 

9.2.4 Location of Hangers on Mains. 

9.2.4.1 Unless the requirements of 9.2.4.2, 9.2.4.3, 9.2.4.4, 
or 9.2.4.5 are met, hangers for mains shall be in accordance 
with 9.2.2 or between each branch line, whichever is the 
lesser dimension. 

9.2.4.2 For cross mains in steel pipe systems in bays having 
two branch lines, the intermediate hanger shall be permitted 
to be omitted provided that a hanger attached to a purlin is 
installed on each branch line located as near to the cross main 



Table 9.2.2.1 Maximum Distance Between Hangers (ft-in.) 















Nominal 


Pipe Size (in.) 










% 


1 


1V4 


V/2 


2 


2V2 


3 


3V4 


4 


5 


6 


8 


Steel pipe except threaded 


N/A 


12-0 


12-0 


15-0 


15-0 


15-0 


15-0 


15-0 


15-0 


15-0 


15-0 


15-0 


lightwall 


























Threaded lightwall steel 


N/A 


12-0 


12-0 


12-0 


12-0 


12-0 


12-0 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


pipe 


























Copper tube 


8-0 


8-0 


10-0 


10-0 


12-0 


12-0 


12-0 


15-0 


15-0 


15-0 


15-0 


15-0 


CPVC 


5-6 


6-0 


6-6 


7-0 


8-0 


9-0 


10-0 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


Polybutylene (IPS) 


N/A 


3-9 


4-7 


5-0 


5-11 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


Polybutylene (CTS) 


2-11 


3-4 


3-11 


4-5 


5-5 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


Ductile iron pipe 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


15-0 


N/A 


15-0 


N/A 


15-0 


15-0 


For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm; 1 ft 


= 0.3048 


m. 






















Note: IPS iron — pip e size ', CTS 


— coppe 


" tube size. 





















2002 Edition 



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INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



as the location of the purlin permits. The remaining branch 
line hangers shall be installed in accordance with 9.2.3. 

9.2.4.3 For cross mains in steel pipe systems only in bays hav- 
ing three branch lines, either side or center feed, one (only) 
intermediate hanger shall be permitted to be omitted pro- 
vided that a hanger attached to a purlin is installed on each 
branch line located as near to the cross main as the location of 
the purlin permits. The remaining branch line hangers shall 
be installed in accordance with 9.2.3. 

9.2.4.4 For cross mains in steel pipe systems only in bays hav- 
ing four or more branch lines, either side or center feed, two 
intermediate hangers shall be permitted to be omitted pro- 
vided the maximum distance between hangers does not ex- 
ceed the distances specified in 9.2.2 and a hanger attached to 
a purlin on each branch line is located as near to the cross 
main as the purlin permits. 

9.2.4.5 At the end of the main, intermediate trapeze hangers 
shall be installed unless the main is extended to the next fram- 
ing member with a hanger installed at this point, in which 
event an intermediate hanger shall be permitted to be omitted 
in accordance with 9.2.4.2, 9.2.4.3, and 9.2.4.4. 

9.2.5 Support of Risers. 

9.2.5.1 Risers shall be supported by pipe clamps or by hang- 
ers located on the horizontal connections within 24 in. of the 
centerline of the riser. 

9.2.5.2 Pipe clamps supporting risers by means of set screws 
shall not be used. 

9.2.5.3 Multistory Buildings. 

9.2.5.3.1 In multistory buildings, riser supports shall be pro- 
vided at the lowest level, at each alternate level above, above 
and below offsets, and at the top of the riser. 

9.2.5.3.2 Supports above the lowest level shall also restrain 
the pipe to prevent movement by an upward thrust where flex- 
ible fittings are used. 

9.2.5.3.3 Where risers are supported from the ground, the 
ground support shall constitute the first level of riser support. 

9.2.5.3.4 Where risers are offset or do not rise from the 
ground, the first ceiling level above the offset shall constitute 
the first level of riser support. 

9.2.5.4 Distance between supports for risers shall not exceed 
25 ft (7.6 m). 

9.3 Protection of Piping Against Damage Where Subject to 
Earthquakes. 

9.3.1* General. 

9.3.1.1 Where water-based fire protection systems are re- 
quired to be protected against damage from earthquakes, the 
requirements of Section 9.3 shall apply, unless the require- 
ments of 9.3.1.2 are met. 

9.3.1.2 Alternative methods of providing earthquake protec- 
tion of sprinkler systems based on a seismic analysis certified 
by a registered professional engineer such that system perfor- 
mance will be at least equal to that of the building structure 
under expected seismic forces shall be permitted. 

9.3.2* Couplings. 

9.3.2.1 Listed flexible pipe couplings joining grooved end pipe 
shall be provided as flexure joints to allow individual sections of 



piping 2V§ in. (64 mm) or larger to move differentially with the 
individual sections of the building to which it is attached. 

9.3.2.2 Couplings shall be arranged to coincide with struc- 
tural separations within a building. 

9.3.2.3 Systems having more flexible couplings than required 
by this section shall be provided with additional sway bracing 
as required in 9.3.5.3.6. The flexible couplings shall be in- 
stalled as follows: 

(1) Within 24 in. (610 mm) of the top and bottom of all risers, 
unless the following provisions are met: 

(a) In risers less than 3 ft (0.9 m) in length, flexible cou- 
plings are permitted to be omitted. 

(b) In risers 3 ft to 7 ft (0.9 m to 2.1 m) in length, one 
flexible coupling is adequate. 

(2)*Within 12 in. (305 mm) above and within 24 in. below the 
floor in multistory buildings. When the flexible coupling 
below the floor is above the tie-in main to the main sup- 
plying that floor, a flexible coupling shall be provided on 
the vertical portion of the tie-in piping. 

(3) On both sides of concrete or masonry walls within 1 ft of 
the wall surface, unless clearance is provided in accor- 
dance with 9.3.4. 

(4)*Within 24 in. (610 mm) of building expansion joints. 

(5) Within 24 in. (610 mm) of the top and bottom of drops to 
hose lines, rack sprinklers, and mezzanines, regardless of 
pipe size. 

(6) Within 24 in. (610 mm) of the top of drops exceeding 
15 ft (4.6 m) in length to portions of systems supplying 
more than one sprinkler, regardless of pipe size. 

(7) Above and below any intermediate points of support for a 
riser or other vertical pipe. 

9.3.3* Seismic Separation Assembly. Seismic separation as- 
semblies with flexible fittings shall be installed where sprinkler 
piping, regardless of size, crosses building seismic separation 
joints above ground level. 

9.3.4* Clearance. 

9.3.4.1 Clearance shall be provided around all piping extend- 
ing through walls, floors, platforms, and foundations, including 
drains, fire department connections, and other auxiliary piping. 

9.3.4.2 Unless the requirements of 9.3.4.3, 9.3.4.4, or 9.3.4.5 
are met, where pipe passes through holes in platforms, foun- 
dations, walls, or floors, the holes shall be sized such that the 
diameter of the holes is nominally 2 in. (51 mm) larger than 
the pipe for 1-in. (25.4-mm) nominal to 3V2-in. (89-mm) nomi- 
nal and 4-in. (102-mm) larger than the pipe for pipe 4 in. 
(102 mm) nominal and larger. Clearance from structural 
members not penetrated or used collectively or indepen- 
dently to support the pipe shall be at least 2 in. (51 mm). 

9.3.4.3 Where clearance is provided by a pipe sleeve, a nomi- 
nal diameter 2 in. (51 mm) larger than the nominal diameter 
of the pipe is acceptable for pipe sizes 1 in. (25.4 mm) through 
3 2 /2 in. (89 mm), and the clearance provided by a pipe sleeve 
of nominal diameter 4 in. (102 mm) larger than the nominal 
diameter of the pipe is acceptable for pipe sizes 4 in. 
(102 mm) and larger. 

9.3.4.4 No clearance is required for piping passing through 
gypsum board or equally frangible construction that is not 
required to have a fire resistance rating. 

9.3.4.5 No clearance is required if flexible couplings are lo- 
cated within 1 ft (0.31 m) of each side of a wall, floor, platform, 
or foundation. 



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13-87 



9.3.4.6 No clearance is required where horizontal piping 
passes perpendicularly through successive studs or joists that 
form a wall or floor/ceiling assembly. 

9.3.4.7 No clearance is required where nonmetallic pipe has 
been demonstrated to have inherent flexibility equal to or 
greater than the minimum provided by flexible couplings lo- 
cated within 1 ft (0.3 m) of each side of a wall, floor, platform, 
or foundation. 

9.3.4.8 Where required, the clearance shall be filled with a 
flexible material such as mastic. 

9.3.4.9 Clearance from structural members not penetrated 
or used, collectively or independently, to support the piping 
shall be at least 2 in. (51 mm). 

9.3.5* Sway Bracing. 

9.3.5.1 General. 

9.3.5.1.1 The system piping shall be braced to resist both 
lateral and longitudinal horizontal seismic loads and to pre- 
vent vertical motion resulting from seismic loads. 

9.3.5.1.2 The structural components to which bracing is at- 
tached shall be determined to be capable of carrying the 
added applied seismic loads. 

9.3.5.2 Sway Bracing. 

9.3.5.2.1 Sway braces shall be designed to withstand forces in 
tension and compression, unless the requirements of 9.3.5.2.2 
are met. 

9.3.5.2.2* Tension-only bracing systems shall be permitted 
for use where listed for this service and where installed in 
accordance with their listing limitations, including installa- 
tion instructions. 

9.3.5.3 Lateral Sway Bracing. 

9.3.5.3.1 Lateral sway bracing spaced at a maximum interval 
of 40 ft (12.2 m) on center shall be provided on all feed and 
cross mains regardless of size and all branch lines and other 
piping with a diameter of 2 J /2 in. (63.5 mm) and larger. 

9.3.5.3.2 The distance between the last brace and the end of 
the pipe shall not exceed 20 ft (6.1 m). 

9.3.5.3.3 The requirements of 9.3.5.3.1 and 9.3.5.3.2 shall 
not apply where building primary structural members exceed 
40 ft (12.2 m) on center, lateral braces shall be permitted to be 
spaced up to 50 ft (15.2 m) on center, and the distance be- 
tween the last brace and the end of the pipe shall be permitted 
to be extended to 25 ft (7.6 m). 

9.3.5.3.4 The last length of pipe at the end of a feed or cross 
main shall be provided with a lateral brace. 

9.3.5.3.5 Lateral braces shall be allowed to act as longitudinal 
braces if they are within 24 in. (610 mm) of the centerline of 
the piping braced longitudinally for lines that are 2 1 /2 in. 
(63.5 mm) and greater in diameter. 

9.3.5.3.6 Where flexible couplings are installed on mains 
other than as required in 9.3.2, a lateral brace shall be pro- 
vided within 24 in. (610 mm) of every other coupling, but not 
more than 40 ft (12.2 m) on center. 

9.3.5.3.7 The requirements of 9.3.5.3 shall not apply to pipes 
individually supported by rods less than 6 in. (152 mm) long 
measured between the top of the pipe and the point of attach- 
ment to the building structure. 



9.3.5.3.8 The requirements of 9.3.5.3 shall not apply where 
U-type hooks of the wraparound type or those U-type hooks 
arranged to keep the pipe tight to the underside of the struc- 
tural element shall be permitted to be used to satisfy the re- 
quirements for lateral sway bracing, provided the legs are bent 
out at least 30 degrees from the vertical and the maximum 
length of each leg and the rod size satisfies the conditions of 
Table 9.3.5.8.9(a), Table 9.3.5.8.9(b), and Table 9.3.5.8.9(c). 

9.3.5.4 Longitudinal Sway Bracing. 

9.3.5.4.1 Longitudinal sway bracing spaced at a maximum 
of 80 ft (24.4 m) on center shall be provided for feed and 
cross mains. 

9.3.5.4.2 Longitudinal braces shall be permitted to serve as 
lateral braces where they are installed within 24 in. (610 mm) 
of the piping that is braced laterally. 

9.3.5.4.3 The distance between the last brace and the end of 
the pipe shall not exceed 40 ft (12.2 m). 

9.3.5.5 Risers. 

9.3.5.5.1* Tops of risers exceeding 3 ft (1 m) in length shall be 
provided with a four-way brace. 

9.3.5.5.2 Distance between four-way braces for risers shall not 
exceed 25 ft (7.6 m). 

9.3.5.5.3 Four-way bracing shall not be required where risers 
penetrate intermediate floors in multistory buildings where 
the clearance does not exceed the limits of 9.3.4. 

9.3.5.6* Horizontal Force Factors. 

9.3.5.6.1 Unless the requirements of 9.3.5.6.2 are met, the 
horizontal loads for braces shall be determined by analysis 
based on a horizontal force of F p ~ 0.5 W p , where F p is the 
horizontal force factor and W p is 1.15 times the weight of the 
water-filled piping. 

9.3.5.6.2 Where the use of horizontal force factors other than 
the horizontal force factor required by 9.3.5.6.1 is required or 
permitted by the authority having jurisdiction, they shall take 
precedence. 

9.3.5.6.3 For lateral braces, the load shall include all branch 
lines and mains, unless the branch lines are provided with longi- 
tudinal bracing, within the zone of influence of the brace. 

9.3.5.6.4 For longitudinal braces, the load shall include all 
mains within the zone of influence of the brace. 

9.3.5.7 Horizontal Force Factors. Where the horizontal force 
factors used exceed 0.5 W p and the brace angle is less than 
45 degrees from vertical or where the horizontal force factor 
exceeds 1.0 W p and the brace angle is less than 60 degrees 
from vertical, the braces shall be arranged to resist the net 
vertical reaction produced by the horizontal load. 

9.3.5.8* Horizontal Loads. 

9.3.5.8.1 Sway bracing shall be tight. 

9.3.5.8.2 For individual braces, the slenderness ratio (l/r) 
shall not exceed 300 where Zis the length of the brace and ris 
the least radius of gyration. 

9.3.5.8.3 Where threaded pipe is used as part of a sway brace 
assembly, it shall not be less than Schedule 30. 

9.3.5.8.4 All parts and fittings of a brace shall lie in a straight 
line to avoid eccentric loadings on fittings and fasteners. 



2002 Edition 



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INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



9.3.5.8.5 For longitudinal braces only, the brace shall be per- 
mitted to be connected to a tab welded to the pipe in conform- 
ance with 6.5.2. 

9.3.5.8.6 For individual braces, the slenderness ratio, l/r, 
shall not exceed 300 where lis the length of the brace and ris 
the least radius of gyration. 

9.3.5.8.7 For tension-only braces, two tension-only brace 
components opposing each other must be installed at each 
lateral or longitudinal brace location. 

9.3.5.8.8 For all braces, whether or not listed, the maximum 
allowable horizontal load shall be based on the weakest com- 
ponent of the brace with safety factors. 

9.3.5.8.9 The loads determined in 9.3.5.6 shall not exceed the 
lesser of the maximum allowable loads provided in 
Table 9.3.5.8.9(a), Table 9.3.5.8.9(b), and Table 9.3.5.8.9(c) or 
the manufacturer's certified maximum allowable horizontal 
loads for 30- to 44-degree, 45- to 59-degree, 60- to 89-degree, and 
90-degree brace angles. 

9.3.5.8.10 These certified allowable horizontal loads must in- 
clude a minimum safety factor of 1.5 against the ultimate 
break strength of the brace components and then be further 
reduced according to the brace angles. 

9.3.5.8.11 Other pipe schedules and materials not specifi- 
cally included in Table 9.3.5.8.9(a), Table 9.3.5.8.9(b), and 
Table 9.3.5.8.9(c) shall be permitted to be used if certified 
by a registered professional engineer to support the loads 
determined in accordance with the above criteria. Calcula- 
tions shall be submitted where required by the authority 
having jurisdiction. 



9.3.5.9* Fasteners. 

9.3.5.9.1 For individual fasteners, the loads determined in 
9.3.5.6 shall not exceed the allowable loads provided in Fig- 
ure 9.3.5.9.1. 

9.3.5.9.2 The type of fasteners used to secure the bracing 
assembly to the structure shall be limited to those shown in 
Figure 9.3.5.9.1. 

9.3.5.9.3 For connections to wood, through-bolts with wash- 
ers on each end shall be used, unless the requirements of 

9.3.5.9.4 are met. 

9.3.5.9.4 Where it is not practical to install through bolts due 
to the thickness of the member or inaccessibility, lag screws 
shall be permitted. Holes shall be pre-drilled Vs in. (3.2 mm) 
smaller than the maximum root diameter of the lag screw. 

9.3.5.9.5 Holes for through bolts shall be Vi& in. (1.6 mm) 
greater than the diameter of the bolt. 

9.3.5.9.6 The requirements of 9.3.5.9 shall not apply to other 
fastening methods, which shall be acceptable for use if certi- 
fied by a registered professional engineer to support the loads 
determined in accordance with the criteria in 9.3.5.9. Calcula- 
tions shall be submitted where required by the authority hav- 
ingjurisdiction. 

9.3.5.10 Assemblies. 

9.3.5.10.1 Sway bracing assemblies shall be listed for a maxi- 
mum load rating, unless the requirements of 9.3.5.10.2 are met. 

9.3.5.10.2 Where sway bracing utilizing pipe, angles, flats, or 
rods as shown in Table 9.3.5.8.9(a), Table 9.3.5.8.9(b), and 
Table 9.3.5.8.9(c) is used, the components do not require list- 
ing. Bracing fittings and connections used with those specific 
materials shall be listed. 



Table 9.3.5.8.9(a) Maximum Horizontal Loads for Sway Braces with Z/r=100 



Maximum Horizontal Load (lb) 



Shape and Size 



Least Radius of 
Gyration 



Maximum Length 
for: 



30° to 44° Angle 
from Vertical 



45° to 59° Angle 
from Vertical 



60° to 90° Angle 
from Vertical 



Pipe (Schedule 40) 



<+r 



l/r =100 



lin. 
PA in. 
IV* in. 
2 in. 



0.42 
0.54 
0.623 
0.787 



3 ft 6 in. 


7,068 


9,996 


12,242 


4 ft 6 in. 


9,567 


13,530 


16,570 


5 ft 2 in. 


11,441 


16,181 


19,817 


6 ft 6 in. 


15,377 


21,746 


26,634 



Rods 



l/r =100 



A /8 in. 
Vi in. 
5 /s in. 
% in. 
Vs in. 



0.094 
0.125 
0.156 
0.188 
0.219 



ft 9 in. 


1,580 


2,234 


2,737 


1 ft in. 


2,809 


3,972 


4,865 


1 ft 3 in. 


4,390 


6,209 


7,605 


1 ft 6 in. 


6,322 


8,941 


10,951 


1 ft 9 in. 


8,675 


12,169 


14,904 



2002 Edition 



HANGING, BRACING, AND RESTRAINT OF SYSTEM PIPING 



13-89 



Table 9.3.5.8.9(b) Maximum Horizontal Loads for Sway Braces with Z/r=200 



Shape and Size 



Maximum Horizontal Load (lb) 



30° to 44° Angle 45° to 59° Angle 60° to 90° Angle 
Least Radius of Gyration Maximum Length for: from Vertical from Vertical from Vertical 



Pipe (Schedule 40) 



4 



rS + r? 



l/r =200 



lin. 
VA in. 
IV* in. 
2 in. 



0.42 
0.54 
0.623 
0.787 



7 ft in. 

9 ft in. 

10 ft 4 in. 
13 ft lin. 



1,767 
2,392 
2,858 
3,828 



2,500 
3,385 
4,043 
5,414 



3,061 
4,145 
4,955 
6,630 



Angles 



l/r= 200 



114 x IVi x %in. 
2x2xV4 in. 
Vh x 2 x V4 in. 
2 2 /2 x 2V 2 x V 4 in. 
3 x 2V4 x i/ 4 in. 
3x3xi/4 in. 



0.292 
0.391 
0.424 
0.491 
0.528 
0.592 



4 ft 10 in. 

6 ft 6 in. 

7 ft in. 

8 ft 2 in. 

8 ft 10 in. 

9 ft 10 in. 



2,461 
3,356 
3,792 
4,257 
4,687 
5,152 



3,481 
4,746 
5,363 
6,021 
6,628 
7,286 



4,263 
5,813 
6,569 
7,374 
8,118 
8,923 



Rods 



;/r=200 



M> in. 
% in. 
%in. 
% in. 



0.094 
0.125 
0.156 
0.188 
0.219 



1 ft 6 in. 

2 ft 6 in. 

2 ft 7 in. 

3 ft 1 in. 
3 ft 7 in. 



395 


559 


685 


702 


993 


1,217 


1,087 


1,537 


1,883 


1,580 


2,235 


2,737 


2,151 


3,043 


3,726 



Flats 



= 0.29h (where h is smaller 
of two side dimensions) 



l/r= 200 



lVt x V4 in. 
2 x i/ 4 in. 
2 x % in. 



0.0725 
0.0725 
0.109 



1 ft 2 in. 


1,118 


1,581 


1,936 


1 ft 2 in. 


1,789 


2,530 


3,098 


1 ft 9 in. 


2,683 


3,795 


4,648 



Table 9.3.5.8.9(c) Maximum Horizontal Loads for Sway Braces with Z/r=300 



Maximum Horizontal Load (lb) 



Shape and Size 



Least Radius of Gyration Maximum Length for: 



30° to 44° Angle 45° to 59° Angle 
from Vertical from Vertical 



60° to 90° Angle 
from Vertical 



Pipe (Schedule 40) 



l/r= 300 



lin. 
IViin. 
1 1/2 in. 
2 in. 



0.42 
0.54 
0.623 
0.787 



10 ft 6 in. 


786 


1,111 


1,360 


13 ft 6 in. 


1,063 


1,503 


1,841 


15 ft 7 in. 


1,272 


1,798 


2,202 


19 ft 8 in. 


1,666 


2,355 


2,885 



Rods 



l/r= 300 



% in. 
1/2 in. 
5 /a in. 
% in. 



0.094 
0.125 
0.156 
0.219 



2 ft 4 in. 

3 ft 1 in. 
3 ft 11 in. 

5 ft 6 in. 



176 


248 


304 


312 


441 


540 


488 


690 


845 


956 


1,352 


1,656 



2002 Edition 



Note: Loads (given in pounds) are keyed to vertical angles of braces and orientation of connecting surface. These values are based on concentric loadings of the fastener. 
Use figures to determine proper reference within table. For angles between those shown, use most restrictive case. Braces should not be attached to light structure members. 





Brace 

45° to 59° 




Fastener 



' Brace 
60° to 90° 



Fast- 
ener 



6 



Brace 



Minimum Vfe 
depth of 
beam but not 
< 3 in. (76 mm) 
for wood beams 



30° to 44° 



Fast 
ener 




1 



6 



Brace 
45° to 59° 



Minimum V2 
depth of 
beam but not 
< 3 in. (76 mm) 
for wood beams 



3 



r 
o 




60° to 90° 



Minimum 

1 /2 depth 

of beam 

but not 

< 3 in. (76 mm) 

for wood beams 




30° to 44° 



Note: For wooden beams not less than 3 in. (76 mm). 



Minimum 
four fastener 
diameters 
but not < 1 /3 
beam depth and 
not < 3 in. (76 mm) 
for wood beams 




45° to 59° 



Minimum 

four fastener 

diameters 

but not 

< 1 /3 beam 

depth and 

not < 3 in. (76 mm) 

for wood beams 




Lag Screws and Lag Bolts in Wood (Load Perpendicular to Grain — Holes Predrilled Using Good Practice) 

Shank Diameter of Lag (in.) 



Minimum 
four fastener 
diameters 
but not 

< Vz beam 
depth and not 

< 3 in. (76 mm) 
for wood beams 













% 














y 2 












% 








7 /8 






A 


B C 


D 


E 


F 


G H 1 


A 


B 


C 


D 


E F 


G 


H 1 


A B 


C 


D 


E F 


G H 1 


ABC 


D 


E F G H 1 




3 


304 


325 292 


168 


325 


526 


230 324 400 


366 


— 


— 


— 


— 632 


— 


— — 


410 — 


— 


— 


— 716 


_ _ _ 


487 — — 


— 


— 843 — — — 


Length 

under 

head 


4 


392 


354 317 


183 


354 


678 


250 352 435 


473 


509 


456 


264 


509 818 


360 


507 626 


538 — 


— 


— 


— 929 


_ _ _ 


548 — — 


— 


— 1122 — — — 


5 


476 


375 336 


194 


375 


824 


265 373 461 


582 


545 


488 


282 


545 1008 


385 


542 670 


687 728 


653 


277 


728 1154 


515 725 896 


813 — — 


— 


— 1407 — — — 


(in.) 


6 


564 


382 342 


196 


382 


976 


270 380 470 


689 


559 


501 


288 


559 1192 


395 


556 687 


791 778 


697 


403 


778 1360 


550 775 957 


971 — — 


— 


— 1630 — — — 




8 














905 


573 


513 


296 


573 1586 


405 


570 704 


1044 806 


723 


416 


806 1807 


570 803 991 


1297 1365 1223 


685 


1365 2244 965 1359 1678 



For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm; 1 ft = 0.3048 m; 1 lb = 0.45 kg. 



o 



CO 



5*. 
a 



Through Bolts in Wood (Load Perpendicular to Grain) 
Diameter of Bolt (in.) 











% 












y 2 














5 /a 












% 










ABCE 


D 


F 


G 


H 


I 


ABCE 


D 


F 


G 


H 


1 


ABCE 


D 


F 


G 


H 


I 


ABCE 


D 


F 


G 


H 


1 


Length 


1 1 /2 


300 


173 


519 


150 


211 


261 


340 


197 


589 


170 


239 


296 


390 


225 


675 


195 


275 


339 


470 


272 


614 


235 


331 


409 


of 


2 


370 


214 


641 


185 


261 


322 


420 


243 


727 


210 


296 


365 


470 


272 


814 


235 


331 


409 


580 


335 


1004 


290 


408 


504 


Bolt 

in 

Timber 


2 1 /2 


460 


266 


796 


230 


324 


400 


550 


318 


952 


275 


387 


478 


620 


358 


1074 


310 


437 


539 


760 


439 


1316 


380 


535 


661 


3 


480 


277 


831 


240 


338 


417 


630 


364 


1091 


315 


444 


548 


710 


410 


1229 


355 


500 


617 


870 


503 


1506 


435 


613 


757 


(in.) 


3% 


460 


268 


797 


230 


324 


400 


720 


416 


1247 


360 


507 


626 


850 


491 


1472 


425 


599 


739 


1050 


607 


1818 


525 


739 


913 




5 1 /2 














680 


393 


1177 


340 


479 


591 


1020 


590 


1766 


510 


718 


887 


1580 


913 


2736 


790 


1113 


1374 



For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm; 1 lb = 0.45 kg. 



Expansion Shields in Concrete 
Diameter of Bolt (in.) 



Vfe 

ABCDEFGHI 

— — — — — — 1638 2306 2848 
923 1782 2076 1200 1782 1597 1638 2306 2848 

— — — — — — 1638 2306 2848 

— — — — — — 1638 2306 2848 



% 

ABCDEFGHI 

— — — — — — 2080 2930 3617 

— — — — — — 2080 2930 3617 
1480 2857 2637 1524 2857 2581 2080 2930 3617 

— — — — — — 2080 2930 3617 



% 

ABCDEFGHI 

— — — — — — 2470 4113 5078 

— — — — — — 2970 4113 5078 

— — — — — — 2970 4113 5078 
3070 4130 3702 2139 4130 5312 2970 4113 5078 



Min. 

Depth 

of 

Hole 

(in.) 



A B C D E 

498 962 1173 678 668 



F G H I 

860 925 1303 1609 

— 925 1303 1609 

— 925 1303 1609 

— 925 1303 1609 



For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm; 1 lb = 0.45 kg. 



Connections to Steel (Values Assume Bolt Perpendicular to Mounting Surface) 
Diameter of Unfinished Steel Bolt (in.) 



1 /2 



% 



A 

400 



B 

500 



C 

600 



D 

300 



E 
500 



F 
650 



G 

325 



H 

458 



I 

565 



A 

900 



B C 

1200 1400 



D 

800 



E F 

1200 1550 



G 

735 



H 

1035 



ABCDEFGH I 

1600 2050 2550 1450 2050 2850 1300 1830 2260 



ABCDEFGH I 

2500 3300 3950 2250 3300 4400 2045 2880 3557 



For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm; 1 ft = 0.3048 m; 1 lb = 0.45 kg. 



13-92 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Table 9.3.5.10.3 Allowable Horizontal Load on Brace 
Assemblies Based on the Weakest Component of the Brace 
Assembly 



Brace Angle 



Allowable Horizontal Load 



30-44 degrees from vertical 
45-59 degrees from vertical 
60-89 degrees from vertical 
90 degrees from vertical 



Listed load rating divided 

by 2.000 
Listed load rating divided 

by 1.414 
Listed load rating divided 

by 1.155 
Listed load rating 



9.3.5.10.3 The loads shall be reduced as shown in Table 
9.3.5.10.3 for loads that are less than 90 degrees from vertical. 

9.3.5.11 Attachments. 

9.3.5.11.1 Bracing shall be attached directly to feed and 
cross mains. 

9.3.5.11.2 Each run of pipe between changes in direction 
shall be provided with both lateral and longitudinal bracing, 
unless the requirements of 9.3.5.11.3 are met. 

9.3.5.11.3 Pipe runs less than 12 ft (3.6 m) in length shall 
be permitted to be supported by the braces on adjacent 
runs of pipe. 

9.3.5.12 Braces to Buildings with Differential Movement. A 

length of pipe shall not be braced to sections of the building 
that will move differentially. 

9.3.6 Restraint of Branch Lines. 

9.3.6.1* Restraint is considered a lesser degree of resisting 
loads than bracing and shall be provided by use of one of the 
following: 

(1) A listed sway brace assembly 

(2) A wraparound U-hook satisfying the requirements of 
9.3.5.3.8 

(3) No. 12, 440-lb (200-kg) wire installed at least 45 degrees 
from the vertical plane and anchored on both sides of 
the pipe 

(4) Other approved means 

9.3.6.2 Wire used for restraint shall be located within 2 ft 
(610 mm) of a hanger. The hanger closest to a wire restraint shall 
be of a type that resists upward movement of a branch line. 

9.3.6.3 The end sprinkler on a line shall be restrained against 
excessive vertical and lateral movement. 

9.3.6.4* Where upward or lateral movement of the system piping 
would result in damage to the sprinkler through impact against 
the building structure, equipment, or finish materials, branch 
lines shall be restrained at intervals not exceeding 30 ft (9 m). 

9.3.6.5* Sprig-ups 4 ft (1.2 m) or longer shall be restrained 
against lateral movement. 

9.3.7 Hangers and Fasteners Subject to Earthquakes. 

9.3.7.1 C-type clamps (including beam and large flange 
clamps) used to attach hangers to the building structure in areas 
subject to earthquakes shall be equipped with a restraining strap. 



9.3.7.2 The restraining strap shall be listed for use with a 
C-type clamp or shall be a steel strap of not less than 16 gauge 
thickness and not less than 1 in. (25.4 mm) wide for pipe 
diameters 8 in. (203 mm) or less and 14 gauge thickness and 
not less than 114 in. (31.7 mm) wide for pipe diameters greater 
than 8 in. (203 mm). 

9.3.7.3 The restraining strap shall wrap around the beam 
flange not less than 1 in. (25.4 mm). 

9.3.7.4 A lock nut on a C-type clamp shall not be used as a 
method of restraint. 

9.3.7.5 A lip on a "C" or "Z" purlin shall not be used as a 
method of restraint. 

9.3.7.6 Where purlins or beams do not provide an adequate 
lip to be secured by a restraining strap, the strap shall be 
through-bolted or secured by a self-tapping screw. 

9.3.7.7 C-type clamps (including beam and large flange 
clamps), with or without restraining straps, shall not be used 
to attach braces to the building structure. 

9.3.7.8 Powder-driven fasteners shall not be used to attach 
braces to the building structure, unless they are specifically 
listed for service in resisting lateral loads in areas subject to 
earthquakes. 

9.3.7.9 In areas where the horizontal force factor exceeds 
0.50 W p , powder-driven studs shall be permitted to attach 
hangers to the building structure where they are specifically 
listed for use in areas subject to earthquakes. 



Chapter 10 Underground Piping 

10.1* Piping Materials. 

10.1.1* Listing. Piping shall be listed for fire protection service 
and shall comply with the standards in Table 10.1.1. 

10.1.2 Steel Pipe. Steel piping shall not be used for general 
underground service unless specifically listed for such service. 

10.1.3 Steel Pipe Used with Fire Department Connections. 

Where externally coated and wrapped and internally galva- 
nized, steel pipe shall be permitted to be used between the 
check valve and the outside hose coupling for the fire depart- 
ment connection. 

10.1.4* Pipe Type and Class. The type and class of pipe for a 
particular underground installation shall be determined 
through consideration of the following factors: 

( 1 ) Fire resistance of the pipe 

(2) Maximum system working pressure 

(3) Depth at which the pipe is to be installed 

(4) Soil conditions 

(5) Corrosion 

(6) Susceptibility of pipe to other external loads, including 
earth loads, installation beneath buildings, and traffic or 
vehicle loads 

10.1.5 Working Pressure. Pipe shall be designed to withstand 
a system working pressure of not less than 150 psi (10.3 bar). 

10.1.6* Lining of Buried Pipe. 

10.1.6.1 Unless the requirements of 10.1.6.2 are met, all fer- 
rous metal pipe shall be lined in accordance with the appli- 
cable standards in Table 10.1.1. 



2002 Edition 



UNDERGROUND PIPING 



13-93 



Table 10.1.1 Manufacturing Standards for Underground 
Pipe 



Materials and Dimensions 



Standard 



Ductile Iron 

Cement Mortar Lining for Ductile Iron Pipe 

and Fittings for Water 
Polyethylene Encasement for Ductile Iron Pipe 

Systems 
Ductile Iron and Gray Iron Fittings, 3-in. 

Through 48-in., for Water and Other Liquids 
Rubber-Gasket Joints for Ductile Iron Pressure 

Pipe and Fittings 
Flanged Ductile Iron Pipe with Ductile Iron or 

Gray Iron Threaded Flanges 
Thickness Design of Ductile Iron Pipe 
Ductile Iron Pipe, Centrifugally Cast for Water 
Standard for the Installation of Ductile Iron 

Water Mains and Their Appurtenances 



Steel 

Steel Water Pipe 6 in. and Larger 

Coal-Tar Protective Coatings and Linings for 

Steel Water Pipelines Enamel and Tape — 

Hot Applied 
Cement-Mortar Protective Lining and Coating 

for Steel Water Pipe 4 in. and Larger — Shop 

Applied 
Field Welding of Steel Water Pipe 
Steel Pipe Flanges for Waterworks Service — 

Sizes 4 in. Through 144 in. 
Dimensions for Fabricated Steel Water Pipe 

Fittings 
A Guide for Steel Pipe Design and Installation 

Concrete 

Reinforced Concrete Pressure Pipe, Steel-Cylinder 

Type, for Water and Other Liquids 
Prestressed Concrete Pressure Pipe, Steel-Cylinder 

Type, for Water and Other Liquids 
Reinforced Concrete Pressure Pipe, Non-Cylinder 

Type, for Water and Other Liquids 
Reinforced Concrete Pressure Pipe, Steel-Cylinder 

Type, Pretensioned, for Water and Other 

Liquids 
Asbestos-Cement Distribution Pipe, 4 in. 

Through 16 in., for Water and Other Liquids 
Standard Practice for Selection of 

Asbestos-Cement Water Pipe 
Cement-Mortar Lining of Water Pipe Lines 

4 in. and Larger — in Place 
Standard for the Installation of Asbestos-Cement 

Water Pipe 

Plastic 

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Pressure Pipe, 4 in. 
Through 12 in., for Water and Other Liquids 

Copper 

Specification for Seamless Copper Tube 
Specification for Seamless Copper Water Tube 
Requirements for Wrought Seamless Copper and 
Copper-Alloy Tube 



AWWAC104 

AWWAC105 

AWWAC110 

AWWAC111 

AWWAC115 

AWWAC150 
AWWA C151 
AWWA C600 



AWWA C200 
AWWA C203 



AWWA C205 

AWWA C206 
AWWA C207 

AWWA C208 

AWWA Mil 

AWWA C300 
AWWA C301 
AWWA C302 
AWWA C303 

AWWA C400 
AWWA C401 
AWWA C602 
AWWA C603 

AWWA C900 



ASTM B 75 
ASTM B 88 
ASTM B 251 



10.1.6.2 Steel pipe utilized in fire department connections 
and protected in accordance with the requirements of 10.1.3 
shall not be additionally required to be lined. 

10.2 Fittings. 

10.2.1 Standard Fittings. Fittings shall meet the standards in 
Table 10.2.1 (a) or shall be in accordance with 10.2.2. In addi- 
tion to the standards in Table 10.2.1(a), CPVC fittings shall 
also be in accordance with 10.2.2 and with the portions of the 
ASTM standards specified in Table 10.2.1 (b) that apply to fire 
protection service. 



Table 10.2.1(a) Fittings Materials and Dimensions 



Materials and Dimensions 



Standard 



Cast Iron 

Cast Iron Threaded Fittings, Class 125 and 250 ASME B16.4 

Cast Iron Pipe Ranges and Flanged Fittings ASME B 1 6 . 1 

Malleable Iron 

Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings, Class 150 ASME B16.3 

and 300 

Steel 

Factory-Made Wrought Steel Buttweld Fittings ASME Bl 6.9 

Buttwelding Ends for Pipe, Valves, Ranges, and ASME B16.25 

Fittings 
Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought ASTM A 234 

Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Moderate and 

Elevated Temperatures 
Steel Pipe Ranges and Ranged Fittings ASME B 1 6. 5 

Forged Steel Fittings, Socket Welded and ASME B16.ll 

Threaded 

Copper 

Wrought Copper and Bronze Solder Joint ASME Bl 6.22 

Pressure Fittings 

Cast Bronze Solder Joint Pressure Fittings ASME B 1 6. 1 8 



Table 10.2.1(b) Specially Listed Fittings Materials and 
Dimensions 



Materials and Dimensions 



Standard 



Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride (CPVC) ASTM F 437 

Specification for Schedule 80 CPVC Threaded 

Fittings 
Specification for Schedule 40 CPVC Socket-Type ASTM F 438 

Fittings 
Specification for Schedule 80 ASTM F 439 

CPVC Socket-Type Fittings 



10.2.2 Special Listed Fittings. Other types of fittings investi- 
gated for suitability in automatic sprinkler installations and 
listed for this service including, but not limited to, polybu- 
tylene, CPVC, and steel differing from that provided in 
Table 10.2.1(a), and shall be permitted when installed in 
accordance with their listing limitations, including installa- 
tion instructions. 



2002 Edition 



13-94 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



10.2.3 Pressure Limits. Listed fittings shall be permitted for 
system pressures as specified in their listings, but not less than 
150psi(10bar). 

10.2.4* Buried Joints. Joints shall be approved. 

10.2.5* Buried Fittings. Fittings shall be of an approved type 
with joints and pressure class ratings compatible with the pipe 
used. 

10.3 Joining of Pipe and Fittings. 

10.3.1 Threaded Pipe and Fittings. All threaded steel pipe 
and fittings shall have threads cut in accordance with ASME 
B 1.20.1, Pipe Threads, General Purpose (Inch). 

10.3.2 Welded Pipe and Fittings. Welding methods that com- 
ply with the applicable requirements of AWS B2.1, Specification 
for Welding Procedure and Performance Qualification, shall be per- 
mitted as means of joining steel piping. 

10.3.3 Groove Joining Methods. Pipes joined with grooved fit- 
tings shall be joined by a listed combination of fittings, gaskets, 
and grooves. 

10.3.4 Brazed and Pressure Fitting Methods. Joints for the 
connection of copper tube shall be brazed or joined using 
pressure fittings as specified in Table 10.2.1(a). 

10.3.5 Other Joining Methods. Other joining methods listed 
for this service shall be permitted where installed in accor- 
dance with their listing limitations. 

10.3.6 Pipe Joint Assembly. 

10.3.6.1 Joints shall be assembled by persons familiar with 
the particular materials being used and in accordance with the 
manufacturer's instructions and specifications. 

10.3.6.2 All bolted joint accessories shall be cleaned and 
thoroughly coated with asphalt or other corrosion-retarding 
material after installation. 

10.4 Depth of Cover. 

10.4.1* The depth of cover over water pipes shall be deter- 
mined by the maximum depth of frost penetration in the lo- 
cality where the pipe is laid. 

10.4.2 The top of the pipe shall be buried not less than 1 ft 
(0.3 m) below the frost line for the locality. 

10.4.3 In those locations where frost is not a factor, the depth 
of cover shall be not less than 2M> ft (0.8 m) to prevent me- 
chanical damage. 

10.4.4 Pipe under driveways shall be buried a minimum of 
3 ft (0.9 m). 

10.4.5 Pipe under railroad tracks shall be buried at a mini- 
mum of 4ft (1.2 m). 

10.4.6 The depth of cover shall be measured from the top of 
the pipe to finished grade, and due consideration shall always 
be given to future or final grade and nature of soil. 

10.5 Protection Against Freezing. 

10.5.1* Where it is impracticable to bury pipe, pipe shall be 
permitted to be laid aboveground, provided the pipe is pro- 
tected against freezing and mechanical damage. 

10.5.2 Pipe shall be buried below the frost line where enter- 
ing streams and other bodies of water. 



10.5.3 Where pipe is laid in water raceways or shallow 
streams, care shall be taken that there will be sufficient depth 
of running water between the pipe and the frost line during all 
seasons of frost; a safer method is to bury the pipe 1 ft 
(0.3048 m) or more under the bed of the waterway. 

10.5.4 Pipe shall be located at a distance from stream banks 
and embankment walls that prevents danger of freezing 
through the side of the bank. 

10.6 Protection Against Damage. 

10.6.1 Pipe shall not be run under buildings. 

10.6.2 When pipe must be run under buildings, special pre- 
cautions shall be taken, including the following: 

(1) Arching the foundation walls over the pipe 

(2) Running pipe in covered trenches 

(3) Providing valves to isolate sections of pipe under 
buildings 

10.6.3 Fire service mains shall be permitted to enter the 
building adjacent to the foundation. 

10.6.4 Where adjacent structures or physical conditions 
make it impractical to locate risers immediately inside an ex- 
terior wall, such risers shall be permitted to be located as close 
as practical to exterior walls to minimize underground piping 
under the building. 

10.6.5 Where a riser is close to building foundations, under- 
ground fittings of proper design and type shall be used to 
avoid pipe joints being located in or under the foundations. 

10.6.6 Mains shall be subjected to an evaluation of the follow- 
ing specific loading conditions and protected, if necessary: 

(1) Mains running under railroads carrying heavy cargo 

(2) Mains running under large piles of heavy commodities 

(3) Mains located in areas that subject the main to heavy 
shock and vibrations 

10.6.7* When it is necessary to join metal pipe with pipe of 
dissimilar metal, the joint shall be insulated against the pas- 
sage of an electric current using an approved method. 

10.6.8 In no case shall pipe specified in 10.6.7 be used for 
grounding of electrical services. 

10.7 Requirement for Laying Pipe. 

10.7.1 Pipes, valves, hydrants, and fittings shall be inspected 
for damage when received and shall be inspected prior to in- 
stallation. 

10.7.2 The torquing of bolted joints shall be checked. 

10.7.3 Pipe, valves, hydrants, and fittings shall be clean 
inside. 

10.7.4 When work is stopped, the open ends of pipe, valves, 
hydrants, and fittings shall be plugged to prevent stones and 
foreign materials from entering. 

10.7.5 All pipe, fittings, valves, and hydrants shall be carefully 
lowered into the trench using appropriate equipment and 
carefully examined for cracks or other defects while sus- 
pended above the trench. 

10.7.6 Plain ends shall be inspected for signs of damage prior 
to installation. 

10.7.7 Under no circumstances shall water main materials be 
dropped or dumped. 



2002 Edition 



UNDERGROUND PIPING 



13-95 



10.7.8 Pipe shall not be rolled or skidded against other pipe 
materials. 

10.7.9 Pipes shall bear throughout their full length and shall 
not be supported by the bell ends only or by blocks. 

10.7.10 If ground is soft, or of a quicksand nature, special 
provisions shall be made for supporting pipe. 

10.7.11 Valves and fittings used with nonmetallic pipe shall be 
properly supported and restrained in accordance with the 
manufacturer's specifications. 

10.8 Joint Restraint. 

10.8.1 General. 

10.8.1.1* All tees, plugs, caps, bends, reducers, valves, and hy- 
drant branches shall be restrained against movement by using 
thrust blocks in accordance with 10.8.2 or restrained joint sys- 
tems in accordance with 10.8.3. 

10.8.1.2 Piping with fused, threaded, grooved or welded 
joints shall not require additional restraining, provided that 
such joints can pass the hydrostatic test of 10.10.2.2 without 
shifting of piping or leakage in excess of permitted amounts. 

10.8.1.3 Steep Grades. On steep grades, mains shall be addi- 
tionally restrained to prevent slipping. 

10.8.1.3.1 Pipe shall be restrained at the bottom of a hill and 
at any turns (lateral or vertical). 

10.8.1.3.2 The restraint specified in 10.8.1.3.1 shall be to 
natural rock or to suitable piers built on the downhill side of 
the bell. 

10.8.1.3.3 Bell ends shall be installed facing uphill. 

10.8.1.3.4 Straight runs on hills shall be restrained as deter- 
mined by the design engineer. 

10.8.2* Thrust Blocks. 

10.8.2.1 Thrust blocks shall be considered satisfactory where 
soil is suitable for their use. 

10.8.2.2 Thrust blocks shall be of a concrete mix not leaner 
than one part cement, two and one-half parts sand, and five 
parts stone. 

10.8.2.3 Thrust blocks shall be placed between undisturbed 
earth and the fitting to be restrained and shall be capable of 
such bearing to ensure adequate resistance to the thrust to be 
encountered. 

10.8.2.4 Wherever possible, thrust blocks shall be placed so 
that the joints are accessible for repair. 

10.8.3 Restrained Joint Systems. Fire mains utilizing re- 
strained joint systems shall include the following: 

(1) Locking mechanical or push-on joints 

(2) Mechanical joints utilizing setscrew retainer glands 

(3) Bolted flange joints 

(4) Heat-fused or welded joints 

(5) Pipe clamps and tie rods 

(6) Other approved methods or devices 

10.8.3.1 Sizing Clamps, Rods, Bolts, and Washers. 
10.8.3.1.1 Clamps. 

10.8.3.1.1.1 Clamps shall have the following dimensions: 
(1) Vi in. x 2 in. (12.7 mm x 50.8 mm) for pipe 4 in. to 6 in. 



(2) 5 /sin. x 2V / 2in. (15.9 mm x 63.5 mm) for pipe 8 in. to 10 in. 

(3) % in. x 3 in. (15.9 mm x 76.2 mm) for 12-in. pipe 

10.8.3.1.1.2 The diameter of a bolt hole shall be Vm in. 
(1.6 mm) larger than that of the corresponding bolts. 

10.8.3.1.2 Rods. 

10.8.3.1.2.1 Rods shall be not less than 5 /s in. (15.9 mm) in 
diameter. 

10.8.3.1.2.2 Table 10.8.3.1.2.2 provides numbers of various 
diameter rods that shall be used for a given pipe size. 



Table 10.8.3.1.2.2 Rod Number — Diameter Combinations 



Nominal 

Pipe Size 

(in.) 


5 /8in. 
(15.9 mm) 


% in. 
(19.1 mm) 


% in. 
(22.2 mm) 


lin. 
(25.4 mm) 


4 
6 
8 


2 
2 
3 


— 


— 


— 


2 








10 


4 


3 


2 


— 


12 


6 


4 


3 


2 


14 


8 


5 


4 


3 


16 


10 


7 


5 


4 



Note: This table has been derived using pressure of 225 psi (15.5 bar) 
and design stress of 25,000 psi (172.4 MPa). 



10.8.3.1.2.3 When using bolting rods, the diameter of me- 
chanical joint bolts shall limit the diameter of rods to % in. 
(19.1mm). 

10.8.3.1.2.4 Threaded sections of rods shall not be formed or 
bent. 

10.8.3.1.2.5 Where using clamps, rods shall be used in pairs 
for each clamp. 

10.8.3.1.2.6 Assemblies in which a restraint is made by means 
of two clamps canted on the barrel of the pipe shall be permit- 
ted to use one rod per clamp if approved for the specific instal- 
lation by the authority havingjurisdiction. 

10.8.3.1.2.7 Where using combinations of rods in numbers 
greater than two, the rods shall be symmetrically spaced. 

10.8.3.1.3 Clamp Bolts. Clamp bolts shall have the following 
diameters: 

(1) % in. (15.9 mm) for pipe 4 in., 6 in., and 8 in. 

(2) % in. (19.1 mm) for pipe 10 in. 

(3) % in. (22.2 mm) for 12-in. pipe 

10.8.3.1.4 Washers. 

10.8.3.1.4.1 Washers shall be permitted to be cast iron or 
steel and round or square. 

10.8.3.1.4.2 Cast-iron washers shall have the following di- 
mensions: 

(1) % in. x 3 in. (15.9 mm x 76.2 mm) for 4-in., 6-in., 8-in., 
and 10-in. pipe 

(2) % in. x 3^2 in. (19.1 mm x 88.9 mm) for 12-in. pipe 



2002 Edition 



13-96 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



10.8.3.1.4.3 Steel washers shall have the following dimensions: 

(1) y 2 in. x 3 in. (12.7 mm x 76.2 mm) for 4-in., 6-in., 8-in., 
and 10-in. pipe 

(2) Vi in. x 3V 2 in. (12.7 mm x 88.9 mm) for 12-in. pipe 

10.8.3.1.4.4 The diameter of holes shall be ] /s in. (3.2 mm) 
larger than that of rods. 

10.8.3.2 Sizes of Restraint Straps for Tees. 

10.8.3.2.1 Restraint straps for tees shall have the following 
dimensions: 

(1) % in. (15.9 mm) thick and IVi in. (63.5 mm) wide for 
4-in., 6-in., 8-in., and 10-in. pipe 

(2) % in. (15.9 mm) thick and 3 in. (76.2 mm) wide for 12-in. 
pipe 

10.8.3.2.2 The diameter of rod holes shall be Vie in. (1.6 mm) 
larger than that of rods. 

10.8.3.2.3 Figure 10.8.3.2.3 and Table 10.8.3.2.3 shall be used 
in sizing the restraint straps for both mechanical and push-on 
joint tee fittings. 



Rod hole 




Rod hole 



FIGURE 10.8.3.2.3 Restraint Straps for Tees. 



10.8.3.3 Sizes of Plug Strap for Bell End of Pipe. 

10.8.3.3.1 Strap shall be % in. (19.1 mm) thick and 2V 2 in. 
(63.5 mm) wide. 

10.8.3.3.2 The strap length shall be the same as dimension A 
for tee straps as shown in Figure 10.8.3.2.3. 

10.8.3.3.3 The distance between the centers of rod holes 
shall be the same as dimension B for tee straps as shown in 
Figure 10.8.3.2.3. 

10.8.3.4 Material. Clamps, rods, rod couplings or turn buck- 
les, bolts, washers, restraint straps, and plug straps shall be of a 
material that has physical and chemical characteristics that 
indicate its deterioration under stress can be predicted with 
reliability. 

10.8.3.5* Corrosion Resistance. After installation, rods, nuts, 
bolts, washers, clamps, and other restraining devices shall be 



cleaned and thoroughly coated with a bituminous or other 
acceptable corrosion-retarding material. 

10.9 Backfilling. 

10.9.1 Backfill shall be tamped in layers or puddled under 
and around pipes to prevent settlement or lateral movement 
and shall contain no ashes, cinders, refuse, organic matter, or 
other corrosive materials. 

10.9.2 Rocks shall not be placed in trenches. 

10.9.3 Frozen earth shall not be used for backfilling. 

10.9.4 In trenches cut through rock, tamped backfill shall be 
used for at least 6 in. (150 mm) under and around the pipe 
and for at least 2 ft (0.6 m) above the pipe. 

10.10 Testing and Acceptance. 

10.10.1 Approval of Underground Piping. The installing con- 
tractor shall do the following: 

(1) Notifying the authority having jurisdiction and the own- 
er's representative of the time and date testing is to be 
performed 

(2) Performing all required acceptance tests 

(3) Completing and signing the contractor's material and test 
certificate (s) shown in Figure 10.10.1. 

10.10.2 Acceptance Requirements. 
10.10.2.1* Hushing of Piping. 

10.10.2.1.1 Underground piping, from the water supply to 
the system riser, and lead-in connections to system riser shall 
be completely flushed before connection is made to down- 
stream fire protection system piping. 

10.10.2.1.2 The flushing operation shall be continued for a 
sufficient time to ensure thorough cleaning. 

10.10.2.1.3 The minimum rate of flow shall be not less than 
one of the following: 

( 1 ) Hydraulically calculated water demand rate of the system, 
including any hose requirements 

(2) Flow necessary to provide a velocity of 10 ft/sec 
(3.1 m/sec) in accordance with Table 10.10.2.1.3 

(3) Maximum flow rate available to the system under fire 
conditions 

10.10.2.2 Hydrostatic Test. 

10.10.2.2.1* All piping and attached appurtenances subjected 
to system working pressure shall be hydrostatically tested at 
200 psi (13.8 bar) or 50 psi (3.5 bar) in excess of the system 
working pressure, whichever is greater, and shall maintain 
that pressure without loss for 2 hours. 



Table 10.8.3.2.3 Restraint Straps for Tees 







A 






B 






C 






D 




Nominal Pipe Size (in.) 


in. 




mm 


in. 




mm 


in. 




mm 


in. 




mm 


4 


12 ] /2 




318 


lOVs 




257 


2M> 




64 


1% 




44 


6 


14M> 




368 


12V8 




308 


3 9 /l6 




90 


2*%6 




71 


8 


16% 




425 


14% 




365 


4 21 /32 




118 


3 2 %2 




99 


10 


19Vi6 




484 


16 U /l6 




424 


5% 




146 


5 




127 


12 


22^6 




567 


19%6 




487 


6% 




171 


5 7 /8 




149 



2002 Edition 



UNDERGROUND PIPING 



13-97 



Contractor's Material and Test Certificate for Underground Piping 



PROCEDURE 

Upon completion of work, inspection and tests shall be made by the contractor's representative and witnessed by an owner's 
representative. All defects shall be corrected and system left in service before contractor's personnel finally leave the job. 

A certificate shall be filled out and signed by both representatives. Copies shall be prepared for approving authorities, owners, and 
contractor. It is understood the owner's representative's signature in no way prejudices any claim against contractor for faulty material, poor 
workmanship, or failure to comply with approving authority's requirements or local ordinances. 



Property name 



Date 



Property address 



Plans 



Accepted by approving authorities (names) 



Address 



Installation conforms to accepted plans 

Equipment used is approved 
If no, state deviations 



□ Yes 

□ Yes 



□ No 

□ No 



Has person in charge of fire equipment been instructed as to location of 
control valves and care and maintenance of this new equipment? 
If no, explain 



□ Yes 



□ No 



Instructions 



Have copies of appropriate instructions and care and maintenance 
charts been left on premises? 
If no, explain 



□ Yes □ No 



Location 



Supplies buildings 



Pipe types and class 



Type joint 



Underground 
pipes and joints 



Pipe conforms to 
Fittings conform to 
If no, explain 



standard 
standard 



□ Yes 

□ Yes 



□ No 

□ No 



Joints needed anchorage clamped, strapped, or blocked in 

accordance with standard 

If no, explain 



□ Yes 



□ No 



Flushing: Flow the required rate until water is clear as indicated by no collection of foreign material in burlap bags at 



outlets such as hydrants and blow-offs. Flush at flows not less than 390 gpm (1476 L/min) for 4-in. pipe, 880 gpm (3331 
L/min) for 6-in. pipe, 1560 gpm (5905 L/min) for 8-in. pipe, 2440 gpm (9235 L/min) for 10-in. pipe, and 3520 gpm (13,323 
L/min) for 12-in. pipe. When supply cannot produce stipulated flow rates, obtain maximum available. 
Hydrostatic: Hydrostatic tests shall be made at not less than 200 psi (13.8 bar) for 2 hours or 50 psi (3.4 bar) above 



Test 
description 



static pressure in excess of 150 psi (10.3 bar) for 2 hours. 

Leakage: New pipe laid with rubber gasketed joints shall, if the workmanship is satisfactory, have little or no leakage at 



the joints. The amount of leakage at the joints shall not exceed 2 quarts per hour (1 .89 L/hr) per 100 joints irrespective 
of pipe diameter. The leakage shall be distributed over all joints. If such leakage occurs at a few joints, the installation 
shall be considered unsatisfactory and necessary repairs made. The amount of allowable leakage specified above can 
be increased by 1 fluid ounce per inch valve diameter per hr. (30 ml_/25 mm/hr) for each metal seated valve isolating the 
test section. If dry barrel hydrants are tested with the main valve open so the hydrants are under pressure, an additional 
5 ounces per minute (150 mL/min) leakage is permitted for each hydrant. 



New underground piping flushed according to 
standard by (company) 



□ Yes 



□ No 



If no, explain 



Flushing 
tests 



How flushing flow was obtained 

I I Public water O Tank or reservoir □ Fire pump 



Through what type opening 
I I Hydrant butt □ Open pipe 



Lead-ins flushed according to 
If no, explain 



standard by (company) 



□ Yes 



□ No 



How flushing flow was obtained 

I I Public water O Tank or reservoir □ Fire pump 



Through what type opening 

I I Y connection to flange □ Open pipe 
and spigot 



FIGURE 1 0.1 0.1 Sample of Contractor's Material and Test Certificate for Underground Piping. 



2002 Edition 



13-98 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Hydrostatic 
test 


All new underground piping hydrostatically tested at 

Prj for hnurs 




Joints covered 
□ Yes □ No 






Leakage 
test 


Total amount of leakage measured 

gallons hours 


Allowable leakage 

gallons hours 


Hydrants 


Number installed 


Type and make 


All operate satisfactorily 

□ Yes □ No 


Control 
valves 


Water control valves left wide open O Yes EZI No 
If no, state reason 

Hose threads of fire department connections and hydrants interchangeable with LJ Yes Lj No 
those of fire department answering alarm 


Remarks 


Date left in service 






Signatures 


Name of installing contractor 


Tests witnessed by 


For property owner (signed) i Title , Date 


For installing contractor (signed) , Title , Date 


Additional explana 


tion and notes 



FIGURE 10.10.1 Continued 



Table 10.10.2.1.3 Flow Required to Produce a Velocity of 10 
ft/ sec (3 m/sec) in Pipes 





Pipe 


Size 




Flow Rate 


in. 






mm 


gpm 


L/min 


4 






102 


390 


1,476 


6 






152 


880 


3,331 


8 






203 


1,560 


5,905 


10 






254 


2,440 


9,235 


12 






305 


3,520 


13,323 



10.10.2.2.2 Loss shall be determined by a drop in gauge pres- 
sure or visual leakage. 

10.10.2.2.3 The test pressure shall be read from a gauge lo- 
cated at the low elevation point of the system or portion being 
tested. 

10.10.2.2.4 The permitted amount of underground piping 
Jeakage shall be as follows: 

(l)*The amount of leakage at the joints shall not exceed 
2 qt/hr (1.89 L/hr) per 100 gaskets or joints, irrespective 
of pipe diameter. 



(2)*The amount of allowable leakage specified in 
10.10.2.2.4(1) shall be permitted to be increased by 1 fl oz 
(30 ml) per inch valve diameter per hour for each metal- 
seated valve isolating the test section. 

(3) If dry barrel hydrants are tested with the main valve open 
so the hydrants are under pressure, an additional 5 fl oz/ 
min (150 ml/min) of leakage shall be permitted for each 
hydrant. 

(4) The amount of leakage in buried piping shall be mea- 
sured at the specified test pressure by pumping from a 
calibrated container. 

Chapter 11 Design Approaches 

11.1 General. 

11.1.1 Water demand requirements shall be determined 
from the following: 

(1) Occupancy hazard fire control approach 

(2) Storage design approaches of Chapter 12 

(3) Special design approaches of Chapter 13 

11.1.2 For buildings with two or more adjacent occupancies 
that are not physically separated by a barrier or partition ca- 
pable of delaying heat from a fire in one area from fusing 
sprinklers in the adjacent area, the required sprinkler protec- 
tion for the more demanding occupancy shall extend 15 ft 
(4.6 m) beyond its perimeter. 



2002 Edition 



DESIGN APPROACHES 



13-99 



11.2 Occupancy Hazard Fire Control Approach. 

11.2.1 Occupancy Classifications. 

11.2.1.1 Occupancy classifications for this standard relate to 
sprinkler installations and their water supplies only. 

11.2.1.2 Occupancy classifications shall not be used as a gen- 
eral classification of occupancy hazards. 

11.2.1.3 Occupancies or portions of occupancies shall be 
classified according to the quantity and combustibility of 
contents, the expected rates of heat release, the total poten- 
tial for energy release, the heights of stockpiles, and the 
presence of flammable and combustible liquids, using the 
definitions contained in Sections 5.2 through 5.5. Classifi- 
cations are as follows: 

(1) Light hazard 

(2) Ordinary hazard (Groups 1 and 2) 

(3) Extra hazard (Groups 1 and 2) 

(4) Special occupancy hazard (see Chapter 13) 

11 .2.2 Water Demand Requirements — Pipe Schedule Method. 

11.2.2.1 Table 11.2.2.1 shall be used in determining the mini- 
mum water supply requirements for light and ordinary hazard 
occupancies protected by systems with pipe sized according to 
the pipe schedules of Section 14.5. 



Table 11.2.2.1 Water Supply Requirements for Pipe 
Schedule Sprinkler Systems 







Acceptable Flow 






Minimum 


at Base of Riser 






Residual 


(Including Hose 






Pressure 


Stream 




Occupancy 


Required 


Allowance) 


Duration 


Classification 


(psi) 


(gpm) 


(minutes) 


Light hazard 


15 


500-750 


30-60 


Ordinary hazard 


20 


850-1500 


60-90 



Note: For SI units, 1 gpm = 3.785 L/min; 1 psi = 0.0689 bar. 



11.2.2.2 Pressure and flow requirements for extra hazard oc- 
cupancies shall be based on the hydraulic calculation methods 
of 11.2.3. 

11 .2.2.3 Unless the requirements of 1 1 .2.2.5 are met the pipe 
schedule method shall be permitted only for new installations 
of 5000 ft 2 (465 m 2 ) or less or for additions or modifications to 
existing pipe schedule systems sized according to the pipe 
schedules of Section 14.5. 

11.2.2.4 Table 11.2.2.1 shall be used in determining the mini- 
mum water supply requirements. 

11.2.2.5 The pipe schedule method shall be permitted for 
use in systems exceeding 5000 ft 2 (465 m 2 ) where the flows 
required in Table 11.2.2.1 are available at a minimum re- 
sidual pressure of 50 psi (3.4 bar) at the highest elevation of 
sprinkler. 

11.2.2.6 The pipe schedule method shall be permitted for 
additions or modifications to existing extra hazard pipe sched- 
ule systems. 



11.2.2.7 The lower duration value of Table 11.2.2.1 shall be 
acceptable only where remote station or central station water- 
flow alarm service is provided. 

11.2.2.8* Residual Pressure. 

11.2.2.8.1 The residual pressure requirement of Table 
11.2.2.1 shall be met at the elevation of the highest sprinkler. 

11.2.2.8.2 When backflow prevention valves are installed on 
pipe schedule systems, the friction losses of the device shall be 
accounted for when determining acceptable residual pressure 
at the top level of sprinklers. The friction loss of this device [in 
psi (bar) ] shall be added to the elevation loss and the residual 
pressure at the top row of sprinklers to determine the total 
pressure needed at the water supply. 

11.2.2.9 The lower flow figure of Table 11.2.2.1 shall be permit- 
ted only where the building is of noncombustible construction or 
the potential areas of fire are limited by building size or compart- 
mentation such that no open areas exceed 3000 ft 2 (279 m 2 ) for 
light hazard or 4000 ft 2 (372 m 2 ) for ordinary hazard. 

11.2.3 Water Demand Requirements — Hydraulic Calculation 
Methods. 

11.2.3.1 General. 

11.2.3.1.1* The minimum water supply requirements for a hy- 
draulically designed occupancy hazard fire control sprinkler 
system shall be determined by adding the hose stream de- 
mand from Table 11.2.3.1.1 to the water supply for sprinklers 
determined in 11.2.3.1.5. 



Table 11.2.3.1.1 Hose Stream Demand and Water Supply 
Duration Requirements for Hydraulically Calculated Systems 

Total 
Combined 
Inside and 
Inside Hose Outside Duration 

Occupancy (gp m ) Hose (gpm) (minutes) 

Light hazard 0, 50, or 100 100 30 

Ordinary hazard 0, 50, or 100 250 60-90 

Extra hazard 0, 50, or 100 500 90-120 



For SI units, 1 gpm = 3.785 L/min. 



11.2.3.1.2 The minimum water supply shall be available for 
the minimum duration specified in Table 11.2.3.1.1. 

11.2.3.1.3 An allowance for inside and outside hose shall not 
be required where tanks supply sprinklers only. 

11.2.3.1.4 Where pumps taking suction from a private fire 
service main supply sprinklers only, the pump need not be 
sized to accommodate inside and outside hose. Such hose al- 
lowance shall be considered in evaluating the available water 
supplies. 

11.2.3.1.5 Density/ Area Curves. The water supply for sprin- 
klers only shall be determined either from the density/area 
curves of Figure 11.2.3.1.5 in accordance with the method of 
11.2.3.2 or be based upon the room design method in accor- 
dance with 11.2.3.3, at the discretion of the designer. 



2002 Edition 



13-100 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



2.0 



4.1 



6.1 



Density (mm/min) 
8.1 10.2 



12.2 



14.3 



16.3 



5000 



■i= 4000 

CO 
CD 
Q. 
O 



3000 



■r 2500 



2000 



1500 



























































































































































































































































3 






































































L 














<<^\ 






















































t 












V 






















































*T- 












^1 


































































ft 
























































C n 


































LC 




g 






















^ 


0, 














a 




















































* 














°o\ 








c 

ft 




















































*J 


•? 
















UZ 










^L 














































































































X* 








\ .> 








\\~> 































































































































































































































































































































0.05 



0.10 



0.15 



0.20 0.25 

Density (gpm/ft 2 ) 



0.30 



FIGURE 11.2.3.1.5 Density/Area Curves. 



465 

E. 
372 .2 

CO 
CD 
Q. 

o 
279 ■£ 

232 £ 
o 
co 

186 % 



139 



0.35 



0.40 



11.2.3.1.6 Special Areas. For special areas under consider- 
ation, as described in 11.2.3.4, separate hydraulic calculations 
shall be required in addition to those required by 11.2.3.2 or 
11.2.3.3. 

11.2.3.1.7* Systems with Multiple Hazard Classifications. For 

systems with multiple hazard classifications, the hose stream 
demand shall be in accordance with one of the following: 

(1) Add the hose demand for the highest hazard classifica- 
tion within the system, or 

(2) Add the hose demand for each individual hazard classifica- 
tion to the calculations for the design area for that hazard, or 

(3) For systems with multiple hazard classifications where the 
higher classification only lies within single rooms less than 
or equal to 400 ft 2 in area with no such rooms adjacent, 
add the hose demand for the principal occupancy for the 
remainder of the system. 

11.2.3.1.8 Restrictions. Regardless of which of the two meth- 
ods is used, the following restrictions shall apply: 

(1 ) For areas of sprinkler operation less than 1500 ft 2 (139 m 2 ) 
used for light and ordinary hazard occupancies, the density 
for 1500 ft 2 (139 m 2 ) shall be used. 

(2) For areas of sprinkler operation less than 2500 ft 2 
(232 m 2 ) for extra hazard occupancies, the density for 
2500 ft 2 (232 m 2 ) shall be used. 

(3)*Unless the requirements of 11.2.3.1.8(4) are met for 
buildings having unsprinklered combustible concealed 
spaces, as described in 8.14.1.2 and 8.14.6, the minimum 
area of sprinkler operation shall be 3000 ft 2 (279 m 2 ). 
(4) The following unsprinklered combustible concealed 
spaces shall not require a minimum area of sprinkler 
operation of 3000 ft 2 (279 m 2 ): 
(a) Combustible concealed spaces filled entirely with 

noncombustible insulation. 
(b)*Light or ordinary hazard occupancies where non- 
combustible or limited combustible ceilings are di- 
rectly attached to the bottom of solid wood joists so 
as to create enclosed joist spaces 160 ft 3 (4.5 m 3 ) or 
less in volume, including space below insulation that 
is laid direcdy on top or within the ceiling joists in an 
otherwise sprinklered attic. 
(c) ^Concealed spaces where the exposed surfaces have a 
flame spread rating of 25 or less and the materials 



have been demonstrated to not propagate fire in the 
form in which they are installed in the space. 

(d) Concealed spaces over isolated small rooms not ex- 
ceeding 55 ft 2 (5.1 m 2 ) in area. 

(e) Vertical pipe chases under 10 ft 2 (0.93 m 2 ), pro- 
vided that in multifloor buildings the chases are 
firestopped at each floor using materials equiva- 
lent to the floor construction. Such pipe chases 
shall contain no sources of ignition, piping shall 
be noncombustible, and pipe penetrations at each 
floor shall be properly sealed. 

(5) Water demand of sprinklers installed in racks or water 
curtains shall be added to the ceiling sprinkler water de- 
mand at the point of connection. Demands shall be bal- 
anced to the higher pressure. (See Chapter 8.) 

(6) Water demand of sprinklers installed in concealed 
spaces or under obstructions such as ducts and cutting 
tables need not be added to ceiling demand. 

(7) Where inside hose stations are planned or are required, 
the following shall apply: 

(a) A total water allowance of 50 gpm (189 L/min) for a 
single hose station installation shall be added to the 
sprinkler requirements. 

(b) A total water allowance of 100 gpm (378 L/min) for 
a multiple hose station installation shall be added to 
the sprinkler requirements. 

(c) The water allowance shall be added in 50-gpm ( 189-L/ 
min) increments beginning at the most remote hose 
station, with each increment added at the pressure re- 
quired by the sprinkler system design at that point. 

(8) When hose valves for fire department use are attached to 
wet pipe sprinkler system risers in accordance with 
8.16.5.2 the following shall apply: 

(a) The water supply shall not be required to be added 
to standpipe demand as determined from NFPA 14, 
Standard for the Installation of Standpipe, Private Hy- 
drant, and Hose Systems. 

(b) Where the combined sprinkler system demand and 
hose stream allowance of Table 11.2.3.1.1 exceeds 
the requirements of NFPA 14, Standard for the Instal- 
lation of Standpipe, Private Hydrant, and Hose Systems, 
this higher demand shall be used. 



2002 Edition 



DESIGN APPROACHES 



13-101 



(c) For partially sprinklered buildings, the sprinkler de- 
mand, not including hose stream allowance, as indi- 
cated in Table 11.2.3.1.1 shall be added to the require- 
ments given in NFPA 14, Standard for the Installation of 
Standpipe, Private Hydrant, and Hose Systems. 
(9) Water allowance for outside hose shall be added to the 

sprinkler and inside hose requirement at the connection 

to the city water main or a yard hydrant, whichever is 

closer to the system riser. 

(10) The lower duration values in Table 11.2.3.1.1 shall be 
permitted where remote station or central station water- 
flow alarm service is provided. 

(11) Where pumps, gravity tanks, or pressure tanks supply 
sprinklers only, requirements for inside and outside 
hose need not be considered in determining the size of 
such pumps or tanks. 

(12) For all occupancies consisting of combustible wood joist or 
wood truss construction with members spaced less than 3 ft 
on center used with slopes with a pitch at or exceeding 4 in 
12 (4/12) using standard spray sprinklers, sprinklers shall 
be quick response having pressures in accordance with the 
requirements of Table 8.6.2.2.1(a). 

11.2.3.1.9 Total system water supply requirements shall be 
determined in accordance with the hydraulic calculation pro- 
cedures of Section 14.4. 

11.2.3.2 Density/Area Method. 

11.2.3.2.1 Water Supply. 

11.2.3.2.1.1* The water supply requirement for sprinklers only 
shall be calculated from the density/area curves of Figure 
11.2.3.1.5 or from Chapter 13 where density/area criteria are 
specified for special occupancy hazards. 

11.2.3.2.1.2 When using Figure 11.2.3.1.5, the calculations 
shall satisfy any single point on the appropriate density/ area 
curve. 

11.2.3.2.1.3 When using Figure 11.2.3.1.5, it shall not be nec- 
essary to meet all points on the selected curve. 

11.2.3.2.2 Sprinklers. 

11.2.3.2.2.1 The densities and areas provided in Figure 
11.2.3.1.5 are for use only with spray sprinklers. 

11.2.3.2.2.2* Quick-response sprinklers shall not be permitted 
for use in extra hazard occupancies. 

11.2.3.2.2.3 Sidewall spray sprinklers shall be permitted for 
use in light hazard occupancies and where specifically listed 
for use in ordinary hazard Group 1 and 2 occupancies. 

11.2.3.2.2.4 For extended coverage sprinklers, the minimum 
design area shall be that corresponding to the maximum den- 
sity for the hazard in Figure 11.2.3.1.5 or the area protected by 
five sprinklers, whichever is greater. 

11.2.3.2.2.5 Extended coverage sprinklers shall be listed with 
and designed for the minimum flow corresponding to the 
density for the smallest area of operation for the hazard as 
specified in Figure 11.2.3.1.5. 

11.2.3.2.3 Quick-Response Sprinklers. 

11.2.3.2.3.1 Where listed quick-response sprinklers, includ- 
ing extended coverage quick-response sprinklers, are used 
throughout a system or portion of a system having the same 
hydraulic design basis, the system area of operation shall be 



permitted to be reduced without revising the density as indi- 
cated in Figure 11.2.3.2.3.1 when all of the following condi- 
tions are satisfied: 

(1) Wet pipe system 

(2) Light hazard or ordinary hazard occupancy 

(3) 20-ft (6.1-m) maximum ceiling height 

(4) There are no unprotected ceiling pockets as allowed by 
8.6.7 and 8.8.7 exceeding 32 ft 2 

11.2.3.2.3.2 The number of sprinklers in the design area shall 
never be less than five. 

11.2.3.2.3.3 Where quick-response sprinklers are used on a 
sloped ceiling, the maximum ceiling height shall be used for 
determining the percent reduction in design area. 

11.2.3.2.3.4 Where quick-response sprinklers are installed, 
all sprinklers within a compartment shall be of the quick- 
response type. 

11 .2.3.2.3.5 Where circumstances require the use of other than 
ordinary temperature-rated sprinklers, standard-response sprin- 
klers shall be permitted to be used. 

11.2.3.2.4 Sloped Ceilings in Non-Storage Applications. The 

system area of operation shall be increased by 30 percent with- 
out revising the density when the following types of sprinklers 
are used on sloped ceilings with a pitch exceeding one in six 
(arise of two units in a run of 12 units, a roof slope of 16.7 per- 
cent) in non-storage applications: 

(1) Spray sprinklers, including extended coverage sprinklers 
listed in accordance with 8.4.3(4), and quick-response 
sprinklers 

(2) Large drop sprinklers 



y-axis 



30 




•B 20 



£ 10 



10 



20 



30 



Ceiling height (ft) 



Note: y=-|*+55 



-3x 



+ 55 



For ceiling height > 1 ft and < 20 ft, y = -~ 
For ceiling height < 10 ft, y = 40 
For ceiling height > 20, y = 
For SI units, 1 ft = 0.31 m. 



FIGURE 11.2.3.2.3.1 Design Area Reduction for Quick- 
Response Sprinklers. 



2002 Edition 



13-102 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



11.2.3.2.5 Dry Pipe and Double Interlock Preaction Systems. 

For dry pipe systems and double interlock preaction systems, 
the area of sprinkler operation shall be increased by 30 per- 
cent without revising the density. 

11.2.3.2.6 High-Temperature Sprinklers. Where high-temperature 
sprinklers are used for extra hazard occupancies, the area of 
sprinkler operation shall be permitted to be reduced by 25 per- 
cent without revising the density, but not to less than 2000 ft 2 
(186 m 2 ). 

11.2.3.2.7* Multiple Adjustments. 

11.2.3.2.7.1 Where multiple adjustments to the area of opera- 
tion are required to be made in accordance with 11.2.3.2.4, 
11.2.3.2.5, 11.2.3.2.6, or 11.2.3.2.7, these adjustments shall be 
compounded based on the area of operation originally se- 
lected from Figure 11.2.3.1.5. 

11.2.3.2.7.2 If the building has unsprinklered combustible 
concealed spaces, the rules of 11.2.3.1.8 shall be applied after 
all other modifications have been made. 

11.2.3.3 Room Design Method. 

11.2.3.3.1* The water supply requirements for sprinklers only 
shall be based upon the room that creates the greatest de- 
mand. 

11.2.3.3.2 The density selected shall be that from Figure 
11.2.3.1.5 corresponding to the room size. 

11.2.3.3.3 To utilize the room design method, all rooms shall 
be enclosed with walls having a fire-resistance rating equal to 
the water supply duration indicated in Table 11.2.3.1.1. 

11.2.3.3.4 If the room is smaller than the smallest area shown 
in the applicable curve in Figure 11.2.3.1.5, the provisions of 
11.2.3.1.8(1) and 11.2.3.1.8(2) shall apply. 

11.2.3.3.5 Minimum protection of openings shall be as follows: 

( 1 ) Light hazard — Non-rated automatic or self-closing doors 

(2) Light hazard with no opening protection — Where open- 
ings are not protected, calculations shall include the 
sprinklers in the room plus two sprinklers in the commu- 
nicating space nearest each such unprotected opening 
unless the communicating space has only one sprinkler, 
in which case calculations shall be extended to the opera- 
tion of that sprinkler. The selection of the room and com- 
municating space sprinklers to be calculated shall be that 
which produces the greatest hydraulic demand. 

(3) Ordinary and extra hazard — Automatic or self-closing 
doors with appropriate fire-resistance ratings for the 
enclosure 

11.2.3.3.6 Where the room design method is used and the 
area under consideration is a corridor protected by one row of 
sprinklers with protected openings in accordance with 
11.2.3.3.5, the maximum number of sprinklers that needs to 
be calculated is five. 

11.2.3.3.7 Where the area under consideration is a corridor 
protected by a single row of sprinklers in a light hazard occu- 
pancy, the design area shall include all sprinklers in the corri- 
dor to a maximum of five. 

11.2.3.3.8 Where the area under consideration is a corridor 
protected by a single row of sprinklers and the openings are 
not protected, the design area shall include all sprinklers in 
the corridor to a maximum of seven. 



11.2.3.4 Special Design Areas. 

11.2.3.4.1 Where the design area consists of a building ser- 
vice chute supplied by a separate riser, the maximum number 
of sprinklers that needs to be calculated is three. 

11.2.3.4.2* Where an area is to be protected by a single line of 
sprinklers, the design area shall include all sprinklers on the 
line up to a maximum of seven. 

11.2.3.5 Residential Sprinklers. 

11.2.3.5.1* The design area shall be the area that includes the 
four hydraulically most demanding sprinklers. 

11.2.3.5.2* Unless the requirements of 11.2.3.5.3 are met, the 
minimum required discharge from each of the four hydrauli- 
cally most demanding sprinklers shall be the greater of the 
following: 

(1) In accordance with minimum flow rates indicated in indi- 
vidual listings 

(2) Calculated based on delivering a minimum of 0.1 gpm/ft 2 
(4.1 mm/min) over the design area in accordance with 
the provisions of 8.5.2.1 

11.2.3.5.3 For modifications or additions to existing systems 
equipped with residential sprinklers, the listed discharge crite- 
ria less than 0.1 gpm/ft 2 (4.1 mm/min) shall be permitted to 
be used. 

11.2.3.5.4 Where areas such as attics, basements, or other 
types of occupancies are outside of dwelling units but within 
the same structure, these areas shall be protected in accor- 
dance with the provisions of this standard, including appropri- 
ate design criteria of 11.2.3. 

11.2.3.5.5 Hose stream demand and water supply duration 
requirements shall be in accordance with those for light haz- 
ard occupancies in Table 11.2.3.1.1. 

11.2.3.6 Quick-Response Early Suppression (QRES) Sprin- 
klers. (Reserved) 

11.2.3.7 Exposure Protection. 

11.2.3.7.1* Piping shall be hydraulically calculated in accor- 
dance with Section 14.4 to furnish a minimum of 7 psi (0.5 bar) 
at any sprinkler with all sprinklers facing the exposure operating. 

11.2.3.7.2 Where the water supply feeds other fire protection 
systems, it shall be capable of furnishing total demand for such 
systems as well as the exposure system demand. 

11.2.3.8 Water Curtains. 

11.2.3.8.1 Sprinklers in a water curtain such as described in 
8.14.4 shall be hydraulically designed to provide a dis- 
charge of 3 gpm per lineal foot (37 L/min per lineal meter) 
of water curtain, with no sprinklers discharging less than 
15 gpm (56.8 L/min). 

11.2.3.8.2 For water curtains employing automatic sprinklers, 
the number of sprinklers calculated in this water curtain shall 
be the number in the length corresponding to the length par- 
allel to the branch lines in the area determined by 14.4.4.1.1. 

11.2.3.8.3 If a single fire can be expected to operate sprinklers 
within the water curtain and within the design area of a hydrauli- 
cally calculated system, the water supply to the water curtain shall 
be added to the water demand of the hydraulic calculations and 
shall be balanced to the calculated area demand. 



2002 Edition 



STORAGE 



13-103 



11.2.3.8.4 Hydraulic design calculations shall include a de- 
sign area selected to include ceiling sprinklers adjacent to the 
water curtain. 

11.2.3.9 Dry System Water Delivery. 

11.2.3.9.1 Calculations for dry system water delivery shall be 
based on the hazard shown in Table 11.2.3.9.1. 

11.2.3.9.2 The calculation program and method shall be 
listed by a nationally recognized laboratory. 

Table 11 .2.3.9. 1 Dry System Water Delivery 





Number of Most 






Remote Sprinklers 


Maximum Time of 


Hazard 


Initially Open 


Water Delivery 


Residential 


1 


15 seconds 


Light 


1 


60 seconds 


Ordinary I 


2 


50 seconds 


Ordinary II 


2 


50 seconds 


Extra I 


4 


45 seconds 


Extra II 


4 


45 seconds 


High piled 


4 


40 seconds 



Chapter 12 Storage 

12.1 General. The requirements of Section 12.1 shall apply to 
all storage arrangements and commodities unless modified by 
specific section in Chapter 12. 

12.1.1 Roof Vents and Draft Curtains. Sprinkler protection 
criteria are based on the assumption that roof vents and draft 
curtains are not being used. (See Section C.6.) 

12.1.2 Building Height. 

12.1.2.1 The maximum building height shall be measured to 
the underside of the roof deck or ceiling. 

12.1.2.2 Early suppression fast-response (ESFR) sprinklers 
shall be used only in buildings equal to, or less than, the 
height of the building for which they have been listed. 

12.1.2.3 Large drop, control mode specific application and 
ESFR sprinklers shall be permitted to protect ordinary hazard, 
storage of Class I through Class IV commodities, plastic com- 
modities, miscellaneous storage, and other storage as speci- 
fied in Chapter 12 or by other NFPA standards. 

12.1.3 Hose Connections. Small hose connections \\ x /i in. 
(38 mm)] shall be provided in accordance with 8.16.5 for first- 
aid fire-fighting and overhaul operations. 

12.1.4* Wet Pipe Systems. 

12.1.4.1 Sprinkler systems shall be wet pipe systems. 

12.1.4.2* In areas that are subject to freezing or where special 
conditions exist, dry-pipe systems and preaction systems shall 
be permitted to protect storage occupancies. 

12.1.4.3 ESFR sprinklers shall only be permitted to be wet 
pipe systems. 



12.1.5* Adjacent Occupancies. For buildings with two or more 
adjacent occupancies the following shall apply: 

(1) Where areas are not physically separated by a barrier or 
partition capable of delaying heat from a fire in one area 
from fusing sprinklers in the adjacent area, the required 
sprinkler protection for the more demanding occupancy 
shall extend 15 ft (4.6 m) beyond its perimeter. 

(2) The requirements of 12.1.5(1) shall not apply where the 
areas are separated by a barrier partition that is capable of 
preventing heat from a fire in the storage area from fus- 
ing sprinklers in the non-storage area. 

12.1.6 Dry Pipe and Preaction Systems. 

12.1.6.1 For dry pipe systems and preaction systems, the area 
of sprinkler operation shall be increased by 30 percent with- 
out revising the density. 

12.1.6.2 Densities and areas shall be selected so that the final 
area of operation after the 30 percent increase is not greater 
than 6000 ft 2 (557.4 m 2 ). 

12.1.6.3 The requirements of 12.1.6 shall not apply where it 
can be demonstrated that the detection system that activates 
the preaction system causes water to be discharged from sprin- 
klers as quickly as the discharge from a wet pipe system. 

12.1.7 Ceiling Slope. The sprinkler system criteria specified 
in this chapter are intended to apply to buildings with ceiling 
slopes not exceeding 2 in 12 (16.7 percent). 

12.1.8* Multiple Adjustments. Where multiple adjustments to 
the area of operation are required to be made, these adjust- 
ments shall be compounded based on the area of operation 
originally selected. If the building has unsprinklered combus- 
tible concealed spaces, the rules of 11.2.3.1.8 shall be applied 
after all other modifications have been made. 

12.1.9* Protection of Idle Pallets. 

12.1.9.1 Wood Pallets. 

12.1.9.1.1* Pallets shall be permitted to be stored in the fol- 
lowing arrangements: 

(1) Stored outside 

(2) Stored in a detached structure 

(3) Stored indoors where arranged and protected in accor- 
dance with 12.1.9.1.2 

12.1.9.1.2* Pallets, where stored indoors, shall be protected as 
indicated in Table 12.1.9.1.2(a) using standard spray sprin- 
klers, Table 12.1.9.1.2(b) using control mode specific applica- 
tion sprinklers, or Table 12.1.9.1.2(c) using ESFR sprinklers, 
unless the following conditions are met: 

(1) Pallets shall be stored no higher than 6 ft (1.8 m). 

(2) Each pallet pile of no more than four stacks shall be sepa- 
rated from other pallet piles by at least 8 ft (1.4 m) of clear 
space or 25 ft (7.6 m) of commodity. 

12.1.9.1.3 Idle wood pallets shall not be stored in racks unless 
they are protected in accordance with the appropriate provi- 
sions of Table 12.1.9.1.2(c). (See Section C.7.) 



2002 Edition 



13-104 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Table 12.1.9.1.2(a) Control Mode Density- 


Area Protection of Indoor Storage of Idle Wood Pallets 










Location 
of Storage 


Nominal 
K-Factor 


Maximum Storage 
Height 


Sprinkler Density 


Areas of Operation 


Hose Stream 
Demand 




Type of 
Sprinkler 


High 
Temperature 


Ordinary 
Temperature 


Water 

Supply 

Duration 

(hours) 


ft 


m 


gpm/ft 2 


mm/min 


ft 2 


m 2 


ft 2 


m 


gpm 


L/min 




On floor 


K8or 
larger 


Up to 6 


Up to 1.8 


0.2 


8.2 


2000 


186 


3000 


279 


500 


1900 


V/2 


Control 
mode 


K11.2or 
larger 


6 to 8 


1.8 to 2.4 


0.45 


18.3 


2500 


232 


4000 


372 


500 


1900 


VA 


density/area 


8 to 12 


2.4 to 3.7 


0.6 


24.5 


3500 


325 


6000 


557 


500 


1900 


VA 




12 to 20 


3.7 to 6.1 


0.6 


24.5 


4500 


418 


— 


— 


500 


1900 


Wi 



Table 12.1.9.1.2(b) Control Mode Specific Application Protection of Indoor Storage of Idle Wood Pallets 





Location 
of Storage 


Nominal 
K-Factor 


Maximum 
Storage 
Height 


Maximum 

Ceiling/ 

Roof 

Height 


Type of 
System 


Number of Design Sprinklers by 
Minimum Pressure 


Hose Stream 
Demand 


Water 

Supply 

Duration 

(hours) 


Type of 
Sprinkler 


ft 


m 


ft 


m 


25psi 
(1.7 bar) 


50 psi 
(3.4 bar) 


75 psi 
(5.2 bar) 


gpm 


L/min 


Large 


On floor 


11.2 


20 


6.1 


30 


9.1 


Wet 


15 


15 


15 


500 


1900 


Wi 


drop 


Dry 


25 


25 


25 


500 


1900 


1M> 



Table 12.1.9.1.2(c) ESFR Protection of Indoor Storage of Idle Wood Pallets 



Type of Sprinkler 
(Orientation) 


Location of 
Storage 


Nominal 
K-Factor 


Maximum Storage 
Height 


Maximum Ceiling/ 
Roof Height 


Minimum 
Operating 
Pressure 


Hose Stream 
Demand 


Water 

Supply 

Duration 

(hours) 


ft 


m 


ft 


m 


psi 


gpm 


L/min 




On floor or rack 
without solid 
shelves 


14.0 


25 


7.6 


30 


9.1 


50 


250 


946 






25 


7.6 


32 


9.8 


60 




ESFR (pendent) 


35 


10.7 


40 


12.2 


75 




16.8 


25 


7.6 


30 


9.1 


35 


1 




25 


7.6 


32 


9.8 


42 




35 


10.7 


40 


12.2 


52 






On floor only 


14.0 


20 


6.1 


30 


9.1 


50 




ESFR (upright) 


20 


6.1 


35 


10.7 


75 





12.1.9.2 Plastic Pallets. 

12.1.9.2.1 Plastic pallets shall be permitted to be stored in the 
following manners: 

(1) Plastic pallets shall be permitted to be stored outside. 

(2) Plastic pallets shall be permitted to be stored in a de- 
tached structure. 

(3) Plastic pallets shall be permitted to be stored indoors 
where arranged and protected in accordance with the re- 
quirements of 12.1.9.2.2. 

(4) Indoor storage of plastic pallets shall be permitted to be 
protected in accordance with the requirements of Table 
12.1.9.2.1 



(5) Indoor storage of plastic pallets shall be permitted to be 
protected in accordance with the following arrangement: 

(a) Maximum storage height of 10 ft 

(b) Maximum ceiling height of 30 ft 

(c) Sprinkler density 0.6 gpm/ft 2 over 2000 ft 2 

(d) Minimum sprinkler K-factor of 16.8 

(6) Indoor storage of non-wood pallets having a demon- 
strated fire hazard that is equal to or less than idle wood 
pallets and is listed for such equivalency shall be permit- 
ted to be protected in accordance with 12.1.9.1.2. 

(7) When specific test data is available, the data shall take 
precedence in determining the required protection of 
idle plastic pallets. 



2002 Edition 



STORAGE 



13-105 



12.1.9.2.2 Plastic pallets where stored indoors shall be pro- 
tected as follows: 

(1) Where stored in cutoff rooms the following shall apply: 

(a) The cutoff rooms shall have at least one exterior wall. 

(b) The plastic pallet storage shall be separated from the 
remainder of the building by 3 hour-rated fire walls. 

(c) Sprinkler protection by one of the following: 

i. The storage shall be protected by sprinklers de- 
signed to deliver 0.6 gpm/ft 2 (24.5 mm/min) 
for the entire room or by high-expansion foam 
and sprinklers as indicated in 12.1.11. 

ii. K-14 ESFR upright sprinklers when the storage is 
on floor and the system is designed to supply all 
sprinklers in the room at 50 psi (3.4 bar) for a 
maximum of 30 ft (9.1 m) ceiling or 75 psi (5.2 
bar) for a maximum 35 ft (10.7 m) ceiling. 

(d) The storage shall be piled no higher than 12 ft (3.7 m). 

(e) Any steel columns shall be protected by 1-hour fire- 
proofing or a sidewall sprinkler directed to one side 
of the column at the top or at the 15-ft (4.6-m) level, 
whichever is lower. Flow from these sprinklers shall 
be permitted to be omitted from the sprinkler system 
demand for hydraulic calculations. 



(2) Where stored without cutoffs from other storage the fol- 
lowing shall apply: 

(a) Plastic pallet storage shall be piled no higher than 4 ft 
(1.2 m). 

(b) Sprinkler protection shall employ high temperature- 
rated sprinklers. 

(c) Each pallet pile of no more than two stacks shall be sepa- 
rated from other pallet piles by at least 8 ft (2.4 m) of 
clear space or 25 ft (7.6 m) of stored commodity. 

12.1.9.2.3 Idle plastic pallets shall only be stored in racks 
where protected in accordance with the requirements of Table 
12.1.9.2.1. 

12.1.10 Miscellaneous Storage and Storage of Class I through 
IV up to 12 ft in Height. 

12.1.10.1 Discharge Criteria. 

12.1.10.1.1 For protection of miscellaneous storage up to 
12 ft (3.7 m) in height of Group Aplastic, rubber tires, rolled 
paper, and storage of idle pallets up to 6 ft (1.4 m) in height, the 
discharge criteria in Table 12.1.10.1.1 and Figure 12.1.10 shall 
apply. 



Table 12.1.9.2.1 


ESFR Protection of Indoor 


Storage of Idle Plastic Pallets 












Type of 

Sprinkler 

(Orientation) 


Location of 
Storage 


Nominal 
K-Factor 


Maximum 
Storage Height 


Maximum 

Ceiling/ Roof 

Height 


Minimum 
Operating 
Pressure 


Hose Stream 
Demand 


Water 
Supply 


ft 


m 


ft 


m 


psi 


bar 


gpm 


L/min 


(hours) 




On floor or 
rack without 
solid shelves 


14.0 


25 


7.6 


30 


9.1 


50 


3.4 


250 


946 






25 


7.6 


32 


9.8 


60 


4.1 




ESFR (pendent) 


35 


10.7 


40 


12.2 


75 


5.2 


1 


16.8 


25 


7.6 


30 


9.1 


35 


2.4 




25 


7.6 


32 


9.8 


42 


2.9 






35 


10.7 


40 


12.2 


52 


3.6 





2.0 



4.1 



6.1 



Density (mm/min) 
8.1 10.2 



12.2 



5000 



3000 



■S 2500 



£ 2000 



1500 



0.05 



0.10 



0.15 



0.20 0.25 

Density (gpm/ft 2 ) 



0.30 



14.3 



0.35 



16.3 

















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































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2 

CD 
Q. 
O 

a> 
279 f 

232 | 
o 

ca 
186 % 



139 



0.40 



FIGURE 12.1.10 Miscellaneous Storage and Commodity Classes I through IV Storage 
12 ft (3.7 m) or Less in Height — Design Curves (see Table 12.1.10.1.1). 



2002 Edition 



13-106 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Table 12.1.10.1.1 Discharge Criteria for Miscellaneous Storage and Commodity 
Classes I through IV Storage 12 ft (3.7 m) or Less in Height 1 



Commodity 



Type of 
Storage 



Storage Height 



Maximum 
Ceiling Height 



Design Curve 
Figure 12.1.10 



Note 



Inside 
Hose 

(gpm) 



Total 
Combined 
Inside and 

Outside 
Hose (gpm) 



Duration 
(minutes) 



Class I to IV 



Class I 




<12 


<3.7 


— 


— 


Curve 2 




0,50, 
or 100 


250 


90 


Class II 


<10 


<3.05 


— 


— 


Curve 2 




0,50, 


250 


90 


















or 100 






Class II 


bin box, 
shelf, and 
rack 


>10to 
<12 


>3.05 
to <3.7 


— 


— 


Curve 3 




0,50, 
or 100 


250 


90 


Class III 


<12 


<3.7 


— 


— 


Curve 3 




0,50, 


250 


90 


















or 100 






Class IV 


<10 


<3.05 


— 





Curve 3 




0,50, 


250 


90 


















or 100 






Class IV 


Palletized, 
bin box, 
and shelf 


>10to 
<12 


>3.05 
to <3.7 


— 


— 


Curve 3 




0,50, 
or 100 


500 


90 


Class IV 


Rack 


>10to 
<12 


>3.05 
to <3.7 


— 


— 


Curve 4 




0,50, 
or 100 


500 


90 



Miscellaneous Group A Plastic Storage 





Solid and 
expanded 


Palletized, 
bin box, 
shelf, and 
rack 


<5 


<1.5 


— 


— 


Curve 3 




0,50, 
or 100 


500 


90 




>5 to 
<10 


>1.5 to 
<3.05 


15 


4.6 


Curve 4 




0,50, 
or 100 


500 


120 




>5 to 
<10 


>1.5 
to<3.05 


20 


6.1 


Curve 5 




0,50, 
or 100 


500 


120 




>10to 
<12 


>3.05 
to <3.7 


17 


5.2 


Curve 5 




0,50, 
or 100 


500 


120 


Cartoned 


>10to 
<12 


>3.05 
to <3.7 


17 


5.2 


Curve 3 


+ 1 
level of 
in-rack 


0,50, 
or 100 


500 


120 




Palletized, 
bin box, 
and shelf 


>10to 
<12 


>3.05 
to <3.7 


27 


8.2 


Curve 5 




0,50, 
or 100 


500 


120 




Rack 


>10to 
<12 


>3.05 
to <3.7 


— 


— 


Curve 3 


+ 1 
level of 
in-rack 


0,50, 
or 100 


500 


120 




Solid and 
expanded 


Palletized, 
bin box, 
shelf, and 
rack 


<5 


<1.5 






Curve 3 




0,50, 
or 100 


500 


90 


Exposed 


Palletized, 
bin box, 
and shelf 


>5 to 

<8 


>1.5 to 
<2.4 


— 


— 


Curve 5 




0,50, 
or 100 


500 


120 




Palletized, 
bin box, 
shelf, and 
rack 


>5 to 
<10 


>1.5 to 
<3.05 


15 


4.6 


Curve 5 




0,50, 
or 100 


500 


120 



2002 Edition 



STORAGE 



13-107 



Table 12.1.10.1.1 Continued 



Commodity 



Type of 
Storage 



Storage Height 



Maximum 
Ceiling Height 



Design Curve 
Figure 12.1.10 



Note 



Inside 
Hose 
(gpm) 



Total 
Combined 
Inside and 

Outside 
Hose (gpm) 



Duration 
(minutes) 



Miscellaneous Group A Plastic Storage 



Solid 



Palletized, 
bin box, 
shelf, and 
rack 



>5 to 
<10 



>1.5 to 
<3.05 



20 



6.1 



Curve 5 



0,50, 
or 100 



500 



120 



Rack 



Expanded 



>5 to 
<10 



>1.5 to 
<3.05 



20 



6.1 



Curve 3 



+ 1 
level of 
in-rack 



0,50, 
or 100 



500 



120 



Exposed 



Palletized, 
bin box, 
and shelf 



>10to 
<12 



>3.05 to 
<3.7 



17 



5.2 



Curve 5 



0,50, 
or 100 



Solid and 
expanded 



>10to 
<12 



>3.05 to 
<3.7 



17 



5.2 



Curve 5 



0,50, 
or 100 



Rack 



>10to 
<12 



>3.05 to 
<3.7 



17 



5.2 



Curve 3 



+ 1 
level of 
in-rack 



0,50, 
or 100 



>10to 
<12 



>3.05 to 
<3.7 



Curve 3 



+ 1 
level of 
in-rack 



0,50, 
or 100 



500 



500 



500 



500 



120 



120 



120 



120 











Miscellaneous Tire Storage 












On floor, on 
side 


>5to 
<12 


>1.5 to 

<3.7 


— 


— 


Curve 4 




0,50, 
or 100 


750 


180 




On floor, on 
tread or on 
side 


<5 


<1.5 


— 


— 


Curve 3 




0,50, 
or 100 


750 


180 


Tires 


Single-, 
double-, or 
multiple-row 
racks on 
tread or on 
side 


<5 


<1.5 






Curve 3 




0,50, 
or 100 


750 


180 




Single-row 
rack, 

portable, on 
tread or on 
side 


>5 to 
<12 


>1.5 to 

<3.7 






Curve 4 




0,50, 
or 100 


750 


180 




Single-row 
rack, fixed, 
on tread or 
on side 


>5 to 
<12 


>1.5 to 
<3.7 


— 


— 


Curve 4 




0,50, 
or 100 


750 


180 




>5 to 
<12 


>1.5to 
<3.7 


" 


" 


Curve 3 


+ 1 
level of 
in-rack 


0,50, 
or 100 


750 


180 



Miscellaneous Rolled Paper Storage 



Heavy and medium 
weight 



On end 



<10 



<3.05 



Curve 3 



0,50, 
or 100 



500 



120 



Tissue and light weight 



On end 



<10 



<3.05 



Curve 4 



0,50, 
or 100 



500 



120 



Idle Pallet Storage 



Wooden pallets 



Single-row 
rack, fixed 



<6 



<1.8 



Curve 3 



0,50, 
or 100 



500 



90 



Plastic pallets 



Single-row 
rack, fixed 



<4 



<1.2 



Curve 3 



0,50, 
or 100 



500 



90 



2002 Edition 



13-108 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



12.1.10.1.2 For the protection of storage of Class I through 
IV commodities up to 12 ft (3.7 m) in height, the discharge 
criteria in Table 12.1.10.1.1 and Figure 12.1.10 shall apply. 

12.1.10.2 Hose Stream Demand and Water Supply Duration. 

12.1.10.2.1 The hose stream demand and water supply dura- 
tion for the protection of palletized, solid piled, bin box, shelf 
storage, or rack storage of Class I through IV commodities, 
miscellaneous storage of Group A plastics, and miscellaneous 
rack storage of Class I through IV commodities, up to 12 ft 
(3.7 m) in height shall be in accordance with the require- 
ments of Table 12.1.10.1.1. 

12.1.10.2.2 The hose stream demand and water supply dura- 
tion for the protection of miscellaneous storage of rubber 
tires, rolled paper, and idle pallets shall be in accordance with 
the requirements of Table 12.1.10.1.1. 

12.1.11 High-Expansion Foam Systems. 

12.1.11.1 High-expansion foam systems that are installed in 
addition to automatic sprinklers shall be installed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 11 A, Standard for Medium- and High-Expansion 
Foam. 

12.1.11.2 High-expansion foam systems shall be automatic in 
operation. 

12.1.11.3 A reduction in ceiling density to one-half that re- 
quired for Class I through Class IV commodities, idle pallets, or 
plastics shall be permitted without revising the design area, but 
the density shall be no less than 0.15 gpm/ft 2 (6.1 mm/min). 

12.1.11.4 High-expansion foam used to protect the idle pallet 
shall have a maximum fill time of 4 minutes. 

12.1.12 In-Rack Sprinklers. In-rack sprinklers mandated by 
this standard shall meet the requirements of this section and 
the applicable storage protection and arrangement sections of 
this chapter. 

12.1.12.1 Operating Pressure. In-rack sprinklers shall operate 
at a minimum of 1 5 psi (1 bar) . 

12.1.12.2 Water Demand. Where one level of in-rack sprin- 
klers is installed for miscellaneous storage, water demand shall 
be based on simultaneous operation of the hydraulically most 
demanding four adjacent sprinklers. 

12.1.13* Storage Applications. 

12.1.13.1 For storage applications with densities of 
0.20 gpm/ft 2 (8.2 mm/min) or less, standard response 
sprinklers with a K-factor of 5.6 or larger shall be permitted. 

12.1.13.2 For general storage applications, rack storage, rub- 
ber tire storage, roll paper storage, and baled cotton storage 
being protected with standard upright and pendent spray 
sprinklers with required densities of greater than 0.20 gpm/ft 2 
(8.2 mm/min) to 0.34 gpm/ft 2 (13.9 mm/min), standard re- 
sponse sprinklers with a nominal K-factor of 8.0 or larger shall 
be used. 

12.1.13.3 For general storage applications, rack storage, rub- 
ber tire storage, roll paper storage, and baled cotton storage 
being protected with standard upright and pendent spray 
sprinklers with required densities greater than 0.34 gpm/ft 2 
(13.9 mm/min), standard response spray sprinklers with a 
K-factor of 1 1 .2 or larger that are listed for storage applications 
shall be used. 



12.1.13.4 The requirements of 12.1.13.2 and 12.1.13.3 shall 
not apply to modifications to existing storage application sys- 
tems, using sprinklers with K-factors of 8.0 or less. 

12.1.13.5 The use of quick-response spray sprinklers for stor- 
age applications shall be permitted when listed for such use. 

12.2 Fire Control Approach for the Protection of Commodi- 
ties That are Stored Palletized, Solid Piled, Bin Boxes, or 
Shelf Storage. 

12.2.1 General. 

12.2.1.1 This section shall apply to a broad range of combus- 
tibles, including plastics that are stored palletized, solid piled, 
bin boxes, or shelf storage using standard spray sprinklers. 

12.2.1.2* The minimum water supply requirements for a hy- 
draulically designed occupancy hazard fire control sprinkler 
system shall be determined by adding the hose stream de- 
mand from Table 12.2.1.2 to the water supply for sprinklers. 
This supply shall be available for the minimum duration speci- 
fied in Table 12.2.1.2. (See Section C.8.) 

12.2.1.2.1 An allowance for inside and outside hose shall not 
be required where tanks supply sprinklers only. 

12.2.1.2.2 Where pumps taking suction from a private fire 
service main supply sprinklers only, the pump need not be 
sized to accommodate inside and outside hose. Such hose al- 
lowance shall be considered in evaluating the available water 
supplies. 

12.2.1.3 High-Expansion Foam Systems. 

12.2.1.3.1 A reduction in ceiling density to one-half that 
required for Class I through Class rv commodities, idle pal- 
lets, or plastics shall be permitted without revising the de- 
sign area, but the density shall be no less than 0.15 gpm/ft 2 
(6.1 mm/min). 

12.2.1.3.2 Detectors for high-expansion foam systems shall 
be listed and shall be installed at no more than one-half the 
listed spacing. 

12.2.1.3.3 Detection systems, concentrate pumps, genera- 
tors, and other system components that are essential to the 
operation of the system shall have an approved standby power 
source. 

12.2.2 Protection Criteria for Palletized, Solid Piled, Bin Box, 
or Shelf Storage of Class I through IV Commodities. 

12.2.2.1* Control Mode Density-Area Sprinkler Protection 
Criteria for Palletized, Solid Piled, Bin Box, or Shelf Storage 
of Class I through TV Commodities. 

12.2.2.1.1 Protection for Class I through Class rv commodi- 
ties in the following configurations shall be provided in accor- 
dance with this chapter: 

(1) Nonencapsulated commodities that are solid pile, pallet- 
ized, or bin box storage up to 30 ft (9.1 m) in height 

(2) Nonencapsulated commodities on shelf storage up to 
15 ft (4.6 m) in height 

(3)*Encapsulated commodities that are solid pile, palletized, 
bin box, or shelf storage up to 15 ft (4.6 m) in height 

12.2.2.1.2 The area and density for the hydraulically remote 
area and the water supply shall be determined as specified in 
12.1.10 for storage 12 ft (3.7 m) or less and Section 12.2 for 
storage over 12 ft (3.7 m). 



2002 Edition 



STORAGE 



13-109 



Table 12.2.1.2 Hose Stream Demand and Water Supply Duration Requirements 



Commodity 
Classification 


Storage Height 


Inside Hose 


Total Combined 

Inside and Outside 

Hose 


Duration 
(minutes) 


ft 


m 


gpm 


L/min 


gpm 


L/min 


Class I, II, and III 


Over 12 up to 20 


Over 3.7 up to 6.1 


0, 50, or 100 


0, 190, 380 


500 


1900 


90 


Over 20 up to 30 


Over 6.1 up to 9.1 


0, 50, or 100 


0, 190, 380 


500 


1900 


120 


Class IV 


Over 12 up to 20 


Over 3.7 up to 6.1 


0, 50, or 100 


0, 190, 380 


500 


1900 


120 


Over 20 up to 30 


Over 6.1 up to 9.1 


0, 50, or 100 


0, 190, 380 


500 


1900 


150 




<5 


<1.5 


0, 50, or 100 


0, 190, 380 


500 


1900 


90 


Group A plastic 


Over 5 up to 20 


Over 1.5 up to 6.1 


0, 50, or 100 


0, 190, 380 


500 


1900 


120 




Over 20 up to 25 


Over 6.1 up to 7.6 


0, 50, or 100 


0, 190, 380 


500 


1900 


150 



12.2.2.1.3 Hose connections shall not be required for the 
protection of Class I, II, III, and IV commodities stored 12 ft 
(3.7 m) or less in height. 

12.2.2.1.4 Minimum System Discharge Requirements. 

12.2.2.1.4.1 The design density shall not be less than 
0.15 gpm/ft 2 (6.1 mm/min), and the design area shall not be 
less than 2000 ft 2 (186 m 2 ) for wet systems or 2600 ft 2 (242 m 2 ) 
for dry systems for any commodity, class, or group. 

12.2.2.1.4.2 The sprinkler design density for any given area 
of operation for a Class III or Class IV commodity, calculated 
in accordance with 12.2.2, shall not be less than the density for 
the corresponding area of operation for ordinary hazard 
Group 2. 

12.2.2.1.5 Protection Criteria. 

12.2.2.1.5.1 Where using ordinary temperature-rated sprin- 
klers, a single point shall be selected from the appropriate 
commodity curve on Figure 12.2.2.1.5.1. 



m 2 ft 2 
550 6000- 



5000- 



« 500 
™ 4 50 



2 400 

g. 4000- 

° 350 
a> 

c 300 
W 250 



3000- 



200 2000- 
gpm/ft 2 0.1 
mm/min 4.1 







































































































































































































































































































































































































c 


•> 




























































<? 
v 
^ i 


- 




















































































































S 
















































lC 




























































\ 














































































































is 








f 
















































iT 


> 






















































ftVfr 
























































y 


s> 


\ y 


































































































































































































































I 








i 














i 








I 














I 









0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 

6.1 8.2 10.2 12.2 14.3 16.3 

Sprinkler density 



FIGURE 12.2.2.1.5.1 Sprinkler System Design Curves, 20-ft 
(6.1-m) High Storage — Ordinary Temperature-Rated 
Sprinklers. 



12.2.2.1.5.2 Where using high temperature-rated sprinklers, 
a single point shall be selected from the appropriate commod- 
ity curve on Figure 12.2.2.1.5.2. 



m 2 ft 2 
375 4000 



8. 280 3000 



CO 

190 2000 
gpm/ft 2 0.1 
mm/min 4.1 













































































































































































































































































































































































































































lev - 






































Vc?„ 




























ft 














^ 




































V 


























5^3-- 




























% 




-mO- 






*/s 




























V 


A 


* 






SJ%— 




























11 




































i A 
































~ "" 


I 


V 



























0.15 


0.2 


0.25 


0.30 


6.1 


8.2 
Sprinkler density 


10.2 


12.2 



FIGURE 12.2.2.1.5.2 Sprinkler System Design Curves, 20-ft 
(6.1-m) High Storage — High Temperature-Rated Sprinklers. 



12.2.2.1.5.3 The densities selected in accordance with 
12.2.2.1.5.1 or 12.2.2.1.5.2 shall be modified in accordance 
with Figure 12.2.2.1.5.3 without revising the design area. 

In the case of metal bin boxes with face areas not 

2 /i c ~2 N 



12.2.2.1.6 

exceeding 16 ft* (1.5 m*) and metal closed shelves with face 
areas not exceeding 16 ft 2 (1.5 m 2 ), the area of application 
shall be permitted to be reduced by 50 percent, provided the 
minimum requirements of 12.2.2.1.4 are met. 

12.2.2.1.7 Ordinary- and intermediate-temperature sprin- 
klers with K-factors of 11.2 or larger, where listed for storage, 
shall be permitted to use the densities from the high tempera- 
ture curves of Figure 12.2.2.1.5.2. 

12.2.2.2 Large Drop Sprinklers and Specific Application Con- 
trol Mode Sprinklers for Palletized or Solid Piled Storage of 
Class I through IV Commodities. 

12.2.2.2.1 Protection of palletized and solid-piled storage of 
Class I through Class IV commodities shall be in accordance 
with Table 12.2.2.2.1(a) and Table 12.2.2.2.1(b). 



2002 Edition 



13-110 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 































































































































































































































































c 










































<D 








































































































































































C 


















































































03 







































































































































































CD 










































CJ 










































0) 


















































































































































































































n - 











































ft 


10 


15 20 25 


30 


m 


3.0 


4.5 6.0 7.5 
Storage height 


9.0 



FIGURE 12.2.2.1.5.3 Ceiling Sprinkler Density vs. Storage 
Height. 



12.2.2.2.2 Protection shall be provided as specified in Table 
12.2.2.2.1(a) and Table 12.2.2.2.1(b), or appropriate NFPA 
standards in terms of minimum operating pressure and the 
number of sprinklers to be included in the design area. 

12.2.2.2.2.1 The minimum number of design sprinklers for 
ordinary hazard and miscellaneous storage in accordance with 
this standard shall be 15 for wet pipe systems and 25 for 
double interlock preaction systems and dry pipe systems. 

12.2.2.2.2.2 For large drop sprinkler design purposes, 95 psi 
(6.6 bar) shall be the maximum discharge pressure at the hy- 
draulically most remote sprinkler. 

12.2.2.2.2.3 Open Wood Joist Construction. 

(A) Where large drop K-11.2 sprinklers are installed under 
open wood joist construction, their minimum operating pres- 
sure shall be 50 psi (3.4 bar). 

(B) For large drop sprinklers, where each joist channel of 
open, wood joist construction is fully fire-stopped to its full 
depth at intervals not exceeding 20 ft (6.1 m), the lower pres- 
sures specified in Table 12.2.2.2.1 (a) shall be permitted to be 
used. 



Table 12.2.2.2.1(a) Large-Drop Sprinkler Design Criteria for Palletized and Solid-Piled 
Storage of Class I through IV Commodities 



Storage 
Arrangement 


Commodity 
Class 


Nominal 
K-Factor 


Maximum 
Storage 
Height 


Maximum 

Ceiling/ Roof 

Height 


Type of 
System 


Number of Design 

Sprinklers / 
Minimum Pressure 


Hose Stream 
Demand 


Water Supply 

Duration 

(hours) 


ft 


m 


ft 


m 


/psi 


/bar 


gpm 


L/min 




I, II, III 


11.2 


25 


7.6 


35 


10.7 


Wet 


15/25 


15/1.7 


500 


1900 


2 




Dry 


25/25 


25/1.7 


500 


1900 


2 


Palletized 


rv 


11.2 


20 


6.1 


30 


9.1 


Wet 


20/25 


20/1.7 


500 


1900 


2 


Dry 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 






11.2 


20 


6.1 


30 


9.1 


Wet 


15/50 


15/3.4 


500 


1900 


2 




Dry 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 




i, ii, in 


11.2 


20 


6.1 


30 


9.1 


Wet 


15/25 


15/1.7 


500 


1900 


2 




Dry 


25/25 


25/1.7 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


Solid Pile 


rv 


11.2 


20 


6.1 


30 


9.1 


Wet 


15/50 


15/3.4 


500 


1900 


2 




Dry 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 



Table 12.2.2.2.1(b) Specific Application Control Mode (16.8 K-Factor) Sprinkler Design 
Criteria for Palletized and Solid-Piled Storage of Class I through rv Commodities 





Commodity 
Class 


Maximum Storage 
Height 


Maximum 
Building Height 


Type 

of 
System 


Number of Design Sprinklers by 
Minimum Operating Pressure 


Hose Stream 
Demand 


Water Supply 

Duration 

(hours) 


Configuration 


ft 


m 


ft 


m 


10 psi 
(0.7 bar) 


22 psi 
(1.5 bar) 


gpm 


L/min 


Palletized 


I or II 


25 


7.6 


30 


9.1 


Wet 


15 


— 


500 


1900 


2 


Palletized 


III or rv 


25 


7.6 


30 


9.1 


Wet 


— 


15 


500 


1900 


2 


Solid pile 


I or II 


25 


7.6 


30 


9.1 


Wet 


15 


— 


500 


1900 


P/2 


Solid pile 


III or IV 


25 


7.6 


30 


9.1 


Wet 


— 


15 


500 


1900 


IV* 



2002 Edition 



STORAGE 



13-111 



12.2.2.2.2.4 For large drop sprinklers, the design area shall be a 
rectangular area having a dimension parallel to the branch lines 
at least 1.2 times the square root of the area protected by the 
number of sprinklers to be included in the design area. Any frac- 
tional sprinkler shall be included in the design area. 

12.2.2.2.2.5 Hose stream demand and water supply duration 
requirements shall be in accordance with Table 12.2.2.2.1(a) 
and Table 12.2.2.2.1(b). 

12.2.2.2.2.6 Preaction Systems. 

(A) For the purpose of using Table 12.2.2.2.1(a) and Table 
12.2.2.2.1(b), preaction systems shall be classified as dry pipe 
systems. 

(B) Where it can be demonstrated that the detection system 
activating the preaction system will cause water to be at the 
sprinklers when they operate, preaction systems shall be per- 
mitted to be treated as wet pipe systems. 

12.2.2.2.2.7 The nominal diameter of branch line pipes (in- 
cluding riser nipples) shall meet the following: 

(1) Shall not be not less than VA in. (32 mm) nor greater 
than 2 in. (51 mm). 

(2) Starter pieces shall be permitted to be 2V6 in. (64 mm). 

(3) Where branch lines are larger than 2 in. (51 mm), the 
sprinkler shall be supplied by a riser nipple to elevate the 
sprinkler 13 in. (330 mm) for 2V2-in. (64-mm) pipe and 
15 in. (380 mm) for 3-in. (76-mm) pipe. These dimen- 
sions are measured from the centerline of the pipe to the 
deflector. In lieu of this, sprinklers shall be permitted to 
be offset horizontally a minimum of 12 in. (305 mm). 

12.2.2.2.2.8 Building steel shall not require special protec- 
tion where Table 12.2.2.2.1(a) and Table 12.2.2.2.1(b) are ap- 
plied as appropriate for the storage configuration. 

12.2.2.3 Early Suppression Fast-Response (ESFR) Sprinklers 
for Palletized or Solid Piled Storage of Class I through IV 
Commodities. 

12.2.2.3.1 Protection of palletized and solid pile storage of 
Classes I through IV shall be in accordance with Table 
12.2.2.3.1. 

12.2.2.3.2 ESFR sprinkler systems shall be designed such that 
the minimum operating pressure is not less than that indi- 
cated in Table 12.2.2.3.1 commodity, storage height, and 
building height involved. 

12.2.2.3.3 The design area shall consist of the most hydrauli- 
cally demanding area of 12 sprinklers, consisting of four sprin- 
klers on each of three branch lines. The design shall include a 
minimum of 960 ft 2 (89 m 2 ). 

12.2.2.3.4 Where ESFR sprinklers are installed above and be- 
low obstructions, the discharge for up to two sprinklers for 
one of the levels shall be included with those of the other level 
in the hydraulic calculations. 

12.2.2.4 Special Design for Palletized, Solid Piled, Bin Box, 
or Shelf Storage of Class I through IV Commodities. Bin box 

and shelf storage that is over 12 ft (3.7 m) but not in excess of 
the height limits of 12.2.2.1 and that is provided with walkways 
at vertical intervals of not over 12 ft (3.7 m) shall be protected 
with automatic sprinklers under the walkway(s). Protection 
shall be as follows: 

( 1 ) Ceiling design density shall be based on the total height of 
storage within the building. 



(2) Automatic sprinklers under walkways shall be designed to 
maintain a minimum discharge pressure of 15 psi (1 bar) 
for the most hydraulically demanding six sprinklers on 
each level. Walkway sprinkler demand shall not be re- 
quired to be added to the ceiling sprinkler demand. 
Sprinklers under walkways shall not be spaced more than 
8 ft (2.4 m) apart horizontally. 

12.2.3 Protection Criteria for Palletized, Solid Piled, Bin Box, 
or Shelf Storage of Plastic and Rubber Commodities. 

12.2.3.1* Control Mode Density-Area Sprinkler Protection 
Criteria for Palletized, Solid Piled, Bin Box, or Shelf Storage 
of Plastic and Rubber Commodities. 

12.2.3.1.1* Plastics stored up to 25 ft (7.62 m) in height pro- 
tected by spray sprinklers shall be in accordance with 12.2.3.1. 
The decision tree shown in Figure 12.2.3.1.1 shall be used to 
determine the protection in each specific situation. 

12.2.3.1.2* Factors affecting protection requirements such 
as closed/open array, clearance between storage and sprin- 
klers, and stable/unstable piles shall be applicable only to 
storage of Group A plastics. This decision tree also shall be 
used to determine protection for commodities that are not 
wholly Group A plastics but contain such quantities and ar- 
rangements of the same that they are deemed more hazard- 
ous than Class IV commodities. 

12.2.3.1.3 Group B plastics and free-flowing Group A plastics 
shall be protected in the same manner as a Class IV commod- 
ity. See 12.2.2 for protection of these storage commodities 
with spray sprinklers. 

12.2.3.1.4 Group C plastics shall be protected in the same 
manner as a Class III commodity. See 12.2.2 for protection of 
these storage commodities with spray sprinklers. 

12.2.3.1.5* Storage Conditions. 

12.2.3.1.5.1 The design of the sprinkler system shall be based 
on those conditions that routinely or periodically exist in a 
building that create the greatest water demand. These condi- 
tions include the following: 

(1) Pile height 

(2) Clearance 

(3) Pile stability 

(4) Array 

12.2.3.1.5.2 Where the distance between roof/ ceiling height 
and top of storage exceeds 20 ft (6.1 m), protection shall be pro- 
vided for the storage height that would result in a 20-ft (6.1-m) 
distance between the roof/ceiling height and top of storage. 

12.2.3.1.6* Design areas and densities for the appropriate 
storage configuration shall be selected from Table 12.2.3.1.6. 
The columns A, B, C, D, and E correspond to the protection 
required by the decision tree shown in Figure 12.2.3.1.1. 

12.2.3.1.7 For Table 12.2.3.1.6 the design areas shall be as 
follows: 



(1) 
(2) 



(3) 



The area shall be a minimum of 2500 ft 2 (232 m 2 ). 
Where Table 12.2.3.1.6 allows densities and areas to be 
selected in accordance with Figure 12.1.10, Curve 3, any 
density-area from Curve 3 shall be permitted. 
For closed arrays, the area shall be permitted to be re- 
duced to 2000 ft 2 (186 m 2 ). 



2002 Edition 



13-112 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Table 12.2.2.3.1 ESFR Protection of Palletized and Solid-Pile Storage of Class I through IV Commodities 





Maximum 
Storage Height 


Maximum 

Ceiling/Roof 

Height 


Nominal 
K-Factor 


Orientation 


Minimum Operating 
Pressure 


Hose Stream 
Demand 


Water 

Supply 

Duration 

(hours) 


Commodity 


ft 


m 


ft 


m 


psi 


bar 


gpm 


L/min 




20 


6.1 


25 


7.6 


11.2 


Upright 


50 


3.4 


250 


946 






14.0 


Upright or 
pendent 


50 


3.4 






16.8 


Pendent 


35 


2.4 






25.2 


Pendent 


15 


1.0 






25 


7.6 


30 


9.1 


14.0 


Upright or 
pendent 


50 


3.4 






16.8 


Pendent 


35 


2.4 






25.2 


Pendent 


15 


1.0 




Class I, II, III, 
or IV, 
encapsulated 


32 


9.8 


14.0 


Upright or 
pendent 


60 


4.1 


1 


(no open-top 
containers or 


16.8 


Pendent 


42 


2.9 


solid shelves) 


30 


9.1 


35 


10.7 


14.0 


Upright or 
pendent 


75 


5.2 






16.8 


Pendent 


52 


3.6 






25.2 


Pendent 


20 


1.4 






35 


10.7 


40 


12.2 


14.0 


Pendent 


75 


5.2 






16.8 


Pendent 


52 


3.6 






25.2 


Pendent 


25 


1.7 






35 


10.7 


45 


13.7 


25.2 


Pendent 


40 


2.8 






40 


12.2 


45 


13.7 


25.2 


Pendent 


40 


2.8 





12.2.3.1.8 Interpolation of densities between storage heights 
shall be permitted. Densities shall be based upon the 2500 ft 2 
(232 m 2 ) design area. The "up to" in the table is intended to 
aid in the interpolation of densities between storage heights. 
Interpolation of ceiling/roof heights shall not be permitted. 

1 2.2.3.2 Large Drop Sprinklers and Specific Application Con- 
trol Mode Sprinklers for Palletized or Solid Piled of Plastic 
and Rubber Commodities. 

12.2.3.2.1 Protection of palletized and solid-piled storage of un- 
expanded plastic and expanded plastic commodities shall be in 
accordance with Table 12.2.3.2.1(a) or Table 12.2.3.2.1(b). 

12.2.3.2.2 Protection shall be provided as specified in Table 
12.2.3.2.1(a) and Table 12.2.3.2.1(b) or appropriate NFPA 
standards in terms of minimum operating pressure and the 
number of sprinklers to be included in the design area. 

12.2.3.2.2.1 For design purposes, 95 psi (6.6 bar) shall be the 
maximum discharge pressure at the hydraulically most remote 
sprinkler. 



12.2.3.2.2.2 Open Wood Joist Construction. 

(A) Where large drop K-11.2 sprinklers are installed under 
open wood joist construction, their minimum operating pres- 
sure shall be 50 psi (3.4 bar). 

(B) Where each joist channel of open, wood joist construc- 
tion is fully fire-stopped to its full depth at intervals not ex- 
ceeding 20 ft (6.1 m), the lower pressures specified in Table 
12.2.3.2.1(a) shall be permitted to be used. 

12.2.3.2.2.3 The design area shall be a rectangular area hav- 
ing a dimension parallel to the branch lines at least 1.2 times 
the square root of the area protected by the number of sprin- 
klers to be included in the design area. Any fractional sprin- 
kler shall be included in the design area. 

12.2.3.2.2.4 Hose stream demand and water supply duration 
requirements shall be in accordance with Table 12.2.3.2.1(a) 
and Table 12.2.3.2.1(b). 



2002 Edition 



STORAGE 



13-113 



GroupAfSee/VoteJ 



I 
Expanded 



Plastics 



Group B 
Class IV 



Group C 
Class III 



Nonexpanded 



Free-flowing 
Class IV 



Cartoned 



Exposed 



Unstable 

Table 12.2.3.1.6 

Column A 



Stable 

Table 12.2.3.1.6 

Column E 



Unstable 

Table 12.2.3.1.6 

Column D 



Stable 

Table 12.2.3.1.6 

Column B 



Unstable 

Table 12.2.3.1.6 

Column C 



Solid Unit Load 

Table 12.2.3.1.6 

Column A 



Stable 



Cartoned 

Table 12.2.3.1.6 

Column C 



Exposed 

Table 12.2.3.1.6 

Column E 



Note: Cartons that contain Group A plastic material shall be permitted to be treated as Class IV commodities 
under the following conditions: 

(a) There shall be multiple layers of corrugation or equivalent outer material that would significantly delay fire 
involvement of the Group A plastic 

(b) The amount and arrangement of Group A plastic material within an ordinary carton would not be expected 
to significantly increase the fire hazard 

FIGURE 12.2.3.1.1 Decision Tree. 



Table 12.2.3.1.6 Design 


Densities for Palletized, Solid Piled, Bin Box, or Shelf Storage of Plastic and Rubber Commodities 


Storage 
Height 


Roof/Ceiling Height 


Density 


A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


ft 


m 


ft 


m 


gpm/ft 2 


mm/min 


gpm/ft 2 


mm/min 


gpm/ft 2 


mm/min 


gpm/ft 2 


mm/min 


gpm/ft 2 


mm/min 


<5 


1.52 


up to 25 


up to 7.62 


Curve 3 


Curve 3 


Curve 3 


Curve 3 


Curve 3 


Curve 3 


Curve 3 


Curve 3 


Curve 3 


Curve 3 


<12 


3.66 


up to 15 
>15 to 20 
>20 to 32 


up to 4.57 
>4.57 to 6.1 
>6.1 to 9.75 


0.2 
0.3 
0.4 


8.2 
12.2 
16.3 


Curve 5 
0.6 
0.8 


Curve 5 
24.5 
32.6 


0.3 
0.5 
0.6 


12.2 
20.4 
24.5 


Curve 4 

Curve 5 

0.45 


Curve 4 

Curve 5 

18.3 


Curve 5 

Curve 5 

0.7 


Curve 5 

Curve 5 

28.5 


15 


4.5 


up to 20 
>20 to 25 
>25 to 35 


up to 6.1 

>6.1 to 7.62 

>7.62 to 

10.67 


0.25 

0.4 

0.45 


10.2 
16.3 
18.3 


0.5 
0.8 
0.9 


20.4 
32.6 
36.7 


0.4 
0.6 
0.7 


16.3 
24.5 
28.5 


0.3 

0.45 

0.55 


12.2 
18.3 
22.4 


0.45 

0.7 

0.85 


18.3 
28.5 
34.6 


20 


6.1 


up to 25 
>25 to 30 
>30 to 35 


up to 7.62 

>7.62 to 9.14 

>9.14to 

10.67 


0.3 

0.45 

0.6 


12.2 
18.3 
24.5 


0.6 
0.9 
1.2 


24.5 
36.7 
48.9 


0.45 

0.7 

0.85 


18.3 
28.5 
34.6 


0.35 
0.55 
0.7 


14.3 
22.4 
28.5 


0.55 
0.85 
1.1 


22.4 
34.6 
44.8 


25 


7.62 


up to 30 
>30 to 35 


up to 9.14 

>9.14to 

10.67 


0.4 
0.6 


16.3 
24.5 


0.75 
1.2 


30.6 
48.9 


0.55 
0.85 


22.4 
34.6 


0.45 
0.7 


18.3 
28.5 


0.7 
1.1 


28.5 
44.8 



Notes: 

1. Minimum clearance between sprinkler deflector and top of storage shall be maintained as required. 

2. Column designations correspond to the configuration of plastics storage as follows: 
A: (1) Nonexpanded, unstable 

(2) Nonexpanded, stable, solid unit load 
B: Expanded, exposed, stable 
C: (1) Expanded, exposed, unstable 

(2) Nonexpanded, stable, cartoned 
D: Expanded, cartoned, unstable 
E: (1) Expanded, cartoned, stable 

(2) Nonexpanded, stable, exposed 

3. Curve 3 = Density required by Figure 12.1.10 for Curve 3 
Curve 4 = Density required by Figure 12.1.10 for Curve 4 
Curve 5 = Density required by Figure 12.1.10 for Curve 5 

4. Hose streams and durations shall be as follows: <5 ft 250 gpm and 90 minutes; >5 ft to <20 ft 500 gpm and 
120 minutes, >20 ft to <25 ft 500 gpm and 150 minutes. 



2002 Edition 



13-114 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Table 12.2.3.2.1(a) Large-Drop Sprinkler Design Criteria for Palletized and Solid-Piled 
Storage of Plastic and Rubber Commodities 



Storage 
Arrangement 


Commodity 
Class 


Nominal 
K-Factor 


Maximum 
Storage Height 


Maximum 

Ceiling/ Roof 

Height 


Type of 
System 


Number of Design 

Sprinklers / 
Minimum Pressure 


Hose Stream Demand 


Water 

Supply 

Duration 

(hours) 


ft 


m 


ft 


m 


/psi 


/bar 


gpm 


L/min 




Cartoned or 
exposed 
unexpanded 
plastics 


11.2 


20 


6.1 


30 


9.1 


Wet 


25/25 


25/1.7 


500 


1900 


2 




Dry 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


Palletized 


Cartoned or 
exposed 
expanded 
plastics 


11.2 


18 


5.5 


26 


7.9 


Wet 


15/50 


15/3.4 


500 


1900 


2 




Dry 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 




Cartoned or 
exposed 
unexpanded 
plastics 


11.2 


20 


6.1 


30 


9.1 


Wet 


15/50 


15/3.4 


500 


1900 


2 


Solid pile 


Dry 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 



Table 12.2.3.2.1(b) Specific Application Control Mode (16.8 K-Factor) Sprinkler Design 
Criteria for Palletized and Solid-Piled Storage of Plastic and Rubber Commodities 





Commodity 
Class 


Maximum 
Storage Height 


Maximum 
Building 
Height 


Type of 
System 


Number of Design 

Sprinklers by Minimum 

Operating Pressure 


Hose Stream 
Demand 


Water Supply 

Duration 

(hours) 


Configuration 


ft 


m 


ft 


m 


10 psi 
(0.7 bar) 


22 psi 
(1.5 bar) 


gpm 


L/min 


Palletized 


Cartoned or 
exposed 
unexpanded 
plastics 


25 


7.6 


30 


9.1 


Wet 




15 


500 


1900 


2 


Solid pile 


Cartoned or 
exposed 
unexpanded 
plastics 


25 


7.6 


30 


9.1 


Wet 




15 


500 


1900 


IV* 



12.2.3.2.2.5 Preaction Systems. 

(A) For the purpose of using 12.2.3.2.1, preaction systems 
shall be classified as dry pipe systems. 

(B) Where it can be demonstrated that the detection system 
activating the preaction system will cause water to be at the 
sprinklers when they operate, preaction systems shall be per- 
mitted to be treated as wet pipe systems. 

12.2.3.2.2.6 The nominal diameter of branch line pipes (in- 
cluding riser nipples) shall meet the following: 

(1) Pipe diameter shall not be not less than VA in. (33 mm) 
nor greater than 2 in. (51 mm). 

(2) Starter pieces shall be permitted to be 2Vi> in. (64 mm). 

(3) Where branch lines are larger than 2 in. (51 mm), the 
sprinkler shall be supplied by a riser nipple to elevate the 
sprinkler 13 in. (330 mm) for 2V / 2-in. (64-mm) pipe and 
15 in. (380 mm) for 3-in. (76-mm) pipe. These dimen- 
sions are measured from the centerline of the pipe to the 
deflector. In lieu of this, sprinklers shall be permitted to 
be offset horizontally a minimum of 12 in. (305 mm). 



12.2.3.2.2.7 Building steel shall not require special protec- 
tion where Table 12.2.3.2.1(a) and Table 12.2.3.2.1(b) is ap- 
plied as appropriate for the storage configuration. 

1 2.2.3.3 Early Suppression Fast-Response (ESFR) Sprinklers for 
Palletized, Solid Piled of Plastic and Rubber Commodities. 

12.2.3.3.1 Protection of palletized and solid pile storage of 
cartoned or uncartoned unexpanded plastic and cartoned ex- 
panded plastic shall be in accordance with Table 12.2.3.3.1. 

12.2.3.3.2 ESFR sprinkler systems shall be designed such that 
the minimum operating pressure is not less than that indi- 
cated in Table 12.2.3.3.1 for type of storage, commodity, stor- 
age height, and building height involved. 

12.2.3.3.3 The design area shall consist of the most hydrauli- 
cally demanding area of 12 sprinklers, consisting of four sprin- 
klers on each of three branch lines. The design shall include a 
minimum of 960 ft 2 (89 m 2 ). 

12.2.3.3.4 Where ESFR sprinklers are installed above and be- 
low obstructions, the discharge for up to two sprinklers for 
one of the levels shall be included with those of the other level 
in the hydraulic calculations. 



2002 Edition 



STORAGE 



13-115 



Table 12.2.3.3.1 ESFR Protection of Palletized and Solid-Pile Storage of Plastic and Rubber Commodities 



Storage Arrangement 



Commodity 



Maximum 
Storage Height 



Maximum 

Ceiling/ Roof 

Height 



ft 



Nomina] 
K-Factor 



Orientation 



Minimum 
Operating 
Pressure 



psi 



bar 



Hose Stream 
Demand 



gpm 



L/min 



Water 

Supply 

Duration 

(hours) 



20 



Palletized and solid pile 
storage (no open-top 
containers or solid 
shelves) 



Cartoned 

unexpanded 

plastic 



25 



30 



6.1 



7.6 



9.1 



11.2 



Upright 



50 



14.0 



25 



7.6 



Upright or 
pendent 



50 



16.8 



Pendent 



35 



25.2 



Pendent 



15 



14.0 



Upright or 
pendent 



50 



30 



9.1 



16.8 



Pendent 



35 



25.2 



Pendent 



15 



14.0 



Pendent 



75 



35 



7.6 



16.8 



Pendent 



52 



25.2 



Pendent 



20 



14.0 



Pendent 



75 



40 



12.2 



16.8 



Pendent 



52 



25.2 



Pendent 



25 



45 



13.7 



25.2 



Pendent 



40 



14.0 



Upright or 
pendent 



50 



30 



9.1 



16.8 



Pendent 



35 



25.2 



Pendent 



15 



14.0 



32 



9.8 



Upright or 
pendent 



60 



16.8 



Pendent 



42 



14.0 



Upright or 
pendent 



75 



35 



7.6 



16.8 



Pendent 



52 



25.2 



Pendent 



20 



14.0 



Upright or 
pendent 



75 



40 



12.2 



16.8 



Pendent 



52 



25.2 



Pendent 



25 



45 



13.7 



25.2 



Pendent 



40 



14.0 



Upright or 
pendent 



75 



35 



10.7 



16.8 



Pendent 



52 



25.2 



Pendent 



20 



14.0 



Pendent 



75 



40 



12.2 



16.8 



Pendent 



52 



25.2 



Pendent 



25 



45 



13.7 



25.2 



Pendent 



40 



3.4 



3.4 



2.4 



1.0 



3.4 



2.4 



1.0 



5.2 



3.6 



1.4 



5.2 



3.6 



1.7 



2.8 



3.4 



2.4 



1.0 



4.1 



2.9 



5.2 



3.6 



1.4 



5.2 



3.6 



1.7 



2.8 



5.2 



3.6 



1.4 



5.2 



3.6 



1.7 



2.8 



250 



946 



2002 Edition 



13-116 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Table 12.2.3.3.1 Continued 



Storage Arrangement 



Commodity 



Maximum 
Storage Height 



Maximum 

Ceiling/ Roof 

Height 



ft 



Nominal 
K-Factor 



Orientation 



Minimum 
Operating 
Pressure 



psi 



bar 



Hose Stream 
Demand 



gpm 



L/min 



Water 

Supply 

Duration 

(hours) 



Cartoned 
unexpanded 
plastic 
(continued) 



Exposed 

unexpanded 

plastic 



Palletized and solid pile 
storage (no open-top 
containers or solid 
shelves) 



Cartoned 

expanded 

plastic 



14.0 



Pendent 



75 



35 



10.7 



40 



12.2 



16.8 



Pendent 



52 



25.2 



Pendent 



25 



45 



13.7 



25.2 



Pendent 



40 



40 



12.2 



45 



13.7 



25.2 



Pendent 



40 



25 



7.6 



14.0 



Pendent 



50 



16.8 



Pendent 



35 



30 



9.1 



14.0 



Pendent 



50 



20 



6.1 



16.8 



Pendent 



35 



35 



10.7 



14.0 



Pendent 



75 



16.8 



Pendent 



52 



40 



12.2 



14.0 



Pendent 



75 



16.8 



Pendent 



52 



30 



9.1 



14.0 



Pendent 



50 



16.8 



Pendent 



35 



32 



9.8 



14.0 



Pendent 



60 



25 



7.6 



16.8 



Pendent 



42 



35 



10.7 



14.0 



Pendent 



75 



16.8 



Pendent 



52 



40 



12.2 



14.0 



Pendent 



75 



16.8 



Pendent 



52 



35 



10.7 



14.0 



Pendent 



75 



30 



9.1 



16.8 



Pendent 



52 



40 



12.2 



14.0 



Pendent 



75 



16.8 



Pendent 



52 



35 



10.7 



40 



14.0 



Pendent 



75 



12.2 



16.8 



Pendent 



52 



14.0 



25 



7.6 



Upright or 
pendent 



50 



20 



6.1 



16.8 



Pendent 



35 



14.0 



30 



9.1 



Upright or 
pendent 



50 



16.8 



Pendent 



35 



14.0 



30 



9.1 



Upright or 
pendent 



50 



25 



7.6 



16.8 



Pendent 



35 



32 



9.8 



14.0 



Pendent 



60 



16.8 



Pendent 



42 



5.2 



3.6 



1.7 



2.8 



2.8 



3.4 



2.4 



3.4 



2.4 



5.2 



3.6 



5.2 



3.6 



3.4 



2.4 



4.1 



2.9 



5.2 



3.6 



5.2 



3.6 



5.2 



3.6 



5.2 



3.6 



5.2 



3.6 



3.4 



2.4 



3.4 



2.4 



3.4 



2.4 



4.1 



2.9 



250 



946 



2002 Edition 



STORAGE 



13-117 



12.2.3.4 Special Design for Palletized, Solid Piled, Bin Box, or 
Shelf Storage of Plastic and Rubber Commodities. (Reserved) 

12.3 Protection of Commodities Stored on Racks. (See Section 
C.9.) 

12.3.1 Protection Criteria — General. 

12.3.1.1 This section shall apply to storage of materials repre- 
senting the broad range of combustibles stored in racks. 

12.3.1.2* Sprinkler Protection Criteria. 

12.3.1.2.1 Sprinkler protection criteria for the storage of ma- 
terials on racks shall be in accordance with 12.3.2 or 12.3.3 for 
storage up to 25 ft (7.6 m), and 12.3.4 and 12.3.5 for storage 
over 25 ft (7.6 m). 

12.3.1.2.2* Protection criteria for Group A plastics shall be 
permitted for the protection of the same storage height and 
configuration of Class I, II, III, and IV commodities. 

12.3.1.3 Hose connections shall not be required for the pro- 
tection of Class I, II, III, and IV commodities stored 12 ft 
(3.7 m) or less in height. 

12.3.1.4 The design figures indicate water demands for or- 
dinary temperature-rated and nominal high temperature- 
rated sprinklers at the ceiling. The ordinary-temperature 
design densities correspond to ordinary temperature-rated 
sprinklers and shall be used for sprinklers with ordinary- 
and intermediate-temperature classification. The high- 
temperature design densities correspond to high 
temperature-rated sprinklers and shall be used for sprin- 
klers having a high temperature rating. 

12.3.1.5 Ordinary- and intermediate-temperature sprin- 
klers with K-factors of 11.2 or larger, where listed for stor- 
age, shall be permitted to use the densities for high- 
temperature sprinklers. 

12.3.1.6 Movable Racks. Rack storage in movable racks shall 
be protected in the same manner as multiple-row racks. 

12.3.1.7 Fire Protection of Steel Columns — Columns within 
Storage Racks of Class I through Class IV and Plastic Com- 
modities. (See Section CIO.) 

12.3.1.7.1 Where sprinkler protection of building columns 
within the rack structure or vertical rack members supporting 
the building are required in lieu of fireproofing, sprinkler 
protection in accordance with one of the following shall be 
provided: 

(1) Sidewall sprinklers at the 15-ft (4.6-m) elevation, pointed 
toward one side of the steel column 

(2) Provision of ceiling sprinkler density for a minimum of 
2000 ft 2 (186 m 2 ) with ordinary 165°F (74°C) or high tem- 
perature 286°F (141°C) rated sprinklers as shown in Table 
12.3.1.7.1 for storage heights above 15 ft (4.6 m), up to 
and including 20 ft (6.1 m) 

(3) Provision of large drop, specific application control mode 
or ESFR ceiling sprinkler protection 

12.3.1.7.2 The flow from a column sprinkler(s) shall be 
permitted to be omitted from the sprinkler system hydrau- 
lic calculations. 

12.3.1.8 High-Expansion Foam. 

12.3.1.8.1* Where high-expansion foam systems are installed, 
they shall be in accordance with NFPA 11A, Standard for 
Medium- and High-Expansion Foam, and they shall be automatic 
in operation, unJess modified by this standard. 



Table 12.3.1.7.1 Ceiling Sprinkler Densities for Protection 
of Steel Building Columns 

Aisle Width 



Commodity 
Classification 


4 ft (1.2 


m) 


8 ft (2.4 


m) 


gpm/ft 2 


(L/ 


min)/m 2 


gpm/ft 2 


(L/ 


min)/m 2 


Class I 


0.37 




15.1 


0.33 




13.5 


Class II 


0.44 




17.9 


0.37 




15.1 


Class III 


0.49 




20 


0.42 




17.1 


Class IV and 


0.68 




27.7 


0.57 




23.2 


Plastics 















12.3.1.8.2 In-rack sprinklers shall not be required where 
high-expansion foam systems are used in combination with 
ceiling sprinklers. 

12.3.1.8.3 Detectors for High-Expansion Foam Systems. 

12.3.1.8.3.1 Detectors shall be listed and shall be installed in 
one of the following configurations: 

(1) At the ceiling only where installed at one-half the listed 
linear spacing [e.g., 15 ft x 15 ft (4.6 m x 4.6 m) rather 
than at 30 ft x 30 ft (9.1 m x 9.1 m)]; at the ceiling at the 
listed spacing and in racks at alternate levels 

(2) Where listed for rack storage installation and installed in 
accordance with the listing to provide response within 1 
minute after ignition using an ignition source that is 
equivalent to that used in a rack storage testing program 

12.3.1.8.3.2 Ceiling detectors alone shall not be used where 
the ceiling/ roof clearance from the top of the storage exceeds 
10 ft (3.1 m) or the height of the storage exceeds 25 ft (7.6 m). 

12.3.1.8.4 Detectors for preaction systems shall be installed 
in accordance with 12.3.1.8.3. 

12.3.1.9 Solid Shelving. 

12.3.1.9.1 Where solid shelving in single-, double-, and 
multiple-row racks exceeds 20 ft 2 but does not exceed 64 ft 2 in 
area, sprinklers shall not be required below every shelf, but shall 
be installed at the ceiling and below shelves at intermediate levels 
not more than 6 ft (2 m) apart vertically. (See Section Gil.) 

12.3.1.9.2 Where solid shelving in single-, double-, and 
multiple-row racks exceeds 64 ft 2 in area or where the levels of 
storage exceed 6 ft (2 m), sprinklers shall be installed at the 
ceiling and below each level of shelving. 

12.3.1.10 Open-Top Combustible Containers. See Section C.12. 

12.3.1.11 In-Rack Sprinklers. 

12.3.1.11.1 The number of sprinklers and the pipe sizing on 
a line of sprinklers in racks shall be restricted only by hydraulic 
calculations and not by any piping schedule. 

12.3.1.11.2 When in-rack sprinklers are necessary to protect a 
higher hazard commodity that occupies only a portion of the 
length of a rack, in-rack sprinklers shall be extended a mini- 
mum of 8 ft or one bay, whichever is greater, in each direction 
along the rack on either side of the higher hazard. The in-rack 
sprinklers protecting the higher hazard need not be extended 
across the aisle. 



2002 Edition 



13-118 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



12.3.1.11.3 Where a storage rack, due to its length, requires 
less than the number of in-rack sprinklers specified, only those 
in-rack sprinklers in a single rack need to be included in the 
calculation. 

12.3.1.12* Horizontal Barriers and In-Rack Sprinklers. Hori- 
zontal barriers used in conjunction with in-rack sprinklers to 
impede vertical fire development shall be constructed of sheet 
metal, wood, or similar material and shall extend the full 
length and width of the rack. Barriers shall be fitted within 
2 in. (51 mm) horizontally around rack uprights. 

12.3.1.13 For Storage Up to and Including 25 ft (7.6 m). In 
double-row and multiple-row racks without solid shelves, a lon- 
gitudinal (back-to-back clearance between loads) flue space 
shall not be required. Nominal 6-in. (152.4-mm) transverse 
flue spaces between loads and at-rack uprights shall be main- 
tained in single-row, double-row, and multiple-row racks. Ran- 
dom variations in the width of flue spaces or in their vertical 
alignment shall be permitted. (See Section C.13.) 

12.3.1.14 For Storage over 25 ft (7.6 m). 

12.3.1.14.1 Nominal 6-in. (152.4-mm) transverse flue spaces 
between loads and at rack uprights shall be maintained in 
single-row, double-row, and multiple-row racks. Nominal 6-in. 
(152.4-mm) longitudinal flue spaces shall be provided in 
double-row racks. Random variations in the width of the flue 
spaces or in their vertical alignment shall be permitted. 

12.3.1.14.2 In single-row, double-row, or multiple-row racks, 
a minimum 6-in. (152.4-mm) vertical clear space shall be 
maintained between the sprinkler deflectors and the top of a 
tier of storage. Face sprinklers in such racks shall be located a 
minimum of 3 in. (76 mm) from rack uprights and no more 



than 18 in. (460 mm) from the aisle face of storage. Longitu- 
dinal flue in-rack sprinklers shall be located at the intersection 
with the transverse flue space and with the deflector located at 
or below the bottom of horizontal load beams or above or 
below other adjacent horizontal rack members. Such in-rack 
sprinklers shall be a minimum of 3 in. (76 mm) radially from 
the side of the rack uprights. 

12.3.2 Protection Criteria for Rack Storage of Class I through 
Class IV Commodities Stored Up to and Including 25 ft 
(7.6 m) in Height. 

12.3.2.1 Control Mode Density-Area Sprinkler Protection Cri- 
teria for Rack Storage of Class I through Class TV Commodi- 
ties Stored Up to and Including 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height. 

12.3.2.1.1 The area and density for the hydraulically remote 
area and the water supply shall be determined as specified in 
12.1.10 for storage up to 12 ft (3.7 m) and 12.3.2 for storage 
over 12 ft (3.7 m). 

12.3.2.1.1.1* Ceiling sprinkler water demand shall be deter- 
mined in accordance with 12.3.2.1.2 for single- and double-row 
racks or 12.3.2.1.3 for multiple-row racks. (See Section C.14.) 

12.3.2.1.2* Single- or double-row racks for Class I, Class II, 
Class III, or Class IV commodities, encapsulated or nonencap- 
sulated in single- or double-row racks, ceiling sprinkler water 
demand in terms of density (gpm/ft 2 ) (mm/min) and area of 
sprinkler operation [ft 2 (m 2 ) of ceiling or roof] shall be se- 
lected from the density/area curves of Figure 12.3.2.1.2(a) 
through Figure 12.3.2.1.2(g) that are appropriate for each 
commodity and configuration as shown in Table 12.3.2.1.2 
and shall be modified as appropriate by 12.3.2.1.5. These re- 
quirements shall apply to portable racks arranged in the same 
manner as single- or double-row racks. 



Table 12.3.2.1.2 


Single- or Double-Row Racks 


— Storage Height Up to and 


Including 25 ft (7.6 m 


Without Solid Shelves 




Commodity 
Class 


Encapsulated 


Aisles* 


Sprinklers 

Mandatory 

In-Rack 


Ceiling Sprinkler Water Demand 




With In-Rack Sprinklers 


Without In-Rack Sprinklers 


Height 


ft 


m 


Figure 


Curves 


Apply Figure 
12.3.2.1.5.1 


Figure 


Curves 


Apply 

Figure 

12.3.2.1.5.1 




I 


No 


4 


1.2 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(a) 


CandD 


Yes 


12.3.2.1.2(a) 


GandH 


Yes 




8 


2.4 


AandB 


E and F 




Yes 


4 


1.2 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(e) 


CandD 


12.3.2.1.2(e) 


GandH 


Yes 




8 


2.4 


AandB 


Eand F 




II 


No 


4 


1.2 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(b) 


CandD 


12.3.2.1.2(b) 


GandH 


Yes 




8 


2.4 


AandB 


E and F 




Yes 


4 


1.2 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(e) 


CandD 


12.3.2.1.2(e) 


GandH 


Yes 


Over 12 ft (3.7 m), 
up to and 


8 


2.4 


AandB 


EandF 


including 20 ft 
(6.1m) 


III 


No 


4 


1.2 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(c) 


CandD 


12.3.2.1.2(c) 


GandH 


Yes 


8 


2.4 


AandB 


E and F 




Yes 


4 


1.2 


1 level 


12.3.2.1.2(f) 


CandD 


— 


— 






8 


2.4 


AandB 






IV 


No 


4 


1.2 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(d) 


CandD 


12.3.2.1.2(d) 


GandH 


Yes 




8 


2.4 


AandB 


EandF 




Yes 


4 


1.2 


1 level 


12.3.2.1.2(g) 


CandD 


— 


— 






8 


2.4 


AandB 





2002 Edition 



STORAGE 



13-119 



Table 12.3.2.1.2 Continued 





Commodity 
Class 


Encapsulated 






Sprinklers 

Mandatory 

In-Rack 


Ceiling Sprinkler Water Demand 




Aisles* 


With In-Rack Sprinklers 


Without In-Rack Sprinklers 


Height 


ft 


m 


Figure 


Curves 


Apply Figure 
12.3.2.1.5.1 


Figure 


Curves 


Apply 

Figure 

12.3.2.1.5.1 




I 


No 


4 


1.2 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(a) 


CandD 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(a) 


FandH 


Yes 




8 


2.4 


AandB 


E and G 




Yes 


4 


1.2 


1 level 


12.3.2.1.2(e) 


CandD 


— 


— 






8 


2.4 


AandB 






II 


No 


4 


1.2 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(b) 


CandD 


12.3.2.1.2(b) 


GandH 


Yes 




8 


2.4 


AandB 


E and F 


Over 20 ft (6.1m), 
up to and 


Yes 


4 


1.2 


1 level 


12.3.2.1.2(e) 


CandD 


— 


— 




8 


2.4 


AandB 




including 22 ft 
(6.7 m) 


III 


No 


4 


1.2 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(c) 


CandD 


12.3.2.1.2(c) 


GandH 


Yes 


8 


2.4 


AandB 


EandF 




Yes 


4 


1.2 


1 level 


12.3.2.1.2(f) 


CandD 


— 


— 






8 


2.4 


AandB 






rv 


No 


4 


1.2 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(d) 


CandD 


12.3.2.1.2(d) 


GandH 


Yes 




8 


2.4 


AandB 


EandF 




Yes 


4 


1.2 


1 level 


12.3.2.1.2(g) 


CandD 


— 


— 






8 


2.4 


AandB 






I 


No 


4 


1.2 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(a) 


CandD 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(a) 


FandH 


Yes 




8 


2.4 


AandB 


E and G 




Yes 


4 


1.2 


1 level 


12.3.2.1.2(e) 


CandD 


— 


— 






8 


2.4 


AandB 






II 


No 


4 


1.2 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(b) 


CandD 


12.3.2.1.2(b) 


GandH 


Yes 




8 


2.4 


AandB 


EandF 


Over 22 ft (6.7 m), 
up to and 


Yes 


4 


1.2 


1 level 


12.3.2.1.2(e) 


CandD 


— 


— 




8 


2.4 


AandB 




including 25 ft 
(7.6 m) 


III 


No 


4 


1.2 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(c) 


CandD 


12.3.2.1.2(c) 


GandH 


Yes 


8 


2.4 


AandB 


EandF 




Yes 


4 


1.2 


1 level 


12.3.2.1.2(f) 


CandD 


— 


— 






8 


2.4 


AandB 






rv 


No 


4 


1.2 


1 level 


12.3.2.1.2(d) 


CandD 


— 


— 






8 


2.4 


AandB 






Yes 


4 


1.2 


12.3.2.1.2(g) 


CandD 


— 


— 






8 


2.4 


AandB 





| *See 12.3.2.1.2.1 for interpolation of aisle widths. 



2002 Edition 



13-120 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Ceiling sprinkler density (mm/min) 



Curve 



Legend 



Curve 



Legend 



4.1 6.1 8.1 10 

I 

6000 A BC D E FG 


2 12.2 14.3 16.3 
H 


18.3 




OUUU ii j y if 


JT 








_ : i n 41 


r 4P 








1 4V - J V 










V it _ l_ \ 










=;nfin ... 1 - 11 ... V \ 


^ T 








£>UUU H □ Z \ 


i J 








vt A ' 


A L- 








r ¥ J L 


53 a 








L _fc H L_ \ 


Cu 










vc c 








4UUU- - i ti * -\ 


33 5 








k- AL V A 


r, k 








t 4A C 


\\ \ 








A 3 A 


l L-t- t. - /- 








^nnn - J_iL\__ 










cJUUU i \ t 


-C Vt- \ £ 








A Ck- 4 


_X ^ V V 








V U ^ 


- £ ^LL ^ W 5 








C ^3_ > 


- V v*. \' s 








onnn. 5 SS _ 


^ S £S \- s 




















*" Sine 


gle point — 

gn only 












des 




1000 - - - - 


1111 ''M II 11 | i i 


-"-H- 


i i 





557 



465 -2 



372 



279 Z 



186 



93 



0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 



0.35 



Ceiling sprinkler density (gpm/fr) 



0.4 
■2\ 



0.45 



A — Single-or double-row racks 
with 8-ft (2.44-m) aisles 
with286°F(141°C) 
ceiling sprinklers and 
165°F(74°C) 
in-rack sprinklers 

B — Single-or double-row 
racks with 8-ft (2.44-m) 
aisles with 165°F(74°C) 
ceiling sprinklers 
and165°F(74°C) 
in-rack sprinklers 

C — Single-or double-row racks 
with 4-ft (1.22-m) aisles or 
multiple-row racks with 
286°F ( 1 41 °C) ceiling 
sprinklers and 165°F (74°C) 
in-rack sprinklers 

D — Single-or double-row racks 
with 4-ft (1.22-m) aisles or 
multiple-row racks with 
165°F(74°C) ceiling 
sprinklers and 165 C F (74°C) 
in-rack sprinklers 



E — Single-or double-row racks 
with 8-ft (2.44-m) aisles 
and 286°F (1 41 °C) ceiling 
sprinklers 

F— Single-or double-row racks 
with 8-ft (2.44-m) aisles 
and 165°F(74°C) ceiling 
sprinklers 

G — Single-or double-row racks 
with 4-ft (1 .22-m) aisles 
and 286°F (1 41 °C) ceiling 
sprinklers 

H — Single-or double-row racks 
with 4-ft (1.22-m) aisles 
and 165°F(74°C) ceiling 
sprinklers 

/ — Multiple-row racks with 
8-ft (2.44-m) or wider 
aisles and 286°F (1 41 °C) 
ceiling sprinklers 

J — Multiple-row racks with 
8-ft (2.44-m) or wider 
aisles and 165°F(74°C) 
ceiling sprinklers 



FIGURE 12.3.2.1.2(a) Sprinkler System Design Curves — 20-ft (6.1-m) High Rack Storage — 
Class I Nonencapsulated Commodities — Conventional Pallets. 



Ceiling sprinkler density (mm/min) 



Curve 



Legend 



Curve 



Legend 



20.4 



6000 



■2 5000 



£ 4000 



Z 3000 



2000 



1000 




557 



465 .2 



372 



0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 
Ceiling sprinkler density (gprn/ft 2 ) 



186 
Single point 
design only 
I I I I l 93 
0.45 0.50 



279 ^ 



A — Single-or double-row racks 
with 8-ft (2.44-m) aisles 
with286°F(141°C) 
ceiling sprinklers and 
165°F(74°C) 
in-rack sprinklers 

6 — Single-or double-row 
racks with 8-ft (2.44-m) 
aisles with 165°F(74°C) 
ceiling sprinklers 
and165°F(74°C) 
in-rack sprinklers 

C — Single-or double-row racks 
with 4-ft (1 .22-m) aisles or 
multiple-row racks with 
286°F(141°C) ceiling 
sprinklers and 165°F (74°C) 
in-rack sprinklers 

D — Single-or double-row racks 
with 4-ft (1 .22-m) aisles or 
multiple-row racks with 
165°F(74°C) ceiling 
sprinklers and 165°F (74°C) 
in-rack sprinklers 



£ — Single-or double-row racks 
with 8-ft (2.44-m) aisles 
and 286°F (1 41 °C) ceiling 
sprinklers 

F — Single-or double-row racks 
with 8-ft (2.44-m) aisles 
and 165°F(74°C) ceiling 
sprinklers 

G — Single-or double-row racks 
with 4-ft (1 .22-m) aisles 
and 286°F (1 41 °C) ceiling 
sprinklers 

H — Single-or double-row racks 
with 4-ft (1 .22-m) aisles 
and 165°F(74°C) ceiling 
sprinklers 

/ — Multiple-row racks with 
8-ft (2.44-m) or wider 
aisles and 286°F (1 41 °C) 
ceiling sprinklers 

J — Multiple-row racks with 
8-ft (2.44-m) or wider 
aisles and 165°F(74°C) 
ceiling sprinklers 



FIGURE 12.3.2.1.2(b) Sprinkler System Design Curves — 20-ft (6.1-m) High Rack Storage — 
Class II Nonencapsulated Commodities — Conventional Pallets. 



2002 Edition 



STORAGE 



13-121 



Ceiling sprinkler density (mm/min) 



Curve 



Legend 



Curve 



Legend 



6. 




A 


8.2 
I 
BC 




1 

D 


3.2 

E 


12.2 
FG 


14.3 
H 


ie 


>.3 




18.3 




20.4 


















l\ 














































11 














































w 














































Y 














































y 












































\ 












































\ 














































l' 
















































i 














































\ 














































\ 














































\i 














































\\ 
































































J 




























\ 














































\ 


















. 




























\^ 


















^ 


^ 


























v 




















V 




























V 














I . 




N 


V 








2000 - - 




















^ \ 












1 


s^ 


N s 








































" 


3^ 














































V 


Single po 














































































design on 


1000 t 




































Lq 


r^ 




i 


J 



0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 
Ceiling sprinkler density (gpm/ft 2 ) 



0.50 



557 



465 .2 



372 



279 £ 
o 



186 



93 



A — Single-or double-row racks 
with 8-ft (2.44-m) aisles 
with286°F(141°C) 
ceiling sprinklers and 
165°F(74°C) 
in-rack sprinklers 

B — - Single-or double-row 
racks with 8-ft (2.44-m) 
aisles with 165°F(74°C) 
ceiling sprinklers 
and165°F(74°C) 
in-rack sprinklers 

C— Single-or double-row racks 
with 4-ft (1 .22-m) aisles or 
multiple-row racks with 
286°F (1 41 °C) ceiling 
sprinklers and 165°F (74°C) 
in-rack sprinklers 

D — Single-or double-row racks 
with 4-ft (1 .22-m) aisles or 
multiple-row racks with 
165°F(74°C) ceiling 
sprinklers and 165°F (74°C) 
in-rack sprinklers 



E — Single-or double-row racks 
with 8-ft (2.44-m) aisles 
and 286°F (1 41 °C) ceiling 
sprinklers 

F — Single-or double-row racks 
with 8-ft (2.44-m) aisles 
and 165°F(74°C) ceiling 
sprinklers 

G — Single-or double-row racks 
with 4-ft (1 .22-m) aisles 
and 286°F(141°C) ceiling 
sprinklers 

H — Single-or double-row racks 
with 4-ft (1. 22-m) aisles 
and 165°F(74°C) ceiling 
sprinklers 

/ — Multiple-row racks with 
8-ft (2.44-m) or wider 
aisles and 286°F (1 41 °C) 
ceiling sprinklers 

J — Multiple-row racks with 
8-ft (2.44-m) or wider 
aisles and 165°F(74°C) 
ceiling sprinklers 



FIGURE 12.3.2.1.2(c) Sprinkler System Design Curves — 20-ft (6.1-m) High Rack Storage — 
Class III Nonencapsulated Commodities — Conventional Pallets. 



8.2 



Ceiling sprinkler density (mm/min) 
10.2 12.2 14.3 16.3 18.3 20.4 22.4 24.5 



Curve 



Legend 



Curve 



6000- 



•2 5000- 



fc 4000- 



™ 3000- 



2000- 



1000 



I 

A BC D E 


1 
F G H 


ff 3T3 X" £ 


t r i 


4P i^ 3- 5 


L- A 5 


JU t i- \ \ 


A L- 


i n v x 


k-£ A 


X - A J- \ 


A L- 


t r f > 


C V 




Sj 


r j \ i 


\ u t s 


V L ' f 


-A—i t- 


j \ v 3 


Jr if \ 


r i \ r 


* j \- !v 


\ f L \ 


A AJ C 


J j L 


^ "^]. v N 


C S t- 


5 * TV ^^ 


\ A \ V 


c ^\ ^ ^ 


k C v 


k i 55 


' \- V 


w- X jS 


c > 5 


j ^ j^ 


'. 5 5 


5 ^^ ^ 5^, 


5 S K. 


5,_ ^^ 2s 























557 



465 .2 



372 



279 Z 



186 



93 



0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 
Ceiling sprinkler density (gpm/ft 2 ) 



0.55 0.60 



A — Single-or double-row racks 
with 8-ft (2.44-m) aisles 
with286°F(141°C) 
ceiling sprinklers and 
165°F(74°C) 
in-rack sprinklers 

B — Single-or double-row 
racks with 8-ft (2.44-m) 
aisles with 165°F(74°C) 
ceiling sprinklers 
and165°F(74°C) 
in-rack sprinklers 

C — Single-or double-row racks 
with 4-ft (1 .22-m) aisles or 
multiple-row racks with 
286°F (1 41 °C) ceiling 
sprinklers and 1 65°F (74°C) 
in-rack sprinklers 

D — Single-or double-row racks 
with 4-ft (1.22-m) aisles or 
multiple-row racks with 
165°F(74°C) ceiling 
sprinklers and 165°F (74°C) 
in-rack sprinklers 



Legend 



E — Single-or double-row racks 
with 8-ft (2.44-m) aisles 
and 286°F (141 °C) ceiling 
sprinklers 

F — Single-or double-row racks 
with 8-ft (2.44-m) aisles 
and 165°F(74°C) ceiling 
sprinklers 

G — Single-or double-row racks 
with 4-ft (1 .22-m) aisles 
and 286°F (141 °C) ceiling 
sprinklers 

H — Single-or double-row racks 
with 4-ft (1 .22-m) aisles 
and 165°F(74°C) ceiling 
sprinklers 



FIGURE 12.3.2.1.2(d) Sprinkler System Design Curves — 20-ft (6.1-m) High Rack Storage — 
Class IV Nonencapsulated Commodities — Conventional Pallets. 



2002 Edition 



13-122 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



6.1 



8.2 



Ceiling sprinkler density (mm/min) 

10.2 12.2 14.3 16.3 18.3 20.4 



Curve 



Legend 



Curve 



6000- 



■S 5000- 



£ 4000- 



Z 3000- 
o 

03 



2000- 



I 

A B C D 




~~~ t~~~ l~ l. ~~ ~: 




t i t t 




i X \ X 




±13^ 




[ J I L _ _. 




lift 




4 t \ A 




\ " V 


0;„_ _ 


r- J i- V 




._ _ f L_ t A 


F point -■*-.. 


I t \ X 




1 I \ \ 




[ \ v \ 


Xonly 


\ ^ V $ 


\ \ 


V 4 C X — 




K \r X A 


k_ 


3 A E \ - 


: :£ \ V 


\ \ X V- 


4-r- \ -■ 


5 A 5 X 


S \ 


L Y \. s 


i s s 























■557 



■465 -2 

(0 

Q. 
O 

<5 



H 
+ 372 



1000 

0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 
Ceiling sprinkler density (gpm/ft 2 ) 



279 Z 



186 



93 



Legend 



A — 8-ft (2.44-m) aisles with 
286°F (141 °C) ceiling 
sprinklers and 165°F (74°C) 
in-rack sprinklers 

B— 8-ft (2.44-m) aisles with 
165°F(74°C) ceiling 
sprinklers and 165°F (74°C) 
in-rack sprinklers 

C— 4-ft (1.22-m) aisles with 
286°F (1 41 °C) ceiling 
sprinklers and 165°F (74°C) 
in-rack sprinklers 

D — 4-ft (1 .22-m) aisles with 
165°F(74°C) ceiling 
sprinklers and 165°F (74°C) 
in-rack sprinklers 



E— 8-ft (2.44-m) aisles with 

288°F (1 41 °C) ceiling 

sprinklers 
F— 8-ft (2.44-m) aisles with 

165°F(74°C) ceiling 

sprinklers 
G — 4-ft (1 .22-m) aisles with 

286°F (1 41 °C) ceiling 

sprinklers 
H— 4-ft (1 .22-m) aisles with 

165°F(74°C) ceiling 

sprinklers 



FIGURE 12.3.2.1.2(e) Single- or Double-Row Racks — 20-ft (6.1-m) High Rack Storage — 
Sprinkler System Design Curves — Class I and II Encapsulated Commodities — Conventional 
Pallets. 



Ceiling sprinkler density (mm/min) 
10.2 12.2 14.3 16.3 18.3 



20.4 




0.20 



0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 
Ceiling sprinkler density (gpm/ft 2 ) 



Curve Legend 

A — 8-ft (2.44-m) aisles with 
286°F (1 41 °C) ceiling 
sprinklers and 
165°F(74°C) 
in-rack sprinklers 

6— - 8-ft (2.44-m) aisles with 
165°F(74°C) ceiling 
sprinklers and 
165°F(74°C) 
in-rack sprinklers 



Curve 



Legend 



C— 4-ft (1 .22-m) aisles with 
288°F (141 °C) ceiling 
sprinklers and 
165°F(74°C) 
in-rack sprinklers 

D — 4-ft (1 .22-m) aisles with 
165°F(74°C) ceiling 
sprinklers and 
165°F(74°C) 
in-rack sprinklers 



FIGURE 12.3.2.1.2(f) Single- or Double-Row Racks — 20-ft (6.1-m) High Rack Storage — 
Sprinkler System Design Curves — Class III Encapsulated Commodities — Conventional Pallets. 



2002 Edition 



STORAGE 



13-123 



10.2 12.2 



Ceiling sprinkler density (mm/min) 
14.3 16.3 18.3 20.4 22.4 



Curve 



Legend 



Curve 



Legend 



24.5 



6000 



•2 5000 



fc 4000 



™ 3000 



2000 



1000 











I 

4 






B 




C 






D 


































557 























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































465 -2 



372 



279 ™ 



186 c 



93 



0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 
Ceiling sprinkler density (gpm/ft 2 ) 



0.60 



A — 8-ft (2.44-m) aisles with 
286°F (1 41 °C) ceiling 
sprinklers and 
165°F(74°C) 
in-rack sprinklers 

6— 8-ft (2.44-m) aisles with 
165°F(74°C) ceiling 
sprinklers and 
165°F(74°C) 
in-rack sprinklers 



FIGURE 12.3.2.1.2(g) Single- or Double-Row Racks — 20-ft (6.1-m) High Rack Storage — 
Sprinkler System Design Curves — Class IV Encapsulated Commodities — Conventional Pallets. 



C— 4-ft (1.22-m) aisles with 
288°F(141°C) ceiling 
sprinklers and 
165°F(74°C) 
in-rack sprinklers 

D— 4-ft (1 .22-m) aisles with 
165°F(74°C) ceiling 
sprinklers and 
165°F(74°C) 
in-rack sprinklers 



12.3.2.1.2.1* Design densities for single- and double-row racks 
shall be selected to correspond to aisle width. For aisle widths 
between 4 ft (1.2 m) and 8 ft (2.4 m) , a direct linear interpolation 
between densities shall be made. The density given for 8-ft 
(2.4-m) wide aisles shall be applied to aisles wider than 8 ft 
(2.4 m). The density given for 4-ft (1.2-m) wide aisles shall be 
applied to aisles narrower than 4 ft (1.2 m) down to 3V£ ft 
(1.07 m). Where aisles are narrower than VA ft (1.07 m), racks 
shall be considered to be multiple-row racks. (See Section C.15.) 

12.3.2.1.3 Multiple-Row Racks — Rack Depth Up to and Includ- 
ing 16 ft (4.9 m) with Aisles 8 ft (2.4 m) or Wider. For Class I, 
Class II, Class III, or Class IV commodities, encapsulated or 
nonencapsulated, ceiling sprinkler water demand in terms 
of density (gpm/ft 2 ) (mm/min) and area of sprinkler op- 
eration [ft 2 (m 2 ) of ceiling or roof] shall be selected from 
the density/area curves of Figure 12.3.2.1.2(a) through Fig- 
ure 12.3.2.1.2(g) that are appropriate for each commodity 
and configuration as shown in Table 12.3.2.1.3 and shall be 
modified as appropriate by 12.3.2.1.5. The protection crite- 
ria shall apply to portable racks arranged in the same man- 
ner as single- or double-row racks. 

12.3.2. 1.4 Multiple-Row Racks — Rack Depth Over 16 ft (4.9 m) 
or Aisles Narrower than 8 ft (2.4 m). For Class I, Class II, Class III, 
or Class IV commodities, encapsulated or nonencapsulated, ceil- 
ing sprinkler water demand in terms of density (gpm/ft 2 ) (mm/ 
min) and area of sprinkler operation [ft 2 (m 2 ) ofceilingorroof] 
shall be selected from the density/area curves of Figure 
12.3.2.1.2(a) through Figure 12.3.2.1.2(g) that are appropriate 
for each commodity and configuration as shown in Table 

12.3.2.1.4 and shall be modified as appropriate by 12.3.2.1.5. The 
protection criteria shall apply to portable racks arranged in the 
same manner as single-, double-, or multiple-row racks. 

12.3.2.1.5 Ceiling Sprinkler Density Adjustments. 

12.3.2.1.5.1 For storage height up to and including 25 ft 
(7.6 m) protected with ceiling sprinklers only and for storage 
height up to and including 20 ft (6.1 m) protected with ceiling 
sprinklers and minimum required in-rack sprinklers, densities 



obtained from design curves shall be adjusted in accordance 
with Figure 12.3.2.1.5.1. 

12.3.2.1.5.2 For storage height over 20 ft (6.1 m) up to and 
including 25 ft (7.6 m) protected with ceiling sprinklers and 
minimum required in-rack sprinklers, densities obtained from 
design curves shall be used. Densities shall not be adjusted in 
accordance with Figure 12.3.2.1.5.1. 

12.3.2.1.5.3 For storage height up to and including 20 ft 
(6.1 m) protected with ceiling sprinklers and with more than 
one level of in-rack sprinklers, but not in every tier, densities 
obtained from design curves and adjusted in accordance with 
Figure 12.3.2.1.5.1 shall be permitted to be reduced an addi- 
tional 20 percent, as indicated in Table 12.3.2.1.5.3. 

12.3.2.1.5.4 For storage height over 20 ft (6.1 m) up to and 
including 25 ft (7.6 m) protected with ceiling sprinklers and 
with more than the minimum required level of in-rack sprin- 
klers, but not in every tier, densities obtrained from design 
curves shall be permitted to be reduced 20 percent as indi- 
cated in Table 12.3.2.1.5.3. Densities shall not be adjusted in 
accordance with Figure 12.3.2.1.5.1 for storage height. 

12.3.2.1.5.5 For storage height up to and including 20 ft 
(6.1 m) protected with ceiling sprinklers and in-rack sprin- 
klers at each tier, densities obtained from design curves and 
adjusted in accordance with Figure 12.3.2.1.5.1 shall be per- 
mitted to be reduced an additional 40 percent, as indicated 
in Table 12.3.2.1.5.3. 

12.3.2.1.5.6 For storage height over 20 ft (6.1 m) up to and 
including 25 ft (7.6 m) protected with ceiling sprinklers and 
in-rack sprinklers at each tier, densities obtained from design 
curves shall be permitted to be reduced 40 percent, as indi- 
cated in Table 12.3.2.1.5.3. Densities shall not be adjusted in 
accordance with Figure 12.3.2.1.5.1 for storage height. 

12.3.2.1.5.7 Where clearance from ceiling to top of storage is 
less than 4Vi ft (1.37 m), the sprinkler operating area indi- 
cated in curves E, F, G, and H in Figure 12.3.2.1.2(a) through 
Figure 12.3.2.1.2(e) shall be permitted to be reduced as indi- 
cated in Figure 12.3.2.1.5.7 but shall not be reduced to less 
than 2000 ft 2 (185.8 m 2 ). 



2002 Edition 



13-124 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Table 12.3.2.1.3 Multiple-Row Racks — Rack Depth Up to and Including 16 ft (4.9 m), Aisles 
8 ft (2.4 m) or Wider, Storage Height Up to 25 ft (7.6 m) 





Commodity 
Class 


Encap- 
sulated 


Sprinklers 

Mandatory 

In-Racks 


Ceiling Sprinkler Water Demand 




With In-Rack Sprinklers 


Without In-Rack Sprinklers 


Height 


Figure 


Curves 


Apply 

Figure 

12.3.2.1.5.1 


1.25 
x Density 


Figure 


Curves 


Apply Figure 
12.3.2.1.5.1 


1.25 
x Density 




I 


No 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(a) 


CandD 


Yes 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(a) 


I and J 


Yes 


No 




Yes 


12.3.2.1.2(a) 


Yes 


12.3.2.1.2(a) 


I and J 


Yes 


Over 12 ft 

(3.7 m), 


II 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(b) 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(b) 


I and J 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


12.3.2.1.2(b) 


Yes 


12.3.2.1.2(b) 


I and J 




Yes 


up to and 
including 


III 


No 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(c) 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(c) 


I and J 


Yes 


No 


15 ft 
(4.6 m) 


Yes 


1 level 


12.3.2.1.2(c) 


Yes 




NA 


NA 


NA 




rv 


No 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(d) 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(d) 


CandD 


No 


No 




Yes 


1 level 


12.3.2.1.2(d) 


AandB 


1.50 

x density 




NA 


NA 


NA 




I 


No 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(a) 


CandD 


Yes 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(a) 


I and J 


Yes 


No 




Yes 


12.3.2.1.2(a) 


Yes 


12.3.2.1.2(a) 


IandJ 


Yes 


Over 15 ft 
(4.6 m), 


II 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(b) 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(b) 


I and J 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


12.3.2.1.2(b) 


Yes 


12.3.2.1.2(b) 


IandJ 


Yes 


up to and 
including 


III 


No 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(c) 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(c) 


IandJ 


Yes 


No 


20 ft 
(6.1 m) 


Yes 


1 level 


12.3.2.1.2(c) 


Yes 


NA 


NA 


NA 






rv 


No 


1 level 


12.3.2.1.2(d) 


No 


NA 




Yes 


12.3.2.1.2(d) 


AndB 


1.50 

x density 






i 


No 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(a) 


CandD 


No 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(a) 


IandJ 


Yes 


No 




Yes 


1 level 


12.3.2.1.2(a) 


Yes 


NA 


NA 


NA 




Over 20 ft 
(6.1 m), 


ii 


No 


1 level 


12.3.2.1.2(b) 


No 




Yes 


12.3.2.1.2(b) 


Yes 




up to and 
including 


in 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(c) 


No 


NA 


25 ft 
(7.6 m) 


Yes 


12.3.2.1.2(c) 


Yes 






rv 


No 


2 levels 


12.3.2.1.2(d) 


No 






Yes 


12.3.2.1.2(d) 


AandB 


1.50 

x density 





2002 Edition 



STORAGE 



13-125 



Table 12.3.2.1.4 Multiple-Row Racks — Rack Depth Over 16 ft (4.9 m) or Aisles Narrower 
than 8 ft (2.4 m), Storage Height Up to and Including 25 ft (7.6 m) 





Commodity 
Class 


Encap- 
sulated 


Sprinklers 

Mandatory 

In-Racks 


Ceiling Sprinkler Water Demand 




With In-Rack Sprinklers 


Without In-Rack Sprinklers 


Height 


Figure 


Curves 


Apply 

Figure 

12.3.2.1.5.1 


1.25 
x Density 


Figure 


Curves 


Apply 

Figure 

12.3.2.1.5.1 


1.25 
x Density 




I 


No 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(a) 


CandD 


Yes 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(a) 


IandJ 


Yes 


No 




Yes 


12.3.2.1.2(a) 


Yes 


12.3.2.1.2(a) 


I and J 


Yes 


Over 12 ft 
(3.7 m), 
up to and 
including 


II 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(b) 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(b) 


IandJ 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


12.3.2.1.2(b) 


Yes 


12.3.2.1.2(b) 


IandJ 


Yes 


III 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(c) 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(c) 


IandJ 


Yes 


No 


15 ft 
(4.6 m) 


Yes 


1 level 


12.3.2.1.2(c) 


Yes 












rv 


No 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(d) 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(d) 


CandD 


No 


No 




Yes 


1 level 


12.3.2.1.2(d) 


1.50 

x density 












I 


No 


1 level 


12.3.2.1.2(a) 


CandD 


Yes 


No 


NA 


NA 


NA 






Yes 


12.3.2.1.2(a) 


Yes 




Over 15 ft 
(4.6 m), 


II 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(b) 


No 




Yes 


12.3.2.1.2(b) 


Yes 




up to and 
including 


III 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(c) 


No 


NA 


20 ft 
(6.1 m) 


Yes 


12.3.2.1.2(c) 


Yes 






rv 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(d) 


No 






Yes 


12.3.2.1.2(d) 


1.50 

x density 






i 


No 


1 level 


12.3.2.1.2(a) 


CandD 


No 


No 


NA 


NA 


NA 






Yes 


12.3.2.1.2(a) 


Yes 




Over 20 ft 
(6.1m), 


ii 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(b) 


No 




Yes 


12.3.2.1.2(b) 


Yes 




up to and 
including 


HI 


No 


12.3.2.1.2(c) 


No 


NA 


25 ft 
(7.6 m) 


Yes 


12.3.2.1.2(c) 


Yes 






rv 


No 


2 levels 


12.3.2.1.2(d) 


No 






Yes 


12.3.2.1.2(d) 


1.50 

x density 





2002 Edition 



13-126 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



3.66 



Height of storage (m) 



175 



150 



■55 125 



3 100 



2 75 



S 60 + 
o 

$ 50 



25 











3.05 i 


r 


i 


4.57 






3.1C 


) 






7.62 




< 


3.14 




10.67 






























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































■H- 

















































10 12 15 20 25 

Height of storage (ft) 



30 



35 



FIGURE 12.3.2.1.5.1 Ceiling Sprinkler Density vs. Storage 
Height. 



Reduced design area of sprinkler operation (m 2 ) 

138 186 232 279 325 372 418 

557 



511 



% 



6U00 
























































































































































































































































5500 




















































































































































































































































































































5000 




















































































































































































































































































































4500 




















































































































































































































































































































4000 




















































































































































































































































































































3500 




















































































































































































































































































































3000 




















































































































































































































































































































2500 




















































































































































































































































































































2000 































































465 c 



418 ° 



372 ^ 



325 c 



279 



232 



186 
1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 

Reduced design area of sprinkler operation (ft 2 ) 

FIGURE 12.3.2.1.5.7 Adjustment of Design Area of Sprinkler 
Operation for Clearance from Top of Storage to Ceiling. 



Table 12.3.2.1.5.3 Adjustment to Ceiling Sprinkler Density for Storage Height and In-Rack Sprinklers 



Storage Height 



In-Rack Sprinklers 



Apply Figure 
12.3.2.1.5.1 for 
Storage Height 

Adjustment 



Permitted Ceiling Sprinklers 

Density Adjustments Where 

In-Rack Sprinklers are Installed 



Over 12 ft (3.7 m) through 
25 ft (7.6 m) 



None 



Yes 



None 



Over 12 ft (3.7 m) through 
20 ft (6.1 m) 



Minimum required 



More than minimum, but not in 
every tier 



In every tier 



Yes 



None 



Yes Reduce density 20% from that 

of minimum in-rack 
sprinklers 



Yes Reduce density 40% from that 

of minimum in-rack 
sprinklers 



Over 20 ft (6.1 m) through 
24 ft (7.5 m) 



Minimum required 



More than minimum, but not in 
every tier 



In every tier 



No 



None 



No Reduce density 20% from that 

of minimum in-rack 
sprinklers 



No Reduce density 40% from that 

of minimum in-rack 
sprinklers 



2002 Edition 



STORAGE 



13-127 



12.3.2.1.5.8 Where clearance from ceiling to top of Class I or 
Class I encapsulated storage is 1 x h ft to 3 ft (0.46 m to 0.91 m) , 
the sprinkler operating area indicated in curve F only of Fig- 
ure 12.3.2.1.2(e) shall be permitted to be reduced by 50 per- 
cent but shall not be reduced to less than 2000 ft 2 (186 m ). 

12.3.2.1.5.9 Where solid, flat-botton, combustible pallets are 
used with storage height up to and including 25 ft (7.6 m), the 
densities that are indicated in the design curves shown in Fig- 
ure 12.3.2.1.2(a) through Figure 12.3.2.1.2(g), based on con- 
ventional pallets, shall be increased 20 percent for the given 
area. The percentage shall be applied to the density deter- 
mined in accordance with Figure 12.3.2.1.5.1. The increase in 
density shall not apply where in-rack sprinklers are installed. 

12.3.2.1.6* The minimum water supply requirements for a 
hydraulically designed occupancy hazard fire control sprin- 
kler system shall be determined by adding the hose stream 
demand from Table 12.3.2.1.6 to the water supply for sprin- 
klers determined in 12.3.2.1. This supply shall be available 
for the minimum duration specified in Table 12.3.2.1.6. (See 
Section C.8.) 

12.3.2.1.6.1 An allowance for inside and outside hose shall 
not be required where tanks supply sprinklers only. 

12.3.2.1.6.2 Where pumps taking suction from a private 
fire service main supply sprinklers only, the pump need not 
be sized to accommodate inside and outside hose. Such 
hose allowance shall be considered in evaluating the avail- 
able water supplies. 

12.3.2.2 Large Drop Sprinklers and Specific Application 
Control Mode Sprinklers for Rack Storage of Class I 
through Class IV Commodities Stored Up to and Including 
25 ft (7.6 m) in Height. 

12.3.2.2.1 Protection of single-, double-, and multiple-row 
rack storage without solid shelves for Classes I through IV com- 
modities shall be in accordance with Table 12.3.2.2.1(a) or 
Table 12.3.2.2.1(b). 

12.3.2.2.2 Where in-rack sprinklers are required by Table 
12.3.2.2.1(a) and Table 12.3.2.2.1(b), in-rack sprinkler spac- 
ing, design pressure, and hydraulic calculation criteria shall 
be in accordance with the requirements of 12.3.2.4 as appli- 
cable for the commodity. 

12.3.2.2.3 Protection shall be provided as specified in 
Table 12.3.2.2.1(a) and Table 12.3.2.2.1(b) or appropriate 
NFPA standards in terms of minimum operating pressure and 
the number of sprinklers to be included in the design area. 

12.3.2.2.3.1 For design purposes, 95 psi (6.6 bar) shall be 
the maximum discharge pressure at the hydraulically most 
remote sprinkler. 



12.3.2.2.3.2 Open Wood Joist Construction. 

(A) Where large drop K-11.2 sprinklers are installed under 
open wood joist construction, their minimum operating pres- 
sure shall be 50 psi (3.4 bar). 

(B) Where each joist channel of open, wood joist construc- 
tion is fully fire-stopped to its full depth at intervals not ex- 
ceeding 20 ft (6.1 m), the lower pressures specified in 
Table 12.3.2.2.1(a) shall be permitted to be used. 

12.3.2.2.3.3 The design area shall be a rectangular area hav- 
ing a dimension parallel to the branch lines at least 1.2 times 
the square root of the area protected by the number of sprin- 
klers to be included in the design area. Any fractional sprin- 
kler shall be included in the design area. 

12.3.2.2.3.4 Hose stream demand and water supply duration 
requirements shall be in accordance with Table 12.3.2.2.1(a) 
and Table 12.3.2.2.1(b). 

12.3.2.2.3.5 Preaction Systems. 

(A) For the purpose of using Table 12.3.2.2.1(a) and 
Table 12.3.2.2.1(b), preaction systems shall be classified as dry 
pipe systems. 

(B) Where it can be demonstrated that the detection system 
activating the preaction system will cause water to be at the 
sprinklers when they operate, preaction systems shall be per- 
mitted to be treated as wet pipe systems. 

12.3.2.2.3.6 The nominal diameter of branch line pipes 
(including riser nipples) shall meet the following: 

(1) Pipe diameter shall not be not less than VA in. (33 mm) 
nor greater than 2 in. (51 mm). 

(2) Starter pieces shall be permitted to be 2V& in. (64 mm). 

(3) Where branch lines are larger than 2 in. (51 mm), the 
sprinkler shall be supplied by a riser nipple to elevate the 
sprinkler 13 in. (330 mm) for 2V2 in. (64-mm) pipe and 
15 in. (380 mm) for 3-in. (76-mm) pipe. These dimen- 
sions are measured from the centerline of the pipe to the 
deflector. In lieu of this, sprinklers shall be permitted to 
be offset horizontally a minimum of 12 in. (305 mm). 

12.3.2.2.3.7 Building steel shall not require special protection 
where Table 12.3.2.2.1(a) and Table 12.3.2.2.1(b) is applied as 
appropriate for the storage configuration. 

12.3.2.3* Early Suppression Fast-Response (ESFR) Sprinklers 
for Rack Storage of Class I through Class IV Commodities 
Stored Up to and Including 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height. 

12.3.2.3.1 Protection of single-, double-, and multiple-row 
rack storage of Classes I through IV shall be in accordance 
with Table 12.3.2.3.1. 



Table 12.3.2.1.6 Hose Stream Demand and Water Supply Duration Requirements for Rack Storage 
of Class I through Class IV Commodities Stored Up to and Including 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height 



Commodity 
Classification 


Storage Height 


Inside Hose 


Total Combined 

Inside and Outside 

Hose 


Duration 
(minutes) 


ft m 


gpm L/min 


gpm L/min 


Class I, II, and III 
Class IV 


Over 12 Over 3.7 
Over 12 Over 3.7 


0,50, or 100 0,190,380 
0, 50, or 100 0, 190, 380 


500 1900 
500 1900 


90 
120 



2002 Edition 



13-128 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Table 12.3.2.2.1(a) Large Drop Sprinkler Design Criteria for Single-, Double-, and Multiple-Row 
Racks without Solid Shelves of Class I through Class IV Commodities Stored Up to and 
Including 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height 



Commodity 
Class 


Nominal 
K-Factor 


Maximum Storage 
Height 


Maximum 

Ceiling/Roof 

Height 


Type of 
System 


Number of Design 

Sprinklers/Minimum 

Pressure 


Hose Stream 
Demand 


Water 

Supply 

Duration 

(hours) 


ft 


m 


ft 


m 


/psi 


/bar 


gpm 


L/min 


I, II 


11.2 


25 


7.6 


30 


9.1 


Wet 


20/25 


20/1.7 


500 


1900 


IV* 


Dry 


30/25 


30/1.7 


500 


1900 


IV* 


I, II, III 


11.2 


20 


6.1 


30 


9.1 


Wet 


15/25 


15/1.7 


500 


1900 


IV* 


Dry 


25/25 


25/1.7 


N/A 


N/A 


IV* 


I, II, III 


11.2 


25 


7.6 


35 


10.7 


Wet 


15/25 + 1 
level of 
in-rack 


15/1.7 + 1 
level of 
in-rack 


500 


1900 


IV* 


Dry 


25/25 + 1 
level of 
in-rack 


25/1.7 + 1 
level of 
in-rack 


500 


1900 


IV* 


rv 


11.2 


20 


6.1 


25 


7.6 


Wet 


15/50 


15/3.4 


500 


1900 


2 


Dry 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


rv 


11.2 


20 


6.1 


30 


9.1 


Wet 


20/50 


20/3.4 


500 


1900 


2 


Dry 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


rv 


11.2 


20 


6.1 


30 


9.1 


Wet 


15/75 


15/5.2 


500 


1900 


2 


Dry 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


rv 


11.2 


25 


7.6 


30 


9.1 


Wet 


15/50 + 1 
level of 
in-rack 


15/3.4+1 
level of 
in-rack 


500 


1900 


2 




Dry 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


rv 


11.2 


25 


7.6 


35 


10.7 


Wet 


20/50 + 1 
level of 
in-rack 


20/3.4 + 1 
level of 
in-rack 


500 


1900 


2 




Dry 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


rv 


11.2 


25 


7.6 


35 


10.7 


Wet 


15/75 + 1 
level of 
in-rack 


15/5.2 + 1 
level of 
in-rack 


500 


1900 


2 




Dry 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 



Table 12.3.2.2.1(b) Specific Application Control Mode (16.8 K-factor) Sprinkler Design Criteria 
for Single-, Double-, and Multiple-Row Racks without Solid Shelves of Class I through Class IV 
Commodities Stored Up to and Including 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height 





Maximum Storage 
Height 


Maximum 
Building Height 


Type of 
System 


Number of Design 

Sprinklers by Minimum 

Operating Pressure 


Hose Stream 
Demand 


Water Supply 

Duration 

(hours) 


Commodity Class 


ft 


m 


ft 


m 


10 psi 0.7 
bar 


22 psi 1.5 
bar 


gpm 


L/min 


I or II 


25 


7.6 


30 


9.1 


Wet 


15 


— 


500 


1900 


IV* 


III or rv 


25 


7.6 


30 


9.1 


Wet 


— 


15 


500 


1900 


2 



2002 Edition 



STORAGE 



13-129 



Table 12.3.2.3.1 ESFR Protection of Rack Storage without Solid Shelves of Class I through 
Class IV Commodities Stored Up to and Including 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height 



Storage 
Arrangement 



Commodity 



Maximum 
Storage 
Height 



ft 



Maximum 

Ceiling/ Roof 

Height 



ft 



Nominal 
K-Factor 



Orientation 



Minimum 
Operating 
Pressure 



psi 



bar 



In-Rack 

Sprinkler 

Requirements 



Hose Stream 
Demand 



gpm L/min 



Water 

Supply 

Duration 

(hours) 



20 



6.1 



Single-row, 
double-row, 
and 

multiple-row 
rack (no 
open-top 
containers) 



Class I, II, III, 

orlV, 

encapsulated 

or 

unencapsulated 



25 



7.6 



11.2 



Upright 



50 



14.0 



25 



7.6 



Upright or 
pendent 



50 



16.8 



Pendent 



35 



25.2 



Pendent 



15 



14.0 



Upright or 
pendent 



50 



30 



9.1 



16.8 



Pendent 



35 



25.2 



Pendent 



15 



14.0 



Upright or 
pendent 



75 



35 



10.7 



16.8 



Pendent 



52 



25.2 



Pendent 



20 



14.0 



Pendent 



75 



40 



12.2 



16.8 



Pendent 



52 



25.2 



Pendent 



25 



14.0 



Pendent 



90 



45 



13.7 



16.8 



Pendent 



64 



25.2 



Pendent 



40 



14.0 



Upright or 
pendent 



50 



30 



9.1 



16.8 



Pendent 



35 



25.2 



Pendent 



15 



14.0 



32 



9.8 



Upright or 
pendent 



60 



16.8 



Pendent 



42 



14.0 



Upright or 
pendent 



75 



35 



10.7 



16.8 



Pendent 



52 



25.2 



Pendent 



20 



14.0 



Pendent 



75 



40 



12.2 



16.8 



Pendent 



52 



25.2 



Pendent 



25 



14.0 



Pendent 



90 



45 



13.7 



16.8 



Pendent 



64 



25.2 



Pendent 



40 



3.4 



3.4 



2.4 



1.0 



3.4 



2.4 



1.0 



5.2 



3.6 



1.4 



5.2 



3.6 



1.7 



6.2 



4.4 



2.8 



3.4 



2.4 



1.0 



4.1 



2.9 



5.2 



3.6 



1.4 



5.2 



3.6 



1.7 



6.2 



4.4 



2.8 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



Yes 



Yes 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



Yes 



Yes 



No 



250 



946 



2002 Edition 



13-130 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



12.3.2.3.1.1 ESFR protection as defined shall not apply to 
the following: 

(1) Rack storage involving solid shelves 

(2) Rack storage involving combustible, open-top cartons or 
containers 

12.3.2.3.2 Detection systems, concentrate pumps, generators, 
and other system components that are essential to the operation 
of the system shall have an approved standby power source. 

12.3.2.3.3 ESFR sprinkler systems shall be designed such that 
the minimum operating pressure is not less than that indi- 
cated in Table 12.3.2.3.1 for type of storage, commodity, stor- 
age height, and building height involved. 

12.3.2.3.4 The design area shall consist of the most hydrauli- 
cally demanding area of 12 sprinklers, consisting of four sprin- 
klers on each of three branch lines. The design shall include a 
minimum of 960 ft 2 (89 m 2 ). 

12.3.2.3.5 Where ESFR sprinklers are installed above and be- 
low obstructions, the discharge for up to two sprinklers for 
one of the levels shall be included with those of the other level 
in the hydraulic calculations. 

12.3.2.4 In-Rack Sprinklers for Rack Storage of Class I 
through Class IV Commodities Stored Up to and Including 
25 ft (7.6 m) in Height. 

12.3.2.4.1 In-Rack Sprinkler Location for Rack Storage of 
Class I through Class IV Commodities Stored Up to and In- 
cluding 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height. 

1 2.3.2.4. 1.1 In single- or double-row racks without solid shelves, 
in-rack sprinklers shall be installed in accordance with Table 
12.3.2.1.2. 

12.3.2.4.1.2 In multiple-row racks no deeper than 16 ft 
(4.9 m) with aisles 8 ft (2.4 m) or wider, in-rack sprinklers shall 
be installed in accordance with Table 12.3.2.1.3. 

12.3.2.4.1.3 In multiple-row racks deeper than 16 ft (4.9 m) 
or with aisles less than 8 ft (2.4 m) wide, in-rack sprinklers shall 
be installed in accordance with Table 12.3.2.1.4. 

12.3.2.4.1.4 In-rack sprinklers at one level only for storage up 
to and including 25 ft (7.6 m) high shall be located at the first 
tier level at or above one-half of the storage height. 

12.3.2.4.1.5 In-rack sprinklers at two levels only for storage up 
to and including 25 ft (7.6 m) high shall be located at the first tier 
level at or above one-third and two-thirds of the storage height. 

12.3.2.4.2 In-Rack Sprinkler Spacing for Rack Storage of 
Class I through Class IV Commodities Stored Up to and In- 
cluding 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height. 

12.3.2.4.2.1* Maximum horizontal spacing of in-rack sprin- 
klers in single- or double-row racks with nonencapsulated stor- 
age up to and including 25 ft (7.6 m) in height shall be in 
accordance with Table 12.3.2.4.2.1. For encapsulated storage, 
maximum horizontal spacing shall be 8 ft (2.44 m). 

12.3.2.4.2.2* Maximum horizontal spacing of in-rack sprin- 
klers on branch lines, in multiple-row racks with encapsulated 
or nonencapsulated storage up to and including 25 ft (7.6 m) 
in height, shall not exceed 12 ft (3.7 m) for Class I, II, or III 
commodities and 8 ft (2.4 m) for Class IV commodities, with 
area limitations of 100 ft 2 (9.3 m 2 ) per sprinkler for Class I, II, 
or III commodities and 80 ft 2 (7.4 m 2 ) per sprinkler for Class 
IV commodities. The rack plan view shall be considered in 



Table 12.3.2.4.2.1 In-Rack Sprinkler Spacing for Class I, II, 
III, and IV Commodities Stored up to 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height 







Commodity Class 




Aisle Widths 


I and II 


III 


IV 


ft m 


ft m 


ft m 


ft m 


8 2.4 
4 1.2 


12 3.7 
12 3.7 


12 3.7 
8 2.4 


8 2.4 
8 2.4 



determining the area covered by each sprinkler. The aisles 
shall not be included in area calculations. 

12.3.2.4.2.3* The elevation of in-rack sprinkler deflectors with 
respect to storage shall not be a consideration in single- or 
double-row rack storage up to and including 20 ft (6.1 m) 
high. (See Section C.16.) 

12.3.2.4.2.4* In single- or double-row racks without solid 
shelves with storage over 20 ft (6.1 m) high, or in multiple-row 
racks, or in single- or double-row racks with solid shelves and 
storage height up to and including 25 ft (7.6 m), a minimum 
of 6-in. (152.4-mm) vertical clear space shall be maintained 
between the in-rack sprinkler deflectors and the top of a tier of 
storage. Sprinkler discharge shall not be obstructed by hori- 
zontal rack members. 

12.3.2.4.2.5 For multiple-row racks, a minimum of 6 in. 
(152.4 mm) shall be maintained between the in-rack sprinkler 
deflector and the top of a tier of storage. 

12.3.2.4.2.6 Sprinklers installed in racks shall be spaced with- 
out regard to rack uprights. (See Section C.17.) 

12.3.2.4.3 In-Rack Sprinkler Water Demand for Rack Storage 
of Class I through Class IV Commodities Stored Up to and 
Including 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height. (See Section C.18.) 

12.3.2.4.3.1 The water demand for sprinklers installed in 
racks shall be based on simultaneous operation of the most 
hydraulically remote sprinklers as follows: 

(1) Six sprinklers where only one level is installed in racks 
with Class I, Class II, or Class III commodities 

(2) Eight sprinklers where only one level is installed in racks 
with Class IV commodities 

(3) Ten sprinklers (five on each two top levels) where more 
than one level is installed in racks with Class I, Class II, or 
Class III commodities 

(4) Fourteen sprinklers (seven on each two top levels) where 
more than one level is installed in racks with Class IV 
commodities 

12.3.2.4.3.2 Where a storage rack, due to its length, re- 
quires less than the number of in-rack sprinklers specified 
in 12.3.2.4.3.1(1) through 12.3.2.4.3.1(4), only those in- 
rack sprinklers in a single rack need to be included in the 
calculation. 

12.3.2.4.4 In-Rack Sprinkler Discharge Pressure for Rack 
Storage of Class I through Class IV Commodities Stored Up to 
and Including 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height. Sprinklers in racks shall 
discharge at not less than 15 psi (1 bar) for all classes of com- 
modities. (See Section C.19.) 



2002 Edition 



STORAGE 



13-131 



12.3.2.5 Special Design for Rack Storage of Class I through 
Class IV Commodities Stored Up to and Including 25 ft 
(7.6 m) in Height. 

12.3.2.5.1 Slatted Shelves. 

12.3.2.5.1.1* Slatted shelves shall be considered equivalent to 
solid shelves where the requirements of 12.3.2.5.1 are not met. 

(See Section C.20.) 

12.3.2.5.1.2 A wet pipe system that is designed to provide a 
minimum of 0.6 gpm/ft 2 (24.5 mm/min) density over a mini- 
mum area of 2000 ft 2 (186 m 2 ) or K-14.0 ESFR sprinklers op- 
erating at a minimum of 50 psi (3.5 bar), K-16.8 sprinklers 
operating at a minimum of 32 psi (1.7 bar), or K-25.2 ESFR 
sprinklers operating at a minimum of 15 psi shall be permitted 
to protect single-row and double-row slatted-shelf racks where 
all of the following conditions are met: 

(1) Sprinklers shall be K-11.2, K-14.0, or K-16.8 orifice spray 
sprinklers with a temperature rating of ordinary, inter- 
mediate, or high and shall be listed for storage occupan- 
cies or shall be K-14.0 , K-16.8, or K-25.2 ESFR. 

(2) The protected commodities shall be limited to Class I-IV, 
Group B plastics, Group C plastics, cartoned (expanded 
and unexpanded) Group A plastics, and exposed (unex- 
panded) Group A plastics. 

(3) Shelves shall be slatted using a minimum nominal 2-in. 
(51-mm) thick by maximum nominal 6-in. (152-mm) 
wide slat held in place by spacers that maintain a mini- 
mum 2-in. (51-mm) opening between each slat. 

(4) Where K-11.2, K-14.0, or K-16.8 orifice sprinklers are used, 
there shall be no slatted shelf levels in the rack above 12 ft 
(3.7 m). Wire mesh (greater than 50 percent opening) 
shall be permitted for shelf levels above 12 ft (3.7 m). 

(5) Transverse flue spaces at least 3 in. (76 mm) wide shall 
be provided at least every 10 ft (3.1 m) horizontally. 

(6) Longitudinal flue spaces at least 6 in. (152 mm) wide shall 
be provided for double-row racks. Longitudinal flue spaces 
shall not be required where ESFR sprinklers are used. 

(7) The aisle widths shall be at least 7 J /2 ft (2.3 m). 

(8) The maximum roof height shall be 27 ft (8.2 m) or 30 ft 
where ESFR sprinklers are used. 

(9) The maximum storage height shall be 20 ft (6.1 m). 
(10) Solid plywood or similar materials shall not be placed on 

the slatted shelves so that they block the 2-in. (51-mm) 
spaces between slats, nor shall they be placed on the wire 
mesh shelves. 

12.3.2.5.2 High-Expansion Foam Ceiling Sprinkler Density. 

Where high-expansion foam systems are used in combination 
with ceiling sprinklers, the minimum ceiling sprinkler design 
density shall be 0.2 gpm/ft 2 (8.2 mm/min) for Class I, Class II, 
or Class III commodities or 0.25 gpm/ft 2 (10.2 mm/min) for 
Class TV commodities for the most hydraulically remote 
2000-ft 2 (186-m 2 ) operating area. 

12.3.2.5.2.1 Where high-expansion foam systems are used in 
combination with ceiling sprinklers, the maximum submer- 
gence time shall be 7 minutes for Class I, Class II, or Class III 
commodities and 5 minutes for Class IV commodities. 

12.3.2.5.2.2* Where high-expansion foam systems are used 
without sprinklers, the maximum submergence time shall be 5 
minutes for Class I, Class II, or Class III commodities and 4 
minutes for Class IV commodities. 



12.3.3 Protection Criteria for Rack Storage of Plastics Com- 
modities Stored Up to and Including 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height. 

12.3.3.1 Control Mode Density-Area Sprinkler Protection Cri- 
teria for Single-, Double-, and Multiple-Row Racks for Plastics 
Commodities Stored Up to and Including 25 ft (7.6 m) in 
Height, with Clearances Up to and Including 10 ft (3.1 m). 

12.3.3.1.1 Plastic commodities shall be protected in accor- 
dance with Figure 12.3.3.1.1. This decision tree also shall be 
used to determine protection for commodities that are not 
entirely Group A plastics but contain such quantities and ar- 
rangements of Group A plastics that they are deemed more 
hazardous than Class IV commodities. The design criteria of 
12.3.3.1 for single- and double-row rack storage of plastic com- 
modities shall be applicable where aisles are 3.5 ft or greater in 
width. Storage with aisles less than 3.5 ft shall be protected as 
multiple-row rack storage. (See Section C.21.) 

Plastics 



Group A 



Group B 
Class IV 



Group C 
Class III 



Cartoned, expanded or 
unexpanded, and 
exposed, unexpanded 



Exposed, expanded 
(outside the scope 
of 12.3.3) 



Stable 
(see 12.3.3) 



Free-flowing 
Class IV 



FIGURE 12.3.3.1.1 Decision Tree. 



12.3.3.1.2* For the storage of Group A plastics stored 5 ft 
(1.5 m) or less in height, the sprinkler design criteria for 
miscellaneous storage specified in 12.1.10 shall be used. 

12.3.3.1.3 Group B plastics and free-flowing Group A plastics 
shall be protected the same as Class IV commodities. 

12.3.3.1.4 Group C plastics shall be protected the same as 
Class III commodities. 

12.3.3.1.5 Ceiling Sprinkler Water Demand. For Group A plas- 
tic commodities in cartons, encapsulated or nonencapsulated in 
single-, double-, and multiple-row racks, ceiling sprinkler water 
demand in terms of density [gpm/ft 2 (mm/min)] and area of 
operation [ft 2 (m 2 )] shall be selected from Figure 12.3.3.1.5(a) 
through Figure 12.3.3.1.5(f). Linear interpolation of design den- 
sities and areas of application shall be permitted between storage 
heights with the same clearances. No interpolation between 
clearances shall be permitted. (See Section C.22.) 

12.3.3.1.6 Single-, Double-, and Multiple-Row Racks Up to 
10-ft (3.1-m) Storage with Up to 10-ft (3.1-m) Clearance. The 

protection strategies utilizing only ceiling sprinklers, as shown 
in Figure 12.3.3.1.5(a), shall be acceptable for single-, double-, 
and multiple-row rack storage. 

12.3.3.1.7 Single- and Double-Row Rack Storage Greater than 
10 ft (3.1 m) Up to 15 ft (4.6 m) with Less than 5-ft (1.25-m) 
Clearance. The protection strategy utilizing only ceiling sprin- 
klers, as shown in Figure 12.3.3.1.5(b), shall be acceptable 
only for single- and double-row rack storage. 



2002 Edition 



13-132 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Single-, double-, and multiple-row racks 
0.30 gpm / ft 2 per 2000 ft 2 
(12.2 mm/min per 186 m 2 ) 

< 5-fl (1 .5-m) ceiling clearance 



□ DD 

□ DD 
D.DD. 

□ ?□□? 
D E DD E 

□:□□: 



Single-, double-, and multiple-row racks 
0.45 gpm / ft 2 per 2000 ft 2 
(18.3 mm/min per 186 m 2 ) 



l_ 








Q 








Q 








Q 








Q 








I I I I 


Plan View 


[2 








r~ 







* — ■— * — <—t — ■ — * 



5-ft to 


10-ft(1.5-mto3.1 

DD I 
DD I 

,DD.I 
•DDH 

nn E i 

C3C3 1 
'□□?l 

innsi 


-m) ceiling clearance 


u 






D 






D, 




A 


Df 




1 ( 1 1 1 1 

S 
L 


D b 




E | 1 1 1 


m 


,1,1, 


1,1,1,1,1 




Plan View 




u: 




A 
1 


□ i 




L 

E 



Elevation View 



Elevation View 



Note: Each square represents a storage cube measuring 4 ft to 5 ft (1 .22 m to 1 .53 m) on a side. Actual load heights can vary 
from approximately 18 in. (0.46 m) up to 10 ft (3.05 m). Therefore, there could be as few as one load or as many as six or 
seven loads between in-rack sprinklers that are spaced 1 ft (3.05 m) apart vertically. 

FIGURE 12.3.3.1.5(a) 5-ft to 10-ft (1.5-m to 3-m) Storage. 



Single- and double-row racks 
0.60 gpm / ft 2 per 2000 ft 2 
(24.5 mm/min per 186 m 2 ) 

5 ft to 10 ft (1.5 m to 3.1 m) 
ceiling clearance 
See 12.3.3.1.8, 12.3.3.1.10, and 
Note 2 



□ DD 

□ DD 

□ .□□ 

□ !□□ 

D E DD 

□ cutzi 

Plan View 

D.DD 
DfOD 
D E DD 



Single-, double-, and multiple-row racks 
0.30 gpm / ft 2 per 2000 ft 2 
(12.2 mm/min per 186 m 2 ) 

5 ft to 10 ft (1.5 m to 3.1 m) 
ceiling clearance 
See Note 1 




ft (2.44 m) maximum between sprinklers 







< ■ >l 










U l 


r u 











" u 






Plan View 



□ *□.□* 

Dfdtli 
LTDlT 



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U I 


1 (J 











Elevation View Elevation View 

Notes: 

1. Single level of in-rack sprinklers [Vz in. or 17 /32 in. (12.7 mm or 13.5 mm) operating at 15 psi (1.03 bar) minimum] 
installed as indicated in the transverse flue spaces. 

2. Where sprinklers listed for storage use are installed at the ceiling only and the ceiling height in the protected area 
does not exceed 22 ft (6.7 m) and a minimum clearance of 7 ft (2.13 m), the ceiling sprinkler discharge criteria 
shall be permitted to be reduced to 0.45 gpm/ft 2 per 2000 ft 2 (18.3 mm/min per 186 m 2 ). 

3. Each square represents a storage cube measuring 4 ft to 5 ft (1 .22 m to 1 .53 m) on a side. Actual load 
heights can vary from approximately 18 in. (0.46 m) up to 10 ft (3.05 m). Therefore, there could be as few as one 
load or as many as six or seven loads between in-rack sprinklers that are spaced 10 ft (3.05 m) apart vertically. 

FIGURE 12.3.3.1.5(b) 15-ft (4.6-m) Storage; Up to 10-ft (1.5-m to 3.1-m) Ceiling Clearance. 



2002 Edition 



STORAGE 



13-133 



Single- and double-row racks 
0.60 gpm / ft 2 per 2000 ft 2 
(24.5 mm/min per 186 m 2 ) 

5 ft (1 .5 m) ceiling clearance 
See 12.3.3.1.8, 12.3.3.1.10 



□ DD 

□ DD 

D.DD 

□ ?□□ 

D E DD 
en ocn 

Plan View 

□ DD 
D.DD 

□ ?□□ 
D E DD 



Single-, double-, and multiple-row racks 
0.45 gpm / ft 2 per 2000 ft 2 
(18.3 mm/min per 186 m 2 ) 

5 ft (1 .5 m) ceiling clearance 
See Note 1 



Single-, double-, and multiple-row racks 
0.30 gpm / ft 2 per 2000 ft 2 
(12.2 mm/min per 186 m 2 ) 

5 ft (1 .5 m) ceiling clearance 
See Note 2 



8 ft (2.44 m) maximum between sprinklers 



8 ft (2.44 m) maximum between sprinklers 




' ' o ' ' ' u ' ' u ' u ' a tr 




o 11 a DO ~TT 

□en r i J j u , i , i , i 



Plan View 



Plan View 



D DD 
Dsdtlf 

n E nn E 



u » 























ij u 





















n.nn* 

DfODf 

n E nn E 



Elevation View 



Elevation View 



Elevation View 

Notes: 

1 . Single level of in-rack sprinklers [Vfe in. or 1 %2 in. (12.7 mm or 13.5 mm) operating at 15 psi (1 .03 bar) minimum] installed as indicated in the transverse 
flue spaces. 

2. Single level of in-rack sprinklers [ 1 %2 in. (1 3.5 mm) operating at 1 5 psi (1 .03 bar) minimum or Vfe in. (12.7 mm) operating at 30 psi (2.07 bar) minimum] 
installed on 4 ft to 5 ft (1 .25 m to 1 .56 m) spacings located, as indicated, in the longitudinal flue space at the intersection of every transverse flue space. 

3. Each square represents a storage cube measuring 4 ft to 5 ft (1.22 m to 1.53 m) on a side. Actual load heights can vary from approximately 

18 in. (0.46 m) up to 10 ft (3.05 m). Therefore, there could be as few as one load or as many as six or seven loads between in-rack sprinklers that are 
spaced 1 ft (3.05 m) apart vertically. 

FIGURE 12.3.3.1.5(c) 20-ft (6.1-m) Storage; <5-ft (1.5-m) Ceiling Clearance. 



2002 Edition 



13-134 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



0.45 gpm / ft 2 per 2000 ft 2 
(18.3 mm/min per 186 m 2 ) 

5 ft to 10 ft (1.5 m to 3.1 m) ceiling clearance 
See Notes 1 and 5 

8 ft (2.44 m) maximum between sprinklers 

| < ' > | I * ' > l 



DD 

i □ D i 
E QD E 



r~ 






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A 












u u u 


S 

L 











' ' u ■* ' u ' n ' IT 



Plan View 



DD 

rdtlf 
E DD E 



u u 



A 












U I 




S 
L 











Elevation View 

0.30 gpm / ft 2 per 2000 ft 2 
(12.2 mm/min per 186 m 2 ) 

5 ft to 10 ft (1.5 m to 3.1 m) ceiling clearance 
See Notes 2 and 3 

8 ft (2.44 m) maximum between sprinklers 



OP r 

DDfL 

E ntr 



'U ' 'u ' u u' 

i" l i j i ' l i J ;i 



Plan View 



UP 

fddr 
n E nn E 



* 













I u 












' > 











0.30 gpm / ft 2 per 2000 ft 2 
(12.2 mm/min per 186 m 2 ) 



5 ft to 1 ft (1 .5 m to 3. 1 m) ceiling clearance 
See Notes 2 and 3 



8 ft (2.44 m) maximum between sprinklers 




Plan View 




u u 











U L> 


u 














* v 



Elevation View 



0.30 gpm / ft 2 per 2000 ft 2 
(12.2 mm/min per 186 m 2 ) 



5 ft to 10 ft (1.5 m to 3.1 m) ceiling clearance 
See Notes 2 and 4 



8 ft (2.44 m) maximum between sprinklers 




an 
an. 

□ !□□? 

d e dd e 






l ,' 






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1 


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V ' 


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Plan View 


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, 




















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Elevation View Elevation View 

Notes: 

1 . Single level of in-rack sprinklers [V2 in. or 1 %2 in. (12.7 mm or 13.5 mm) operating at 15 psi (1 .03 bar) minimum] installed as indicated 
in the transverse flue spaces. 

2. Ceiling-only protection shall not be permitted for this storage configuration. 

3. Two levels of in-rack sprinklers [1/2 in. or 1 %2 in. (12.7 mm or 13.5 mm) operating at 15 psi (1 .03 bar) minimum] installed as indicated 
and staggered in the transverse flue space. 

4. Single level of in-rack sprinklers [ 1 %2 in. (13.5 mm) operating at 15 psi (1.03 bar) minimum or V2 in. (12.7 mm) operating at 30 psi 
(2.07 bar) minimum] installed on 4 ft to 5 ft (1 .25 m to 1 .56 m) spacings located, as indicated, in the longitudinal flue space at the 
intersection of every transverse flue space. 

5. Where K-1 1 .2, K-14, K-16.8 spray sprinklers listed for storage use are installed at the ceiling, the in-rack sprinklers shall not be 
required, provided the ceiling sprinkler discharge criteria is increased to 0.6 gpm/ft 2 [24 (L/min)/m 2 ] over 2000 ft 2 (186 m 2 ) and the 
ceiling height in the protected area does not exceed 27 ft (8.2 m). 

6. Each square represents a storage cube measuring 4 ft to 5 ft (1 .22 m to 1 .53 m) on a side. Actual load heights can vary from 
approximately 1 8 in. (0.46 m) up to 1 ft (3.05 m). Therefore, there could be as few as one load or as many as six or seven loads 
between in-rack sprinklers that are spaced 10 ft (3.05 m) apart vertically. 

FIGURE 12.3.3.1.5(d) 20-ft (6.1-m) Storage; 5-ft to 10-ft (1.5-m to 3.1-m) Ceiling Clearance. 



2002 Edition 



STORAGE 



13-135 



0.45 gpm/ft 2 per 2000 ft 2 
(18.3 mm/min per 186 m 2 ) 

<5 ft (1 .5 m) ceiling clearance 
See Notes 1 , 2, and 4 



0.30 gpm/ft 2 per 2000 ft 2 
(12.2 mm/min per 186 m 2 ) 

<5 ft (1 .5 m) ceiling clearance 
See Notes 2, 3, and 4 



8 ft (2.44 m) maximum between sprinklers 



8 ft (2.44 m) maximum between sprinklers 




Plan View 



□ □ 

an 

DfDD? 

n E nn E 









* ■ >l 














J2. 


I I Cl 
















J <- 


A 












Q 


I) u 


s 

L 














J (- 














Q 


I) u 






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A 
















S 
I 


























Plan View 




« 









l< ' >l 














U 1 


1 u 


















A 












U i 


f u 


S 
L 






























U u tJ 


















H ' 




















A 














( i 




S 

1 

























Elevation View Elevation View 

Notes: 

1 . Single level of in-rack sprinklers [Wsz in. (13.5 mm) operating at 15 psi (1 .03 bar) minimum or Vi in. (12.7 mm) operating at 30 psi 
(2.07 bar) minimum] installed on 4 ft to 5 ft (1 .25 m to 1 .56 m) spacings located, as indicated, in the longitudinal flue space at the 
intersection of every transverse flue space. 

2. Ceiling-only protection shall not be permitted for this storage configuration. 

3. Two levels of in-rack sprinklers [V2 in. or 1 %2 in. (12.7 mm or 13.5 mm) operating at 15 psi (1.03 bar) minimum] installed as indicated 
and staggered in the transverse flue space. 

4. Where K-16.8 spray sprinklers listed for storage use are installed at the ceiling, the in-rack sprinklers shall not be required, provided 
the ceiling sprinklers criteria is increased to 0.8 gpm/ft 2 over 2000 ft 2 (32.6 mm/min over 186 m 2 ) for wet systems and 4500 ft 2 
(419 m2) for dry systems and the ceiling height in the protected area does not exceed 30 ft (9.1 m). 

5. Each square represents a storage cube measuring 4 ft to 5 ft (1 .22 m to 1 .53 m) on a side. Actual load heights can vary from 
approximately 18 in. (0.46 m) up to 10 ft (3.05 m). Therefore, there could be as few as one load or as many as six or seven loads 
between in-rack sprinklers that are spaced 10 ft (3.05 m) apart vertically. 



FIGURE 12.3.3.1.5(e) 25-ft (7.6-m) Storage; <5-ft (1.5-m) Ceiling Clearance. (See Note 2.) 



2002 Edition 



13-136 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



0.30 gpm/ft 2 per 2000 ft 2 
(12.2 mm/minper 186m2) 



5 ft to 10 ft (1.5 m to 3.1 m) ceiling clearance 
See Notes 1 , 2, and 3 



8 ft (2.44 m) maximum between sprinklers 






















5 



Plan View 



'u I 








3 












< I 






















V i 


I u 
















( ) 




A 












U u u 


S 

L 






























U u u 


















' 


r ° 




















A 














< ) 




S 
L 










E 













Elevation View 

Notes: 

1. Two levels of in-rack sprinklers [Vz in. or 1 %2 in. (12.7 mm or 13.5 mm) 
operating at 15 psi (1.03 bar) minimum] installed on 8 ft to 10 ft 

(2.5 m to 3.12 m) spacings located as indicated and staggered in the 
transverse flue space. 

2. Ceiling-only protection shall not be permitted for this storage 
configuration. 

3. Where K-16.8 spray sprinklers listed for storage use are installed at the 
ceiling, the in-rack sprinklers shall not be required, provided the ceiling 
sprinklers criteria is increased to 0.8 gpm/ft 2 over 2000 ft 2 (32.6 mm/min 
over 186 m 2 ) for wet systems and 4500 ft 2 (419 m 2 ) for dry systems and 
the ceiling height in the protected area does not exceed 30 ft (9.1 m). 

4. Each square represents a storage cube measuring 4 ft to 5 ft (1 .22 m 
to 1 .53 m) on a side. Actual load heights can vary from approximately 
18 in. (0.46 m) up to 10 ft (3.05 m). Therefore, there could be as few as 
one load or as many as six or seven loads between in-rack sprinklers 
that are spaced 10 ft (3.05 m) apart vertically. 

FIGURE 12.3.3.1.5(f) 25-ft (7.6-m) Storage; 5-ft to 10-ft 
(1.5-m to 3.1-m) Ceiling Clearance. (See Note 2.) 



1 2.3.3. 1 .8 Single- and Double-Row Rack Storage Greater than 
10 ft (3.1 m) Up to 15 ft (4.6 m) with Clearance from 5 ft to 
10 ft (1.5 m to 3.1 m), and Single- and Double-Row Rack Stor- 
age Up to 20 ft (6.1 m) with Less than 5-ft (1.5-m) Clearance. 

The protection strategies utilizing only ceiling sprinklers, as 
shown in Figure 12.3.3.1.5(c) and Figure 12.3.3.1.5(d), shall 
be acceptable only for single- and double-row rack storage. 

12.3.3.1.9 Multiple-Row Racks — 15-ft (4.6-m) Storage with 
Less than 5-ft (1.5-m) Clearance. Where using the protection 
strategy utilizing only ceiling sprinklers, as shown in Figure 
12.3.3.1.5(b), for multiple-row rack storage, the density to be 
used shall be 0.6 gpm/ft 2 (24.5 mm/min) over 2000 ft 2 (186 m 2 ). 
The combination of ceiling and in-rack sprinklers specified in 
Figure 12.3.3.1.5(b) shall be permitted as an alternative. 

12.3.3.1.10 Multiple-Row Racks — 15-ft (4.6-m) Storage with 
10-ft (3.1-m) Clearance, and 20-ft (6.1-m) Storage with Less 
than 5-ft (1.5-m) Clearance. The protection strategies utilizing 
only ceiling sprinklers, as shown in Figure 12.3.3.1.5(c) and 
Figure 12.3.3.1.5(d), shall not be permitted for multiple-row 
rack storage. Only the specified combinations of ceiling and 
in-rack sprinklers shall be used. 

12.3.3.1.11* The minimum water supply requirements for a hy- 
draulically designed occupancy hazard fire control sprinkler sys- 
tem shall be determined by adding the hose stream demand 
from Table 12.3.3.1.11 to the water supply for sprinklers deter- 
mined in 12.3.3.1. This supply shall be available for the minimum 
duration specified in Table 12.3.3.1.11. (See Section C.8.) 

12.3.3.1.11.1 An allowance for inside and outside hose shall 
not be required where tanks supply sprinklers only. 

12.3.3.1.11.2 Where pumps taking suction from a private 
fire service main supply sprinklers only, the pump need not 
be sized to accommodate inside and outside hose. Such 
hose allowance shall be considered in evaluating the avail- 
able water supplies. 

12.3.3.2 Large Drop Sprinklers and Specific Application Con- 
trol Mode Sprinklers for Rack Storage of Plastics Commodi- 
ties Stored Up to and Including 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height. 

12.3.3.2.1 Protection of single-, double-, and multiple-row 
rack storage without solid shelves for unexpanded plastic com- 
modities shall be in accordance with Table 12.3.3.2.1(a) and 
Table 12.3.3.2.1(b). 

12.3.3.2.2 Where in-rack sprinklers are required by Table 
12.3.3.2.1(a) and Table 12.3.3.2.1(b), in-rack sprinkler spac- 
ing, design pressure, and hydraulic calculation criteria shall 
be in accordance with the requirements of 12.3.2.4 as appli- 
cable for the commodity. 

12.3.3.2.3 Protection shall be provided as specified in Table 
12.3.3.2.1(a) and Table 12.3.3.2.1(b) or appropriate NFPA 
standards in terms of minimum operating pressure and the 
number of sprinklers to be included in the design area. 



Table 12.3.3.1.11 Hose Stream Demand and Water Supply Duration Requirements for Rack 
Storage of Plastics Commodities Stored Up to and Including 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height 





Storage Height 


Inside Hose 


Total Combined Inside 
and Outside Hose 


Duration 
(minutes) 


Classification 


ft 


m 


gpm 


L/min 


gpm 


L/min 


Plastic 


>5 up to 20 
>20 up to 25 


>1.5 up to 6.1 
>6.1 up to 7.6 


0, 50, or 100 
0, 50, or 100 


0, 190, or 380 
0, 190, or 380 


500 
500 


1900 
1900 


120 
150 



2002 Edition 



STORAGE 



13-137 



Table 12.3.3.2.1(a) Large Drop Sprinkler Design Criteria for Single-, Double-, and 
Multiple-Row Racks without Solid Shelves of Plastics Commodities Stored Up to 
and Including 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height 



Commodity 
Class 


Nominal 
K-Factor 


Maximum 
Storage 
Height 


Maximum 

Ceiling/ 

Roof Height 


Type of 
System 


Number of Design 

Sprinklers/Minimum 

Pressure 


Hose Stream 
Demand 


Water Supply 

Duration 

(hours) 


ft 


m 


ft 


m 


/psi 


/bar 


gpm 


L/min 


Cartoned or 
exposed 


11.2 


20 


6.1 


25 


7.6 


Wet 


15/50 


15/3.4 


500 


1900 


2 


unexpanded 
plastics 


Dry 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 




11.2 


20 


6.1 


30 


9.1 


Wet 


30/50 


30/3.4 


500 


1900 


2 


Cartoned or 
exposed 


Dry 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


unexpanded 
plastics 


Wet 


20/75 


20/5.2 


500 


1900 


2 




Dry 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


Cartoned or 
exposed 
unexpanded 


11.2 


25 


7.6 


30 


9.1 


Wet 


15/50 + 1 
level of 
in-rack 


15/3.4 + 

1 level of 

in-rack 


500 


1900 


2 


plastics 


Dry 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 




11.2 


25 


7.6 


35 


10.7 


Wet 


30/50 + 1 
level of 
in-rack 


30/3.4 + 

1 level of 

in-rack 


500 


1900 


2 


Cartoned or 
exposed 


Dry 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


unexpanded 
plastics 


Wet 


20/75 + 1 
level of 
in-rack 


20/5.2 + 

1 level of 

in-rack 


500 


1900 


2 




Dry 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 



Table 12.3.3.2.1(b) Specific Application Control Mode (16.8 K-factor) Sprinkler Design 
Criteria for Single-, Double-, and Multiple-Row Racks without Solid Shelves of Plastics 
Commodities Stored Up to and Including 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height 





Maximum 
Storage Height 


Maximum 
Building Height 


Type of 
System 


Number of Design 

Sprinklers by Minimum 

Operating Pressure 


Hose Stream 
Demand 


Water 

Supply 

Duration 

(hours) 


Commodity 
Class 


ft 


m 


ft 


m 


10 psi 
(0.7 bar) 


22 psi 
(1.5 bar) 


gpm 


L/min 


Cartoned or 
exposed 
unexpanded 
plastics 


25 


7.6 


30 


9.1 


Wet 




15 


500 


1900 


2 



2002 Edition 



13-138 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



12.3.3.2.3.1 For design purposes, 95 psi (6.6 bar) shall be the 
maximum discharge pressure at the hydraulically most remote 
sprinkler. 

12.3.3.2.3.2 Open Wood Joist Construction. 

(A) Where large drop K-11.2 sprinklers are installed under 
open wood joist construction, their minimum operating pres- 
sure shall be 50 psi (3.4 bar). 

(B) Where each joist channel of open, wood joist construc- 
tion is fully fire-stopped to its full depth at intervals not ex- 
ceeding 20 ft (6.1 m), the lower pressures specified in Table 
12.3.3.2.1(a) shall be permitted to be used. 

12.3.3.2.3.3 The design area shall be a rectangular area hav- 
ing a dimension parallel to the branch lines at least 1.2 times 
the square root of the area protected by the number of sprin- 
klers to be included in the design area. Any fractional sprin- 
kler shall be included in the design area. 

12.3.3.2.3.4 Hose stream demand and water supply duration 
requirements shall be in accordance with those for extra hazard 
occupancies in Table 12.3.3.2.1(a) and Table 12.3.3.2.1(b). 

12.3.3.2.3.5 Preaction Systems. 

(A) For the purpose of using Table 12.3.3.2.1(a) and Table 
12.3.3.2.1(b), preaction systems shall be classified as dry pipe 
systems. 

(B) Where it can be demonstrated that the detection system 
activating the preaction system will cause water to be at the 
sprinklers when they operate, preaction systems shall be per- 
mitted to be treated as wet pipe systems. 

12.3.3.2.3.6 The nominal diameter of branch line pipes (in- 
cluding riser nipples) shall meet the following: 

(1) Pipe diameter shall not be not less than 1V4 in. (33 mm) 
nor greater than 2 in. (51 mm). 

(2) Starter pieces shall be permitted to be 2V£ in. (64 mm). 

(3) Where branch lines are larger than 2 in. (51 mm), the 
sprinkler shall be supplied by a riser nipple to elevate the 
sprinkler 13 in. (330 mm) for 2 1 /2-in. (64-mm) pipe and 
15 in. (380 mm) for 3-in. (76-mm) pipe. These dimen- 
sions are measured from the centerline of the pipe to the 
deflector. In lieu of this, sprinklers shall be permitted to 
be offset horizontally a minimum of 12 in. (305 mm). 

12.3.3.2.3.7 Building steel shall not require special protec- 
tion where Table 12.3.3.2.1(a) and Table 12.3.3.2.1(b) is ap- 
plied as appropriate for the storage configuration. 

12.3.3.3* Early Suppression Fast-Response (ESFR) Sprinklers 
for Rack Storage of Plastics Commodities Stored Up to and 
Including 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height. 

12.3.3.3.1 Protection of single-, double-, and multiple-row 
rack storage of cartoned or uncartoned unexpanded plastic 
and cartoned expanded plastic shall be in accordance with 
Table 12.3.3.3.1. 

12.3.3.3.1.1 ESFR protection as defined shall not apply to the 
following: 

(1) Rack storage involving solid shelves 

(2) Rack storage involving combustible, open-top cartons or 
containers 

12.3.3.3.2 ESFR sprinkler systems shall be designed such that 
the minimum operating pressure is not less than that indi- 



cated in Table 12.3.3.3.1 for type of storage, commodity, stor- 
age height, and building height involved. 

12.3.3.3.3 The design area shall consist of the most hydrauli- 
cally demanding area of 12 sprinklers, consisting of four sprin- 
klers on each of three branch lines. The design shall include a 
minimum of 960 ft 2 (89 m 2 ). 

12.3.3.3.4 Where ESFR sprinklers are installed above and be- 
low obstructions, the discharge for up to two sprinklers for 
one of the levels shall be included with those of the other level 
in the hydraulic calculations. 

12.3.3.4 In-Rack Sprinklers for Rack Storage of Plastics Com- 
modities Stored Up to and Including 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height. 

12.3.3.4.1 In-Rack Sprinkler Location for Rack Storage of 
Plastics Commodities Stored Up to and Including 25 ft (7.6 m) 
in Height. In-rack sprinklers shall be installed in accordance 
with Figure 12.3.3.1.5(a) through Figure 12.3.3.1.5(f). 

12.3.3.4.2 In-Rack Sprinkler Spacing for Rack Storage of 
Plastics Commodities Stored Up to and Including 25 ft (7.6 m) 
in Height. 

12.3.3.4.2.1 In-Rack Sprinkler Clearance. The minimum of 
6-in. (152.4-mm) vertical clear space shall be maintained be- 
tween the sprinkler deflectors and the top of a tier of storage. 

12.3.3.4.2.2 The spacing of in-rack sprinklers shall be in ac- 
cordance with Figure 12.3.3.1.5(a) and Figure 12.3.3.1.5(f). 

12.3.3.4.3 In-Rack Sprinkler Water Demand for Rack Stor- 
age of Plastics Commodities Stored Up to and Including 

25 ft (7.6 m) in Height. The water demand for sprinklers 
installed in racks shall be based on simultaneous operation of 
the most hydraulically remote sprinklers as follows: 

(1) Eight sprinklers where only one level is installed in racks 

(2) Fourteen sprinklers (seven on each top two levels) where 
more than one level is installed in racks 

12.3.3.4.4 In-Rack Sprinkler Discharge Pressure for Rack 
Storage of Plastics Commodities Stored Up to and Including 

25 ft (7.6 m) in Height. Sprinklers in racks shall discharge at 
not less than 15 psi (1 bar) for all classes of commodities. (See 
Section C.19.) 

12.3.3.5 Special Design for Rack Storage of Plastics Com- 
modities Stored Up to and Including 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height. 

12.3.3.5.1 Slatted Shelves. 

12.3.3.5.1.1* Slatted shelves shall be considered equivalent to 
solid shelves where the requirements of 12.3.3.5.1 are not met. 

(See Section C.20.) 

12.3.3.5.1.2 A wet pipe system that is designed to provide a 
minimum of 0.6 gpm/ft 2 (24.5 mm/min) density over a mini- 
mum area of 2000 ft 2 (186 m 2 ) or K-14.0 ESFR sprinklers op- 
erating at a minimum of 50 psi (3.5 bar), K-16.8 sprinklers 
operating at a minimum of 32 psi (1.7 bar), or K-25.2 ESFR 
sprinklers operating at a minimum of 15 psi shall be permitted 
to protect single-row and double-row slatted-shelf racks where 
all of the following conditions are met: 

(1) Sprinklers shall be K-11.2, K-14.0, or K-16.8 orifice spray 
sprinklers with a temperature rating of ordinary, interme- 
diate, or high and shall be listed for storage occupancies or 
shall be K-14.0, K-16.8, or K-25.2 ESFR. 



2002 Edition 



STORAGE 



13-139 



Table 12.3.3.3.1 ESFR Protection of Rack Storage without Solid Shelves of Plastics Commodities 
Stored Up to and Including 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height 



Storage 
Arrangement 



Commodity 



Maximum 
Storage 
Height 



ft 



Maximum 

Ceiling/ 

Roof Height 



ft 



Nominal 
K-Factor 



Orientation 



Minimum 
Operating 
Pressure 



psi 



bar 



In-Rack 

Sprinkler 

Requirements 



Hose Stream 
Demand 



gpm L/min 



Water 

Supply 

Duration 

(hours) 



20 



6.1 



Single-row, 
double-row 

and 

multiple-row 

rack (no 

open-top 

containers) 



Cartoned 
unexpanded 



25 



7.6 



11.2 



Upright 



50 



3.4 



14.0 



25 



7.6 



Upright or 
pendent 



50 



3.4 



16.8 



Pendent 



35 



2.4 



25.2 



Pendent 



15 



1.0 



14.0 



Upright or 
pendent 



50 



3.4 



30 



9.1 



16.8 



Pendent 



35 



2.4 



25.2 



Pendent 



15 



1.0 



14.0 



Upright or 
pendent 



75 



5.2 



35 



10.7 



16.8 



Pendent 



52 



3.6 



25.2 



Pendent 



20 



1.4 



14.0 



Pendent 



75 



5.2 



40 



12.2 



16.8 



Pendent 



52 



3.6 



25.2 



Pendent 



25 



1.7 



14.0 



Pendent 



90 



6.2 



45 



13.7 



16.8 



Pendent 



63 



4.3 



25.2 



Pendent 



40 



2.8 



14.0 



Upright or 
pendent 



50 



3.4 



30 



9.1 



16.8 



Pendent 



35 



2.4 



25.2 



Pendent 



15 



1.0 



14.0 



32 



9.8 



Upright or 
pendent 



60 



4.1 



16.8 



Pendent 



42 



2.9 



14.0 



Upright or 
pendent 



75 



5.2 



35 



10.7 



16.8 



Pendent 



52 



3.6 



25.2 



Pendent 



20 



1.4 



14.0 



Pendent 



75 



5.2 



40 



12.2 



16.8 



Pendent 



52 



3.6 



25.2 



Pendent 



25 



1.7 



14.0 



Pendent 



90 



6.2 



45 



13.7 



16.8 



Pendent 



63 



4.3 



25.2 



Pendent 



40 



2.8 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



Yes 



Yes 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



Yes 



Yes 



No 



250 



946 



2002 Edition 



13-140 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



12.3.3.3.1 Continued 



Storage 
Arrangement 



Commodity 



Maximum 
Storage 
Height 



ft 



Maximum 

Ceiling/ 

Roof Height 



ft 



Nominal 
K-Factor 



Orientation 



Minimum 
Operating 
Pressure 



psi 



bar 



In-Rack 

Sprinkler 

Requirements 



Hose Stream 
Demand 



gpm L/min 



Water 

Supply 

Duration 

(hours) 



Exposed 
unexpanded 



14.0 



Pendent 



50 



3.4 



25 



7.6 



16.8 



Pendent 



35 



2.4 



14.0 



Pendent 



50 



3.4 



30 



9.1 



16.8 



Pendent 



35 



2.4 



20 



6.1 



14.0 



Pendent 



75 



5.2 



35 



10.7 



16.8 



Pendent 



52 



3.6 



14.0 



Pendent 



75 



5.2 



40 



12.2 



16.8 



Pendent 



52 



3.6 



14.0 



Pendent 



90 



6.2 



45 



13.7 



16.8 



Pendent 



63 



4.3 



14 



Pendent 



50 



3.4 



30 



9.1 



16.8 



Pendent 



35 



2.4 



14.0 



Pendent 



60 



4.1 



Single-row, 
double-row 

and 

multiple-row 

rack (no 

open-top 

containers) 



32 



9.8 



16.8 



Pendent 



42 



2.9 



14.0 



25 



7.6 



35 



10.7 



Pendent 



75 



5.2 



16.8 



Pendent 



52 



3.6 



14.0 



Pendent 



75 



5.2 



40 



12.2 



16.8 



Pendent 



52 



3.6 



14.0 



Pendent 



90 



6.2 



45 



13.7 



16.8 



Pendent 



63 



4.3 



Cartoned 
expanded 



14.0 



25 



7.6 



Upright or 
pendent 



50 



3.4 



16.8 



Pendent 



35 



2.4 



20 



6.1 



14.0 



30 



9.1 



Upright or 
pendent 



50 



3.4 



16.8 



Pendent 



35 



2.4 



14.0 



30 



9.1 



Upright or 
pendent 



50 



3.4 



25 



7.6 



16.8 



Pendent 



35 



2.4 



14.0 



Pendent 



60 



4.1 



32 



9.8 



16.8 



Pendent 



42 



2.9 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



Yes 



Yes 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



Yes 



Yes 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



250 



946 



2002 Edition 



STORAGE 



13-141 



(2) The protected commodities shall be limited to Class LTV, 
Group B plastics, Group C plastics, cartoned (expanded 
and unexpanded) Group A plastics, and exposed (unex- 
panded) Group A plastics. 

(3) Shelves shall be slatted using a minimum nominal 2-in. 
(51-mm) thick by maximum nominal 6-in. (152-mm) 
wide slat held in place by spacers that maintain a mini- 
mum 2-in. (51-mm) opening between each slat. 

(4) Where K-11.2, K-14.0, or K-16.8 orifice sprinklers are used, 
there shall be no slatted shelf levels in the rack above 1 2 ft 
(3.7 m). Wire mesh (greater than 50 percent opening) 
shall be permitted for shelf levels above 12 ft (3.7 m). 

(5) Transverse flue spaces at least 3 in. (76 mm) wide shall 
be provided at least every 10 ft (3.1 m) horizontally. 

(6) Longitudinal flue spaces at least 6 in. (152 mm) wide 
shall be provided for double-row racks. Longitudinal 
flue spaces shall not be required when ESFR sprinklers 
are used. 

(7) The aisle widths shall be at least IV2 ft (2.3 m). 

(8) The maximum roof height shall be 27 ft (8.2 m) or 30 ft 
where ESFR sprinklers are used. 

(9) The maximum storage height shall be 20 ft (6.1 m). 
(10) Solid plywood or similar materials shall not be placed on 

the slatted shelves so that they block the 2-in. (51-mm) 
spaces between slats, nor shall they be placed on the wire 
mesh shelves. 

12.3.4 Protection Criteria for Rack Storage of Class I through 
Class IV Commodities Stored Over 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height. 

12.3.4.1 Control Mode Density-Area Sprinkler Protection Cri- 
teria for Rack Storage of Class I through Class IV Commodi- 
ties Stored Over 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height. 

12.3.4.1.1* For single- and double-row racks, the water de- 
mand for nonencapsulated storage without solid shelves sepa- 
rated by aisles at least 4 ft (1.2 m) wide and with not more than 

10 ft (3.1 m) between the top of storage and the sprinklers 
shall be based on sprinklers in a 2000-ft 2 (186-m 2 ) operating 
area, discharging a minimum of 0.25 gpm/ft 2 (10.2 mm/min) 
for Class I commodities, 0.3 gpm/ft 2 (12.2 mm/min) for Classes 

11 and III commodities, and 0.35 gpm/ft 2 (14.3 mm/min) for 
Class IV commodities for ordinary temperature-rated sprinklers 
or a minimum of 0.35 gpm/ft 2 (14.3 mm/min) for Class I com- 
modities, 0.4 gpm/ft 2 (16.3 mm/min) for Classes II and III 
commodities, and 0.45 gpm/ft 2 (18.3 mm/min) for Class IV 
commodities for high temperature-rated sprinklers. (See Table 

12.3.4. 1. 1 and Section C.23.) 

12.3.4.1.2 Where storage as described in 12.3.4.1.1 is encap- 
sulated, ceiling sprinkler density shall be 25 percent greater 
than for nonencapsulated storage. 

1 2.3.4. 1 .3 For multiple-row racks, the water demand for nonen- 
capsulated storage without solid shelves separated by aisles at 
least 4 ft (1.2 m) wide and with not more than 10 ft (3.1 m) 
between the top of storage and the sprinklers shall be based on 
sprinklers in a 2000-ft 2 (186-m 2 ) operating area for multiple-row 
racks, discharging a minimum of 0.25 gpm/ft 2 (10.2 mm/min) 
for Class I commodities, 0.3 gpm/ft 2 (12.2 mm/min) for Classes 
II and III commodities, and 0.35 gpm/ft 2 (14.3 mm/min) for 
Class IV commodities for ordinary temperature-rated sprinklers 
or a minimum of 0.35 gpm/ft 2 (14.3 mm/min) for Class I com- 
modities, 0.4 gpm/ft 2 (16.3 mm/min) for Classes II and III com- 
modities, and 0.45 gpm/ft 2 (18.3 mm/min) for Class IV com- 
modities for high temperature-rated sprinklers. (See Table 
12.3.4.1.3.) 



12.3.4.1.4 Where such storage is encapsulated, ceiling sprin- 
kler density shall be 25 percent greater than for nonencapsu- 
lated storage. 

12.3.4.1.5 The minimum water supply requirements for a 
hydraulically designed occupancy hazard fire control sprin- 
kler system shall be determined by adding the hose stream 
demand from Table 12.3.4.1.5 to the water supply for sprin- 
klers determined in 12.3.4. This supply shall be available for 
the minimum duration specified in Table 12.3.4.1.5. 

12.3.4.2 Large Drop Sprinklers and Specific Application Con- 
trol Mode Sprinklers for Rack Storage of Class I through Class 
IV Commodities Stored Over 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height. 

12.3.4.2.1 Protection of single-, double-, and multiple-row 
rack storage without solid shelves for Classes I through IV com- 
modities shall be in accordance with Table 12.3.4.2.1. 

12.3.4.2.2 Where in-rack sprinklers are required by Table 
12.3.4.2.1, in-rack sprinkler spacing, design pressure, and hy- 
draulic calculation criteria shall be in accordance with the re- 
quirements of 12.3.4.4 as applicable for the commodity. 

12.3.4.2.3 Protection shall be provided as specified in Table 
12.3.4.2.1 or appropriate NFPA standards in terms of mini- 
mum operating pressure and the number of sprinklers to be 
included in the design area. 

12.3.4.2.3.1 For design purposes, 95 psi (6.6 bar) shall be the 
maximum discharge pressure at the hydraulically most remote 
sprinkler. 

12.3.4.2.3.2 Open Wood Joist Construction. 

(A) Where large drop K-11.2 sprinklers are installed under 
open wood joist construction, their minimum operating pres- 
sure shall be 50 psi (3.4 bar). 

(B) Where each joist channel of open, wood joist construc- 
tion is fully fire-stopped to its full depth at intervals not ex- 
ceeding 20 ft (6.1 m), the lower pressures specified in Table 
12.3.4.2.1 shall be permitted to be used. 

12.3.4.2.3.3 The design area shall be a rectangular area hav- 
ing a dimension parallel to the branch lines at least 1.2 times 
the square root of the area protected by the number of sprin- 
klers to be included in the design area. Any fractional sprin- 
kler shall be included in the design area. 

12.3.4.2.3.4 Hose stream demand and water supply duration 
requirements shall be in accordance with Table 12.3.4.2.1. 

12.3.4.2.3.5 Preaction Systems. 

(A) For the purpose of using Table 12.3.4.2.1, preaction sys- 
tems shall be classified as dry pipe systems. 

(B) Where it can be demonstrated that the detection system 
activating the preaction system will cause water to be at the 
sprinklers when they operate, preaction systems shall be per- 
mitted to be treated as wet pipe systems. 

12.3.4.2.3.6 The nominal diameter of branch line pipes (in- 
cluding riser nipples) shall meet the following: 

(1) Pipe diameter shall not be not less than 1V4 in. (33 mm) 
nor greater than 2 in. (51 mm). 

(2) Starter pieces shall be permitted to be 2M> in. (64 mm). 

(3) Where branch lines are larger than 2 in. (51 mm), the 
sprinkler shall be supplied by a riser nipple to elevate the 
sprinkler 13 in. (330 mm) for 2 1 /2-in. (64-mm) pipe and 
15 in. (380 mm) for 3-in. (76-mm) pipe. These dimen- 
sions are measured from the centerline of the pipe to the 
deflector. In lieu of this, sprinklers shall be permitted to 
be offset horizontally a minimum of 12 in. (305 mm). 



2002 Edition 



13-142 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Table 12.3.4.1.1 Double-Row Racks without Solid Shelves, of Class I through Class IV 
Commodities Stored Over 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height, Aisles 4 ft (1.2 m) or Wider 





In-Rack Sprinklers Approximate Vertical 

Spacing at Tier Nearest the Vertical 

Distance and Maximum Horizontal 

Spacing 1 ' 2 ' 3 


Figure 


Maximum 
Storage Height 


Stagger 


Ceil 


mg 


Ceiling Sprinkler Density Clearance up to 

10 ft 

(3.1 m) 7 ' 8 - 9 


Commodity 
Class 


Operating 
Area 


Ordinary 
Temperature 


High Temperature 


Longitudinal Flue 4 


Face 5 ' 6 


ft 2 


m 2 


gpm/ft 2 


mm/min 


gpm/ft 2 


mm/min 




Vertical 20 ft (6.1 m) 

Horizontal 10 ft (3.1 m) 
under horizontal barriers 


None 


12.3.4.4.1.1(a) 


30 ft (9.1m) 


No 


2000 


186 


0.25 


10.2 


0.35 


14.3 


I 


Vertical 20 ft (6.1 m) 
Horizontal 10 ft (3.1 m) 


Vertical 20 ft 

(6.1m) 
Horizontal 

10 ft (3.1 m) 


12.3.4.4.1.1(b) 


Higher than 
25 ft (7.6 m) 


Yes 


0.25 


10.2 


0.35 


14.3 




Vertical 10 ft (3.1 m) or at 
15 ft (4.6 m) and 25 ft 
(7.6 m) 


None 


12.3.4.4.1.1(c) 


30 ft (9.1m) 


Yes 


2000 


186 


0.3 


12.2 


0.4 


16.3 




Vertical 10 ft (3.1 m) 
Horizontal 10 ft (3.1 m) 


Vertical 30 ft 

(9.1 m) 
Horizontal 

10 ft (3.1m) 


12.3.4.4.1.1(d) 


Higher than 
25 ft. (7.6 m) 


Yes 


0.3 


12.2 


0.4 


16.3 




Vertical 20 ft (6.1 m) 
Horizontal 10 ft (3.1 m) 


Vertical 20 ft 

(6.1 m) 
Horizontal 5 ft 

(1.5 m) 


12.3.4.4.1.1(e) 


Yes 


0.3 


12.2 


0.4 


16.3 


I, II, III 


Vertical 25 ft (7.6 m) 
Horizontal 5 ft (1.5 m) 


Vertical 25 ft 

(7.6 m) 
Horizontal 5 ft 

(1.5 m) 


12.3.4.4.1.1(f) 


No 


0.3 


12.2 


0.4 


16.3 




Horizontal barriers at 

20 ft (6.1 m) 

Vertical intervals — two 
lines of sprinklers 
under barriers — 
maximum horizontal 
spacing 10 ft (3.1 m), 
staggered 




12.3.4.4.1.1(g) 


Yes 


0.3 


12.2 


0.4 


16.3 




Vertical 15 ft (4.6 m) 
Horizontal 10 ft (3.1 m) 


Verdcal 20 ft 

(6.1 m) 
Horizontal 

10 ft (3.1m) 


12.3.4.4.1.1(h) 


Higher than 
25 ft (7.6 m) 


Yes 


2000 


186 


0.35 


14.3 


0.45 


18.3 


I, II, III, IV 


Vertical 20 ft (6.1 m) 
Horizontal 5 ft (1.5 m) 


Vertical 20 ft 

(6.1 m) 
Horizontal 5 ft 

(1.5 m) 


12.3.4.4.1. l(i) 


No 


0.35 


14.3 


0.45 


18.3 




Horizontal barriers at 

15 ft (4.6 m) 

Vertical intervals — two 
lines of sprinklers 
under barriers — 
maximum horizontal 
spacing 10 ft (3.1 m), 
staggered 




12.3.4.4.1. l(j) 


Yes 


0.35 


14.3 


0.45 


18.3 



'Minimum in-rack sprinkler discharge, 30 gpm (114 L/min). 
Water shields required. 

3 All in-rack sprinkler spacing dimensions start from the floor. 
4 Install sprinklers at least 3 in. (76.2 mm) from uprights. 

5 Face sprinklers shall not be required for a Class I commodity consisting of noncombustible products on wood pallets 
(without combustible containers), except for arrays shown in Figure 12. 3. 4.4. 1.1(g) and Figure 12.3.4.4.1.1 (j). 
6 In Figure 12.3.4.4.1.1(a) through Figure 12.3.4.4.1.1 (j), each square represents a storage cube that measures 4 ft to 5 ft 
(1.2 m to 1.5 m) on aside. Actual load heights can vary from approximately 18 in. to 10 ft (0.46 m to 3.1 m). Therefore, there 
can be one load to six or seven loads between in-rack sprinklers that are spaced 10 ft (3.1 m) apart vertically. 
7 For encapsulated commodity, increase density 25 percent. 
8 Clearance is distance between top of storage and ceiling. 
9 See A.12.3.1.12 for protection recommendations where clearance is greater than 10 ft (3.1 m). 



2002 Edition 



STORAGE 



13-143 



Table 12.3.4.1.3 Multiple-Row Racks, of Class I through Class IV Commodities Stored Over 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height 





Encapsulated 


In-Rack Sprinklers 1 ' 2 ' 3 


Height 
Limit 

(ft) 


Stagger 


Figure 


Maximum 
Spacing from 






Ceiling Sprinklers Density 


Commodity 
Class 


Approximate 
Vertical 
Spacing 


Maximum 

Horizontal 

Spacing in 

A Flue 


Maximum 
Horizontal 

Spacing 
across Flue 


Top of 

Storage to 

Highest 

In-Rack 

Sprinklers 


Ceiling 

Sprinkler 

Operating 

Area 


165° 
Rating 


286° 
Rating 


ft 


m 


ft 


m 


ft 


m 


ft 


m 


ft 2 


m 2 


gpm/ft 2 


■nm/min 


gpm/ft 2 


mm/min 


I 


No 


20 


6.1 


12 


3.7 


10 


3.1 


None 


Between 
adjacent 
flues 


12.3.4.4.1.3(a) 


10 


3.1 


2000 


186 


0.25 


10.2 


0.35 


14.3 




Yes 


0.31 




0.44 




I, II, and 


No 


15 


4.6 


10 


3.1 


10 


3.1 


12.3.4.4.1.3(b) 


10 


3.1 


0.30 


12.2 


0.40 


16.3 


III 


Yes 


0.37 




0.50 


20.4 


i, ii, ni, 


No 


10 


3.1 


10 


3.1 


10 


3.1 


12.3.4.4.1.3(c) 


5 


1.5 


0.35 


14.3 


0.45 


18.3 


andlV 


Yes 


0.44 




0.56 





Notes: For SI units, °C = % (°F-32); 1 gpm/ft 2 = 40.746 mm/min. 

All four rack faces shall be protected by sprinklers located within 18 in. (0.46 m) of the faces, as indicated in Figure 12.3.4.4.1.3(a) through 
Figure 12.3.4.4.1.3(c). It shall not be required for each sprinkler level to protect all faces. 

All in-rack sprinkler spacing dimensions start from the floor. 

' In Figure 12.3.4.4.1.3(a) through Figure 12.3.4.4.1.3(c), each square represents a storage cube measuring 4 ft to 5 ft (1.2 m to 1.5 m) on a side. 
Actual load heights can vary from approximately 18 in. to 10 ft (0.46 m to 3.1 m). Therefore, there could be as few as one load or as many as six 
or seven loads between in-rack sprinklers that are spaced 10 ft (3.1 m) apart vertically. 



Table 12.3.4.1.5 Hose Stream Demand and Water Supply Duration Requirements for Rack 
Storage of Class I through Class IV Commodities Stored Above 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height 





Storage 


Height 


Inside Hose 


Total Combined Inside 
and Outside Hose 


Duration 
(minutes) 


Classification 


ft 


m 


gpm 


L/min 


gpm 


L/min 


Class I, II, and III 
Class IV 


>25 
>25 


>7.6 
>7.6 


0, 50, or 100 
0, 50, or 100 


0, 190, 380 
0, 190, 380 


500 
500 


1900 
1900 


90 
120 



Table 12.3.4.2.1 Large Drop Sprinkler Design Criteria for Single-, Double-, and Multiple-Row 
Racks without Solid Shelves of Class I through Class IV Commodities Stored Over 25 ft 
(7.6 m) in Height 



Commodity 
Class 


Nominal 
K-Factor 


Maximum 
Storage Height 


Maximum 

Ceiling/ Roof 

Height 


Type of 
System 


Number of Design Sprinklers/ 
Minimum Pressure 


Hose Stream 
Demand 


Water Supply 
Duration 
(hours) 


ft 


m 


ft 


m 


#/psi 


#/bar 


gpm 


L/min 


I, II 


11.2 


30 


9.1 


35 


10.7 


Wet 


20/25 + 1 level 
of in-rack 


20/1.7 + 1 level 
of in-rack 


500 


1900 


VA 


Dry 


30/25 + 1 level 
of in-rack 


30/1.7+1 level 
of in-rack 


500 


1900 


VA 


in, rv 




Design criteria no 


t applicable to Class 


III or Class 


IV commodities stored in excess of 


25 ft (7.6 m) in heigl 


it 



12.3.4.2.3.7 Building steel shall not require special protec- 
tion where Table 12.3.4.2.1 is applied as appropriate for the 
storage configuration. 

12.3.4.3* Early Suppression Fast-Response (ESFR) Sprinklers 
for Rack Storage of Class I through Class IV Commodities 
Stored Over 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height. 

12.3.4.3.1 Protection of single-, double-, and multiple-row 
rack storage of Classes I through IV shall be in accordance 
with Table 12.3.4.3.1. 



12.3.4.3.1.1 ESFR protection as defined shall not apply to the 
following: 

(1) Rack storage involving solid shelves 

(2) Rack storage involving combustible, open-top cartons or 
containers 

12.3.4.3.2 ESFR sprinkler systems shall be designed such that 
the minimum operating pressure is not less than that indi- 
cated in Table 12.3.4.3.1 for type of storage, commodity, stor- 
age height, and building height involved. 



2002 Edition 



13-144 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Table 12.3.4.3.1 ESFR Protection of Rack Storage without Solid Shelves of Class I through 
Class IV Commodities Stored Over 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height 



Storage 
Arrangement 


Commodity 


Maximum 
Storage 
Height 


Maximum 

Ceiling/ 

Roof 

Height 


Nominal 
K-Factor 


Orientation 


Minimum 
Operating 
Pressure 


In-Rack 

Sprinkler 

Requirements 


Hose Stream 
Demand 


Water 

Supply 

Duration 

(hours) 


ft 


m 


ft 


m 


psi 


bar 


gpm 


L/min 




Class I, II, III, or IV, 
encapsulated or 
unencapsulated 


30 


9.1 


35 


10.7 


14.0 


Upright or 
pendent 


75 


5.2 


No 


250 


946 






16.8 


Pendent 


52 


3.6 


No 






25.2 


Pendent 


20 


1.4 


No 






40 


12.2 


14.0 


Pendent 


75 


5.2 


No 






16.8 


Pendent 


52 


3.6 


No 






25.2 


Pendent 


25 


1.7 


No 






45 


13.7 


14.0 


Pendent 


90 


6.2 


Yes 




Single-row, 
double-row, 


16.8 


Pendent 


63 


4.3 


Yes 




and 
multiple-row 


25.2 


Pendent 


40 


2.8 


No 


1 


rack (no 
open-top 
containers) 


35 


10.7 


40 


12.2 


14.0 


Pendent 


75 


5.2 


No 




16.8 


Pendent 


52 


3.6 


No 






25.2 


Pendent 


25 


1.7 


No 






45 


13.7 


14.0 


Pendent 


90 


6.2 


Yes 






16.8 


Pendent 


63 


4.3 


Yes 






25.2 


Pendent 


40 


2.8 


No 






40 


12.2 


45 


13.7 


14.0 


Pendent 


90 


6.2 


Yes 






16.8 


Pendent 


63 


4.3 


Yes 






25.2 


Pendent 


40 


2.8 


No 





12.3.4.3.3 The design area shall consist of the most hydrauli- 
cally demanding area of 12 sprinklers, consisting of four sprin- 
klers on each of three branch lines. The design shall include a 
minimum of 960 ft 2 (89 m 2 ). 

12.3.4.3.4 Where required by Table 12.3.4.3.1, one level of 
K-8.0 quick-response, ordinary-temperature in-rack sprinklers 
shall be installed at the tier level closest to but not exceeding 
Vz of the maximum storage height. In-rack sprinkler hydraulic 
design criteria shall be the most hydraulically remote eight 
sprinklers at 50 psi (3.4 bar). In-rack sprinklers shall be lo- 
cated at the intersection of the longitudinal and transverse 
flue space. Horizontal spacing shall not be permitted to ex- 
ceed 5-ft (1.5-m) intervals. 

12.3.4.3.5 Where ESFR sprinklers are installed above and be- 
low obstructions, the discharge for up to two sprinklers for 
one of the levels shall be included with those of the other level 
in the hydraulic calculations. 

12.3.4.4 In-Rack Sprinklers for Rack Storage of Class I through 
Class IV Commodities Stored Over 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height. 

12.3.4.4.1 In-Rack Sprinkler Location for Rack Storage of 
Class I through Class IV Commodities Stored Over 25 ft 
(7.6 m) in Height. 



1 2.3.4.4. 1.1* Double-Row Racks. 

(A) In double-row racks without solid shelves and with a maxi- 
mum of 10 ft (3.1 m) between the top of storage and the 
ceiling, in-rack sprinklers shall be installed in accordance with 
Table 12.3.4.1.1 and Figure 12.3.4.4.1.1(a) through Figure 
12.3.4.4.1.1 (j). The highest level of in-rack sprinklers shall be 
not more than 10 ft (3.1 m) below the top of storage. Where a 
single-row rack is mixed with double-row racks, Table 12.3.4.1.1 
and Figure 12.3.4.4.1.1(a) through Figure 12.3.4.4.1.1 (j) 
shall be used. 

(B) Figure 12.3.4.4.1.2(a) through Figure 12.3.4.4.1.2(c) 
shall be permitted to be used for the protection of the single- 
row racks. 

12.3.4.4.1.2* Single-Row Racks. In single-row racks without 
solid shelves with storage height over 25 ft (7.6 m) and a maxi- 
mum of 10 ft (3.1 m) between the top of storage and the 
ceiling, sprinklers shall be installed in accordance with Figure 
12.3.4.4.1.2(a) through Figure 12.3.4.4.1.2(e). In single-row 
racks, where figures show in-rack sprinklers in transverse flue 
spaces centered between the rack faces, it shall be permitted 
to position these in-rack sprinklers in the transverse flue at any 
point between the load faces. 



2002 Edition 



STORAGE 



13-145 



□ 



□ 

ID 
□ 
□ 



□ □ 
DD 
DD 
DD 



Barrier : 



: ~v 



II 



Elevation 



Barriers shown • 
with background 

Plan View 



Notes: 

1. Symbol x indicates in-rack sprinklers. 

2. Each square represents a storage cube measuring 4 ft to 5 ft (1 .22 m 
to 1 .53 m) on a side. Actual load heights can vary from approximately 
18 in. (0.46 m) up to 10 ft (3.05 m). Therefore, there could be as few as 
one load or as many as six or seven loads between in-rack sprinklers 
that are spaced 10 ft (3.05 m) apart vertically. 

FIGURE 12.3.4.4.1.1(a) In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, 
Class I Commodities, Storage Height 25 ft to Maximum 30 ft 
(7.6 m to Maximum 9.1 m). 



SJ3, 

00 



sl iJ fl 



0^00 
□ DD 



in 
□ 

'8 



OP 

□,□ 

op 

□,□ 

DO 



Elevation 



Plan View (A or B) 

Notes: 

1 . Alternate location of in-rack sprinklers. Sprinklers shall be permitted 
to be installed above loads A and C or above loads B and D. 

2. Symbol A or x indicates sprinklers on vertical or horizontal stagger. 

3. Each square represents a storage cube measuring 4 ft to 5 ft (1 .22 m 
to 1 .53 m) on a side. Actual load heights can vary from approximately 
18 in. (0.46 m) up to 10 ft (3.05 m). Therefore, there could be as few as 
one load or as many as six or seven loads between in-rack sprinklers 
that are spaced 10 ft (3.05 m) apart vertically. 

FIGURE 12.3.4.4.1.1(c) In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, 
Class I, Class II, or Class III Commodities, Storage Height 
25 ft to Maximum 30 ft (7.6 m to Maximum 9.1 m). 



:e he 




,00 
'0 0*0i 



*K: 



DD 
O'OO 
D^OO 
OO 



Elevation 









l 




X 








X 




A 








£ 




X 




A 
1 




X 


S 


A 




L 

E 








X 



3 BQ 



Plan View 



Notes: 

1. Sprinklers labeled 1 (the selected array from Table 12.3.4.1.1) shall 
be required where loads labeled A or B represent top of storage. 

2. Sprinklers labeled 1 and 2 shall be required where loads labeled C 
or D represent top of storage. 

3. Sprinklers labeled 1 and 3 shall be required where loads labeled 
Eor F represent top of storage. 

4. For storage higher than represented by loads labeled F, the cycle 
defined by Notes 2 and 3 is repeated, with stagger as indicated. 

5. Symbol A or x indicates sprinklers on vertical or horizontal stagger. 

6. Each square represents a storage cube measuring 4 ft to 5 ft (1 .22 m 
to 1 .53 m) on a side. Actual load heights can vary from approximately 
18 in. (0.46 m) up to 10 ft (3.05 m). Therefore, there could be as few as 
one load or as many as six or seven loads between in-rack sprinklers 
that are spaced 10 ft (3.05 m) apart vertically. 

FIGURE 12.3.4.4.1.1(b) In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, 
Class I Commodities, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m). 



2002 Edition 



13-146 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



H 5 M 

H^ 

.0 4 H,H I 

EH? 

00 I 

00 i 

V 




,□.□ 

D O0 

Bffl 
0^no 

O O0 



L.._ : 

X 

" 7 
X 


A 
1 
S 

L 

E 


X 
A 
X 

A 


A 

■x 



Elevation 



Plan View 



Notes: 

1 . Sprinklers labeled 1 shall be required where loads labeled A 
represent the top of storage. 

2. Sprinklers labeled 1 and 2 shall be required where loads labeled 
6 or C represent top of storage. 

3. Sprinklers labeled 1, 2, and 3 shall be required where loads labeled 
D or E represent top of storage. 

4. Sprinklers labeled 1 , 2, 3, and 4 shall be required where loads 
labeled For G represent top of storage. 

5. Sprinklers labeled 1 , 2, 3, 4, and 5 shall be required where loads 
labeled H represent top of storage. 

6. For storage higher than represented by loads labeled H, the cycle 
defined by Notes 3, 4, and 5 is repeated with stagger as indicated. 

7. The indicated face sprinklers shall be permitted to be omitted where 
commodity consists of unwrapped or unpackaged metal parts on 
wood pallets. 

8. Symbol A or x indicates sprinklers on vertical or horizontal stagger. 

9. Each square represents a storage cube measuring 4 ft to 5 ft (1 .22 m 
to 1 .53 m) on a side. Actual load heights can vary from approximately 
18 in. (0.46 m) up to 10 ft (3.05 m). Therefore, there could be as few as 
one load or as many as six or seven loads between in-rack sprinklers 
that are spaced 10 ft (3.05 m) apart vertically. 

FIGURE 12.3.4.4.1.1(d) In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, 
Class I, Class II, or Class III Commodities, Storage Height 
Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 1. 



00 




,0 2 0.0 
00 



o on 
o?oo 
o^oo 

o 0O 



if\ 



* — > — * 

A 

i 

s ? — X — r 

L 

BE 



Elevation 



In-rack levels labeled 1 and 2 
are shown in this plan view. 

Plan View 



Notes: 

1. Sprinklers labeled 1 (the selected array from Table 12.3.4.1.1) shall 
be required where loads labeled A or B represent top of storage. 

2. Sprinklers labeled 1 and 2 shall be required where loads labeled C 
or D represent top of storage. 

3. Sprinklers labeled 1 and 3 shall be required where loads labeled E 
or F represent top of storage. 

4. For storage higher than represented by loads labeled F, the cycle 
defined by Notes 2 and 3 is repeated, with stagger as indicated. 

5. Symbol A or x indicates sprinklers on vertical or horizontal stagger. 

6. Each square represents a storage cube measuring 4 ft to 5 ft (1 .22 m 
to 1 .53 m) on a side. Actual load heights can vary from approximately 
18 in. (0.46 m) up to 10 ft (3.05 m). Therefore, there could be as few as 
one load or as many as six or seven loads between in-rack sprinklers 
that are spaced 10 ft (3.05 m) apart vertically. 

FIGURE 12.3.4.4.1.1(e) In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, 
Class I, Class II, or Class III Commodities, Storage Height 
Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 2. 



2002 Edition 



STORAGE 



13-147 



00 
10 .0.0 



00: 

,0 2 0,0 ? 
001 



O 00 

o oo 
o^oo 
o^oo 

O O0 



^ 









X" 




X 








X 




X 








x 




X 




A 

1 




>t 


S 


X 




L 

E 




. X 




X 



Elevation 



Plan View 



Notes: 

1. Sprinklers labeled 1 (the selected array from Table 12.3.4.1.1) shall 
be required where loads labeled A or B represent top of storage. 

2. Sprinklers labeled 1 and 2 shall be required where loads labeled C 
or D represent top of storage. 

3. Sprinklers labeled 1 and 3 shall be required where loads labeled E 
represent top of storage. 

4. Sprinklers labeled 1 and 4 shall be required where loads labeled F 
or G represent top of storage. 

5. For storage higher than represented by loads labeled G, the cycle 
defined by Notes 2, 3, and 4 is repeated. 

6. Symbol x indicates face and in-rack sprinklers. 

7. Each square represents a storage cube measuring 4 ft to 5 ft (1 .22 m 
to 1 .53 m) on a side. Actual load heights can vary from approximately 
18 in. (0.46 m) up to 10 ft (3.05 m). Therefore, there could be as few as 
one load or as many as six or seven loads between in-rack sprinklers 
that are spaced 10 ft (3.05 m) apart vertically. 

FIGURE 12.3.4.4.1.1(f) In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, 
Class I, Class II, or Class III Commodities, Storage Height 
Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 3. 




00 



2 0.0 
'0 00 




o oo 



Barrier : A 



1W- 



A 

1 

S 
L 

E 


X A O 

X 

X a 
' ' X 
1! A—A 



Elevation 



J u Barriers shown with - 
background 

Plan View 



Notes: 

1 . Sprinklers labeled 1 (the selected array from Table 12.3.4.1.1) shall 
be required where loads labeled A or B represent top of storage. 

2. Sprinklers labeled 1 and 2 shall be required where loads labeled C 
or D represent top of storage. 

3. Sprinklers labeled 1 and 3 shall be required where loads labeled E 
or F represent top of storage. 

4. For storage higher than represented by loads labeled F, the cycle 
defined by Notes 2 and 3 is repeated. 

5. Symbols o, A, and x indicate sprinklers on vertical or horizontal 
stagger. 

6. Each square represents a storage cube measuring 4 ft to 5 ft (1 .22 m 
to 1 .53 m) on a side. Actual load heights can vary from approximately 
18 in. (0.46 m) up to 10 ft (3.05 m). Therefore, there could be as few as 
one load or as many as six or seven loads between in-rack sprinklers 
that are spaced 10 ft (3.05 m) apart vertically. 

FIGURE 12.3.4.4.1.1(g) In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, 
Class I, Class II, or Class III Commodities, Storage Height 
Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 4. 



2002 Edition 



13-148 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Q LZIH 




7 0,0 } 

□ 00 I 




00 
.0 .OS 




Nf 



2 0.0 ; 
00 j 



nf00 
0^00 
o oo 



&1 



g * * g 

~rs s — x — g 

— g 71 — > a 

A 

I 
g S ^ x e 

L 
E 
1 o 'n ' & ' a 



Elevation 



Plan View 



Notes: 

1. Sprinklers labeled 1 (the selected array from Table 12.3.4.1.1) shall 
be required where loads labeled A or B represent top of storage. 

2. Sprinklers labeled 1 and 2 shall be required where loads labeled C 
or D represent top of storage. 

3. Sprinklers labeled 1, 2, and 3 shall be required where loads labeled 
Eor F represent top of storage. 

4. Sprinklers labeled 1 , 2, 3, and 4 shall be required where loads 
labeled G represent top of storage. 

5. Sprinklers labeled 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 shall be required where loads 
labeled H represent top of storage. 

6. Sprinklers labeled 1 , 2, 3, 4, and 6 (not 5) shall be required where 
loads labeled / or J represent top of storage. 

7. Sprinklers labeled 1 , 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7 shall be required where loads 
labeled K represent top of storage. 

8. Sprinklers labeled 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 shall be required where loads 
labeled L represent top of storage. 

9. Sprinklers labeled 1 , 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 9 shall be required where 
loads labeled Mor N represent top of storage. 

10. For storage higher than represented by loads labeled N, the cycle 
defined by Notes 1 through 9 is repeated, with stagger as indicated. 
In the cycle, loads labeled Mare equivalent to loads labeled A 

11 . Symbols 0, x, and A indicate sprinklers on vertical or horizontal 
stagger. 

12. Each square represents a storage cube measuring 4 ft to 5 ft (1 .22 m 
to 1 .53 m) on a side. Actual load heights can vary from approximately 
18 in. (0.46 m) up to 10 ft (3.05 m). Therefore, there could be as few 
as one load or as many as six or seven loads between in-rack 
sprinklers that are spaced 10 ft (3.05 m) apart vertically. 

FIGURE 12.3.4.4.1.1(h) In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, 
Class I, Class II, Class III, or Class IV Commodities, Storage 
Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 1. 



00 




|\F 



00 



on 

OlOO 

0^00 
□ 00 









v 


X 


X 








X" 


X 


X 








X 


X 


X 








v 


X 


X 








1. 


' 


^ 



Elevation 



Plan View (1 and 3) 



Notes: 

1 . Sprinklers labeled 1 (the selected array from Table 12.3.4.1 .1) shall 
be required where loads labeled A or B represent top of storage. 

2. Sprinklers labeled 1 and 2 shall be required where loads labeled C 
or D represent top of storage. 

3. Sprinklers labeled 1 and 3 shall be required where loads labeled E 
or F represent top of storage. 

4. For storage higher than represented by loads labeled F, the cycle 
defined by Notes 2 and 3 is repeated. 

5. Symbol x indicates face and in-rack sprinklers. 

6. Each square represents a storage cube measuring 4 ft to 5 ft (1 .22 m 
to 1 .53 m) on a side. Actual load heights can vary from approximately 
18 in. (0.46 m) up to 10 ft (3.05 m). Therefore, there could be as few as 
one load or as many as six or seven loads between in-rack sprinklers 
that are spaced 10 ft (3.05 m) apart vertically. 

FIGURE 12.3.4.4.1.1 (i) In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, 
Class I, Class II, Class III, or Class IV Commodities, Storage 
Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 2. 



2002 Edition 



STORAGE 



13-149 



lE HE 




Barrier 



^ D I D D NBarrier [ 



L 



UCj 



Elevation 



Barriers shown with - 
background 

Plan View 



Notes: 

1. Sprinklers labeled 1 (the selected array from Table 12.3.4.1.1) shall 
be required where loads labeled A or B represent top of storage. 

2. Sprinklers labeled 1 and 2 and barrier labeled 1 shall be required 
where loads labeled C represent top of storage. 

3. Sprinklers and barriers labeled 1 and 3 shall be required where 
loads labeled D or E represent top of storage. 

4. For storage higher than represented by loads labeled E, the cycle 
defined by Notes 2 and 3 is repeated. 

5. Symbol A or x indicates sprinklers on vertical or horizontal stagger. 

6. Symbol o indicates longitudinal flue space sprinklers. 

7. Each square represents a storage cube measuring 4 ft to 5 ft (1 .22 m 
to 1 .53 m) on a side. Actual load heights can vary from approximately 
18 in. (0.46 m) up to 10 ft (3.05 m). Therefore, there could be as few as 
one load or as many as six or seven loads between in-rack sprinklers 
that are spaced 10 ft (3.05 m) apart vertically. 

FIGURE 12.3.4.4.1.1 (j) In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, 
Class I, Class II, Class III, or Class IV Commodities, Storage 
Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 3. 



□ 

Elevation 



Plan View 



Notes: 

1 . For all storage heights, sprinklers shall be installed in every other 
tier and staggered as indicated. 

2. Symbol A or x indicates sprinklers on vertical or horizontal stagger. 

3. Each square represents a storage cube measuring 4 ft to 5 ft (1 .22 m 
to 1 .53 m) on a side. Actual load heights can vary from approximately 
18 in. (0.46 m) up to 10 ft (3.05 m). Therefore, there could be as few as 
one load or as many as six or seven loads between in-rack sprinklers 
that are spaced 10 ft (3.05 m) apart vertically. 

FIGURE 12.3.4.4.1.2(a) Class I, Class II, Class III, or Class 
IV Commodities, In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, Single-Row 
Racks, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 1. 



2002 Edition 



13-150 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



□ 




□ 


X 


□ 


X 


□ 




□ 


LJ 


Elevation 


Plan View 



Note: Each square represents a storage cube measuring 4 ft to 5 ft (1 .22 m 
to 1 .53 m) on a side. Actual load heights can vary from approximately 18 in. 
(0.46 m) up to 10 ft (3.05 m). Therefore, there could be as few as one load 
or as many as six or seven loads between in-rack sprinklers that are 
spaced 10 ft (3.05 m) apart vertically. 

FIGURE 12.3.4.4.1.2(b) Class I, Class II, or Class III Com- 
modities, In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, Single-Row Racks, 
Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 1. 



r 



□ 
□ 
□ 



/- Barrier 





Elevation 



Barriers shown with - 
background 

Plan View 



Note: Each square represents a storage cube measuring 4 ft to 5 ft (1 .22 m 
to 1 .53 m) on a side. Actual load heights can vary from approximately 18 in. 
(0.46 m) up to 10 ft (3.05 m). Therefore, there could be as few as one load 
or as many as six or seven loads between in-rack sprinklers that are 
spaced 10 ft (3.05 m) apart vertically. 

FIGURE 12.3.4.4.1.2(c) Class I, Class II, or Class III Com- 
modities, In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, Single-Row Racks, 
Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 2. 



2002 Edition 



STORAGE 



13-151 



□ 
□ 


a 


Elevation 


Plan View 



Note: Each square represents a storage cube measuring 4 ft to 5 ft (1 .22 m 
to 1 .53 m) on a side. Actual load heights can vary from approximately 18 in. 
(0.46 m) up to 10 ft (3.05 m). Therefore, there could be as few as one load 
or as many as six or seven loads between in-rack sprinklers that are 
spaced 10 ft (3.05 m) apart vertically. 

FIGURE 12.3.4.4.1.2(d) Class I, Class II, Class HI, or Class 
IV Commodities, In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, Single-Row 
Racks, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 2. 



V 



Barrier 



□ 
□ 



-Barrier 



D 
□ 


Barrier 


l_ x 




1 1 

□ 








□ 


o \ 

Barriers shown with 




background 


Elevation 


Plan View 



Note: Each square represents a storage cube measuring 4 ft to 5 ft (1 .22 m 
to 1.53 m) on a side. Actual load heights can vary from approximately 18 in. 
(0.46 m) up to 10 ft (3.05 m). Therefore, there could be as few as one load 
or as many as six or seven loads between in-rack sprinklers that are 
spaced 10 ft (3.05 m) apart vertically. 

FIGURE 12.3.4.4.1.2(e) Class I, Class II, Class III, or Class 
IV Commodities, In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, Single-Row 
Racks, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 3. 



2002 Edition 



13-152 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



12.3.4.4.1.3* In-Rack Sprinkler Location — Multiple-Row 
Racks for Rack Storage of Class I through Class IV Commodi- 
ties Stored Over 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height. In multiple-row racks 
with a maximum of 10 ft (3.1 m) between the top of storage 
and the ceiling, protection shall be in accordance with Table 
12.3.4.1.3 and in-rack sprinklers shall be installed as indicated 
in Figure 12.3.4.4.1.3(a) through Figure 12.3.4.4.1.3(c). The 
highest level of in-rack sprinklers shall be not more than 10 ft 
(3.1 m) below maximum storage height for Class I, Class II, or 
Class III commodities or 5 ft (1.5 m) below the top of storage 
for Class IV commodities. 



Loading aisle 



XXX 

A A 

XXX 

A A 

XXX 



Maximum 12 ft 
(3.66 m) 
between sprinklers 



Loading aisle 
Plan View 



Maximum 
10 ft (3.05 m) 
between sprinklers 



Face 
sprinkler 



I II II II I I I l_U Li Maximum 10 ft (3.05 m) 

i — I, — I, — 1| 1| 1| m between sprinklers 

BDDuUWl] and top of storage 

/A A A 3 * 

0DDDD0D 

\Dnnnn0D 

*A A A A 2 

DDDDDBD 
DDDDGDD 
D D D D D D D 
DDDDDDD 
DDDDDDD 
DDDDDDD 



Maximum 20 ft 
(6.10 m) between 
sprinklers and floor 



Loading Aisle Elevation 

Notes: 

1 . Sprinklers labeled 1 shall be required if loads labeled A represent top 
of storage. 

2. Sprinklers labeled 1 and 2 shall be required if loads labeled Box C 
represent top of storage. 

3. Sprinklers labeled 1 and 3 shall be required if loads labeled Dor E 
represent top of storage. 

4. For storage higher than represented by loads labeled E, the cycle 
defined by Notes 2 and 3 is repeated, with stagger as indicated. 

5. Symbol A or x indicates sprinklers on vertical or horizontal stagger. 

6. Each square represents a storage cube measuring 4 ft to 5 ft (1 .22 m 
to 1 .53 m) on a side. Actual load heights can vary from approximately 
18 in. (0.46 m) up to 10 ft (3.05 m). Therefore, there could be as few as 
one load or as many as six or seven loads between in-rack sprinklers 
that are spaced 10 ft (3.05 m) apart vertically. 

FIGURE 12.3.4.4.1.3(a) In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement — 
Multiple-Row Racks, Class I Commodities, Storage Height 
Over 25 ft (7.6 m). 



Loading aisle 



A 

x 

A 

x 

A 
X 



A 
A 

A 



Maximum 10 ft 
(3.05 m) 
between sprinklers 



Loading aisle 
Plan View 



Maximum 
10 ft (3.05 m) 
between sprinklers 



Face 
sprinklers' 



L£j I II II II I l_£J U Maximum 10 ft (3.05 m) 

0, . . — . . . . . . . r-. between sprinklers 
U U l_l LI LfJ U ^ top of storage 

A A A A 3 " 

^HDJDDDD^ 
DDDDDDD 
DDDDDDD 
DDDDDDD' m . T im 
DDDDDDD SSEk 
DDDDDDD 



Loading Aisle Elevation 

Notes: 

1 . Sprinklers labeled 1 and 2 shall be required if loads labeled A 
represent top of storage. 

2. Sprinklers labeled 1 and 3 shall be required if loads labeled 6 or C 
represent top of storage. 

3. For storage higher than represented by loads labeled C, the cycle 
defined by Notes 2 and 3 is repeated, with stagger as indicated. 

4. Symbol A or x indicates sprinklers on vertical or horizontal stagger. 

5. Each square represents a storage cube measuring 4 ft to 5 ft (1 .22 m 
to 1 .53 m) on a side. Actual load heights can vary from approximately 
18 in. (0.46 m) up to 10 ft (3.05 m). Therefore, there could be as few as 
one load or as many as six or seven loads between in-rack sprinklers 
that are spaced 10 ft (3.05 m) apart vertically. 

FIGURE 12.3.4.4.1.3(b) In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement — 
Multiple-Row Racks, Class I, Class II, or Class III Commodi- 
ties, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m). 



2002 Edition 



STORAGE 



13-153 



Loading aisle 



A 
A 

A 



A 
A 

A 



A 
A 



Maximum 
10 ft (3.05 m) 
between sprinklers 



Loading aisle 
Plan View 



Maximum 
10 ft (3.05 m) 
between sprinklers 



BDDDDBD 

0D □"□ D0 D 

D X D D'D □* □ D 

□□□□□□D 
sp*^ □□□□□□□ 

n'n nti nti d 

DDDDDDD 



Face 



Maximum 5 ft (1.52 m) 
3 between sprinklers 
and top of storage 



Maximum 10 ft 
(3.05 m) between 
sprinklers and floor 



Loading Aisle Elevation 

Notes: 

1 . Sprinklers labeled 1 , 2, and 3 shall be required if loads labeled A 
represent top of storage. 

2. Sprinklers labeled 1 , 2, and 4 shall be required if loads labeled B 
represent top of storage. 

3. For storage higher than represented by loads labeled 0, the cycle 
defined by Notes 1 and 2 is repeated, with stagger as indicated. 

4. Symbol A or x indicates sprinklers on vertical or horizontal stagger. 

5. Each square represents a storage cube measuring 4 ft to 5 ft (1 .22 m 
to 1 .53 m) on a side. Actual load heights can vary from approximately 
18 in. (0.46 m) up to 10 ft (3.05 m). Therefore, there could be as few as 
one load or as many as six or seven loads between in-rack sprinklers 
that are spaced 10 ft (3.05 m) apart vertically. 

FIGURE 12.3.4.4.1.3(c) In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, 
Class I, Class II, Class III, or Class IV Commodities — 
Multiple-Row Racks, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m). 

12.3.4.4.2 In-Rack Sprinkler Spacing for Rack Storage of 
Class I through Class IV Commodities Stored Over 25 ft 
(7.6 m) in Height. 

12.3.4.4.2.1 In-Rack Sprinkler Spacing. In-rack sprinklers 
shall be staggered horizontally and vertically where installed 
in accordance with Table 12.3.4.1.1, Figure 12.3.4.4.1.1(a) 
through Figure 12.3.4.4.1.1 (j) and Figure 12.3.4.4.1.2(a) 
through Figure 12.3.4.4.1.2(e). 

12.3.4.4.2.2 In-rack sprinklers for storage higher than 25 ft 
(7.6 m) in double-row racks shall be spaced horizontally and 
located in the horizontal space nearest the vertical intervals 
specified in Table 12.3.4.1.1 and Figure 12.3.4.4.1.1(a) 
through Figure 12.3.4.4.1.1 (j). 

12.3.4.4.2.3 In-Rack Sprinkler Spacing. Maximum horizontal 
spacing of sprinklers in multiple-row racks with storage higher 
than 25 ft (7.6 m) shall be in accordance with Figure 
12.3.4.4.1.3(a) through Figure 12.3.4.4.1.3(c). 



12.3.4.4.3 In-Rack Sprinkler Water Demand for Rack Storage 
of Class I through Class IV Commodities Stored Over 25 ft 
(7.6 m) in Height. The water demand for sprinklers installed 
in racks shall be based on simultaneous operation of the most 
hydraulically remote sprinklers as follows: 

(1) Six sprinklers where only one level is installed in racks 
with Class I, Class II, or Class III commodities 

(2) Eight sprinklers where only one level is installed in racks 
with Class IV commodities 

(3) Ten sprinklers (five on each two top levels) where more 
than one level is installed in racks with Class I, Class II, or 
Class III commodities 

(4) Fourteen sprinklers (seven on each two top levels) where 
more than one level is installed in racks with Class IV 
commodities 

12.3.4.4.4 In-Rack Sprinkler Discharge for Rack Storage of 
Class I through Class IV Commodities Stored Over 25 ft (7.6 m) 
in Height. Sprinklers in racks shall discharge at a rate not less 
than 30 gpm (113.6 L/min) for all classes of commodities. 

12.3.4.5 Special Design for Rack Storage of Class I through 
Class IV Commodities Stored Over 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height. 

12.3.4.5.1 High-Expansion Foam Systems. Where high- 
expansion foam is used in combination with ceiling sprin- 
klers, the minimum ceiling sprinkler design density shall be 
0.2 gpm/ft 2 (8.2 mm/min) for Class I, Class II, or Class III 
commodities and 0.25 gpm/ft 2 (10.2 mm/min) for Class IV 
commodities for the most hydraulically remote 2000-ft 2 
(186-m 2 ) area. 

12.3.4.5.1.1 Where high-expansion foam is used in combina- 
tion with ceiling sprinklers, the minimum ceiling sprinkler 
design density shall be 0.2 gpm/ft 2 (8.2 mm/min) for Class I, 
Class II, or Class III commodities and 0.25 gpm/ft 2 (10.2 mm/ 
min) for Class IV commodities for the most hydraulically re- 
mote 2000-ft 2 (186-m 2 ) operating area. 

12.3.4.5.1.2 Where high-expansion foam systems are used for 
storage over 25 ft (7.6 m) high up to and including 35 ft 
(10.7 m) high, they shall be used in combination with ceiling 
sprinklers. The maximum submergence time for the high- 
expansion foam shall be 5 minutes for Class I, Class II, or Class 
III commodities and 4 minutes for Class IV commodities. 

12.3.5 Protection Criteria for Rack Storage of Plastics Com- 
modities Stored Over 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height. 

12.3.5.1 Control Mode Density-Area Sprinkler Protection Crite- 
ria for Rack Storage of Plastics Commodities Stored Over 25 ft 
(7.6 m) in Height for Single-, Double-, and Multiple-Row Racks. 

12.3.5.1.1 Ceiling Sprinkler Water Demand. For Group A plas- 
tic commodities in cartons, encapsulated or nonencapsulated, 
ceiling sprinkler water demand in terms of density [gpm/ft 2 
(mm/min)] and area of operation [ft 2 (m 2 )] shall be selected 
from Table 12.3.5.1.1. 

12.3.5.1.2 Where a single-row rack is mixed with double-row 
racks, either Figure 12.3.5.1.2(a) or Figure 12.3.5.1.2(b) shall 
be used in accordance with the corresponding storage height. 

12.3.5.1.2.1 Figure 12.3.5.1.2.1(a) through Figure 12.3.5.1.2.1(c) 
shall be permitted to be used for the protection of the single- 
row racks. 

12.3.5.1.3 The minimum water supply requirements for a hy- 
draulically designed occupancy hazard fire control sprinkler sys- 
tem shall be determined by adding the hose stream demand 
from Table 12.3.5.1.3 to the water supply for sprinklers deter- 
mined in 12.3.5. This supply shall be available for the minimum 
duration specified in Table 12.3.5.1.3. 



2002 Edition 



13-154 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Table 12.3.5.1.1 Control Mode Density-Area Sprinkler 
Discharge Criteria for Single-, Double-, and Multiple-Row 
Racks of Plastics Commodities with Storage Over 25 ft 
(7.6 m) in Height 



Storage Height above Top 
Level In-Rack Sprinklers 



Ceiling Sprinklers Density 
(gpm/ft 2 ) 



5 ft or less 

Over 5 ft up to 10 ft 



0.30/2000 
0.45/2000 




□ DD 

_ BBS 




□ DD 



-0" A 
X 

-o l '« 

X 
"°i L 


A 
1 

S 
L 

E 


X 
4 

X" 
A 


> L 

X 

... x 

1 ,\ 


y v.B 

b 


arriers 
ackgro 


showr 
jnd 


with A 



Elevation View 



Plan View 



Notes: 

1 . Sprinklers and barriers labeled 1 shall be required where loads 
labeled A or B represent top of storage. 

2. Sprinklers labeled 1 and 2 and barriers labeled 1 shall be required 
where loads labeled C represent top of storage. 

3. Sprinklers and barriers labeled 1 and 3 shall be required where 
loads labeled Dor E represent top of storage. 

4. For storage higher than represented by loads labeled E, the cycle 
defined by Notes 2 and 3 is repeated. 

5. Symbol A or x indicates face sprinklers on vertical or horizontal 
stagger. 

6. Symbol o indicates longitudinal flue space sprinklers. 

7. Each square represents a storage cube measuring 4 ft to 5 ft (1 .22 m 
to 1 .53 m) on a side. Actual load heights can vary from approximately 
18 in. (0.46 m) up to 10 ft (3.05 m). Therefore, there could be as few as 
one load or as many as six or seven loads between in-rack sprinklers 
that are spaced 10 ft (3.05 m) apart vertically. 

FIGURE 12.3.5.1.2(a) In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, 
Group A Plastic Commodities, Storage Height Over 25 ft 
(7.6 m) — Option 1. 



D DD 




h 

HE] | 
R R R 5 




□ ;□ 

□ !□□ 

□ DD 









X 


X 


x 








X 


X 


x 








X 


X 


X 








X 


X 


x 








- 


" 


-f 



Elevation View 



Plan View 



Notes: 

1 . Sprinklers labeled 1 shall be required where loads labeled A or B 
represent top of storage. 

2. Sprinklers labeled 1 and 2 shall be required where loads labeled 
C represent top of storage. 

3. Sprinklers labeled 1 and 3 shall be required where loads labeled D 
or E represent top of storage. 

4. For storage higher than loads labeled F, the cycle defined by 
Notes 2 and 3 is repeated. 

5. Symbol x indicates face and in-rack sprinklers. 

6. Each square represents a storage cube measuring 4 ft to 5 ft (1 .22 m 
to 1 .53 m) on a side. Actual load heights can vary from approximately 
18 in. (0.46 m) up to 10 ft (3.05 m). Therefore, there could be as few as 
one load or as many as six or seven loads between in-rack sprinklers 
that are spaced 10 ft (3.05 m) apart vertically. 

FIGURE 12.3.5.1.2(b) In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, 
Group A Plastic Commodities, Storage Height Over 25 ft 
(7.6 m) — Option 2. 



2002 Edition 



STORAGE 



13-155 



□ 


V 


A 

□ 


D 


□ 


□ 

A 


X 

□ 


□ 


□ 


□ 

A 


A 

□ 


D 


□ 


□ 

A 


X 

n 


□ 


□ 


^ 


□ 


Plan View 


□ 




□ 




□ 




/W////\\\WW/ 

Elevation Viev 


/ 



Note: Each square represents a storage cube measuring 4 ft to 5 ft 
(1 .22 m to 1 .53 m) on a side. Actual load heights can vary from 
approximately 18 in. (0.46 m) up to 10 ft (3.05 m). Therefore, there 
could be as few as one load or as many as six or seven loads between 
in-rack sprinklers that are spaced 10 ft (3.05 m) apart vertically. 

FIGURE 12.3.5.1.2.1(a) In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, 
Group A Plastic Commodities, Single-Row Racks, Storage 
Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 1. 



□ 


V. 


X 

□ 


D 


□ 


□ 


□ 


□ 


X 

□ 


□ 


□ 


□ 


□ 


□ 


X 

n 


□ 


□ 


^ 


□ 


Plan View 


□ 




□ 




□ 




A\\W/A\\WW 
Elevation Viev 


/ 



Note: Each square represents a storage cube measuring 4 ft to 5 ft 
(1 .22 m to 1 .53 m) on a side. Actual load heights can vary from 
approximately 18 in. (0.46 m) up to 10 ft (3.05 m). Therefore, there 
could be as few as one load or as many as six or seven loads between 
in-rack sprinklers that are spaced 10 ft (3.05m) apart vertically. 

FIGURE 12.3.5.1.2.1(b) In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, 
Group A Plastic Commodities, Single-Row Racks, Storage 
Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 2. 



2002 Edition 



13-156 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Barriers 



X 



□ 

x 

□ 

□ 

X 

□ 

□ 

X 

□ 
□ 

Plan View 



Elevation View 

Note: Each square represents a storage cube measuring 4 ft to 5 ft 
(1 .22 m to 1 .53 m) on a side. Actual load heights can vary from 
approximately 18 in. (0.46 m) up to 10 ft (3.05 m). Therefore, there 
could be as few as one load or as many as six or seven loads between 
in-rack sprinklers that are spaced 10 ft (3.05 m) apart vertically. 

FIGURE 12.3.5.1.2.1(c) In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, 
Group A Plastic Commodities, Single-Row Racks, Storage 
Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 3. 



12.3.5.2 Large Drop Sprinklers and Specific Application Con- 
trol Mode Sprinklers for Rack Storage of Plastics Commodi- 
ties Stored Over 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height. 

12.3.5.3* Early Suppression Fast-Response (ESFR) Sprinklers 
for Rack Storage of Plastics Commodities Stored Over 25 ft 
(7.6 m) in Height. 

12.3.5.3.1 Protection of single-, double-, and multiple-row 
rack storage of cartoned or uncartoned unexpanded plastic 
and cartoned expanded plastic shall be in accordance with 
Table 12.3.5.3.1. 



12.3.5.3.1.1 ESFR protection as defined shall not apply to the 
following: 

(1) Rack storage involving solid shelves 

(2) Rack storage involving combustible, open-top cartons or 
containers 

12.3.5.3.2 ESFR sprinkler systems shall be designed such that 
the minimum operating pressure is not less than that indi- 
cated in Table 12.3.5.3.1 for type of storage, commodity, stor- 
age height, and building height involved. 

12.3.5.3.3 The design area shall consist of the most hydrauli- 
cally demanding area of 12 sprinklers, consisting of four sprin- 
klers on each of three branch lines. The design shall include a 
minimum of 960 ft 2 (89 m 2 ). 

12.3.5.3.4 Where required by Table 12.3.5.3.1, one level of 
K-8.0 quick-response, ordinary-temperature in-rack sprinklers 
shall be installed at the tier level closest to but not exceeding 
V-2. of the maximum storage height. In-rack sprinkler hydraulic 
design criteria shall be the most hydraulically remote eight 
sprinklers at 50 psi (3.4 bar). In-rack sprinklers shall be lo- 
cated at the intersection of the longitudinal and transverse 
flue space. Horizontal spacing shall not be permitted to ex- 
ceed 5-ft (1.5-m) intervals. 

12.3.5.3.5 Where ESFR sprinklers are installed above and be- 
low obstructions, the discharge for up to two sprinklers for 
one of the levels shall be included with those of the other level 
in the hydraulic calculations. 

12.3.5.4 In-Rack Sprinklers for Rack Storage of Plastics Com- 
modities Stored Over 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height. 

12.3.5.4.1 In-Rack Sprinkler Location for Rack Storage of 
Plastics Commodities Stored Over 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height. 

12.3.5.4.1.1 In double-row racks without solid shelves and 
with a maximum of 10 ft (3.1 m) between the top of storage 
and the ceiling, in-rack sprinklers shall be installed in accor- 
dance with Figure 12.3.5.1.2(a) or Figure 12.3.5.1.2(b). The 
highest level of in-rack sprinklers shall be not more than 10 ft 
(3.1 m) below the top of storage. 

12.3.5.4.1.2 In single-row racks without solid shelves with 
storage height over 25 ft (7.6 m) and a maximum of 10 ft 
(3.1 m) between the top of storage and the ceiling, sprin- 
klers shall be installed as indicated in Figure 12.3.5.1.2.1 (a), Fig- 
ure 12.3.5.1.2.1(b), or Figure 12.3.5.1.2.1(c). 

12.3.5.4.1.3* In multiple-row racks without solid shelves with 
storage height over 25 ft (7.6 m) and a maximum of 10 ft 
(3.1 m) between the top of storage and the roof/ceiling, in- 
rack sprinklers shall be installed as indicated in Figure 
12.3.5.4.1.3(a) through Figure 12.3.5.4.1.3(f). 



Table 12.3.5.1.3 Hose Stream Demand and Water Supply Duration Requirements for Rack 
Storage of Plastics Commodities Stored Above 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height 



Commodity 



Storage Height 



Inside Hose 



Total Combined Inside and 
Outside Hose 



Duration 



Classification 


ft 


m 


gpm 


L/min 


gpm 


L/min 


(minutes) 


Plastic 


>25 


>7.6 


0, 50, 100 


0, 190, 380 


500 


1900 


120 



2002 Edition 



STORAGE 



13-157 



Table 12.3.5.3.1 ESFR Protection of Rack Storage without Solid Shelves of Plastics Commodities 
Stored Over 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height 



Storage 
Arrangement 



Commodity 



Maximum 
Storage Height 



Maximum 

Ceiling/ Roof 

Height 



ft m 



Nominal 
K-Factor 



Orientation 



Minimum 
Operating 
Pressure 



psi 



bar 



In-Rack 

Sprinkler 

Requirements 



Hose Stream 
Demand 



gpm L/min 



Water 

Supply 

Duration 

(hours) 



14.0 



Upright or 
pendent 



75 



5.2 



35 



10.7 



16.8 



Pendent 



52 



3.6 



25.2 



Pendent 



20 



1.4 



14.0 



Pendent 



75 



5.2 



30 



9.1 



40 



12.2 



16.8 



Pendent 



52 



3.6 



25.2 



Pendent 



25 



1.7 



14.0 



Pendent 



90 



6.2 



45 



13.7 



16.8 



Pendent 



63 



4.3 



Cartoned 
unexpanded 



25.2 



Pendent 



40 



2.8 



14.0 



Pendent 



75 



5.2 



40 



12.2 



16.8 



Pendent 



52 



3.6 



25.2 



Pendent 



25 



1.7 



35 



10.7 



14.0 



Pendent 



90 



6.2 



Single-row, 
Double-row 
and 

Multiple-row 
Rack (No 
open-top 
containers) 



45 



13.7 



16.8 



Pendent 



63 



4.3 



25.2 



Pendent 



40 



2.8 



14.0 



Pendent 



90 



6.2 



40 



12.2 



45 



13.7 



16.8 



Pendent 



63 



4.3 



25.2 



Pendent 



40 



2.8 



14.0 



Pendent 



75 



5.2 



35 



10.7 



16.8 



Pendent 



52 



3.6 



14.0 



Pendent 



75 



5.2 



30 



9.1 



40 



12.2 



16.8 



Pendent 



52 



3.6 



14.0 



Pendent 



90 



6.2 



45 



13.7 



Exposed 
unexpanded 



16.8 



Pendent 



63 



4.3 



14.0 



Pendent 



75 



5.2 



40 



12.2 



16.8 



Pendent 



52 



3.6 



35 



10.7 



14.0 



Pendent 



90 



6.2 



45 



13.7 



16.8 



Pendent 



63 



4.3 



14.0 



Pendent 



90 



6.2 



40 



12.2 



45 



13.7 



16.8 



Pendent 



63 



4.3 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



Yes 



Yes 



No 



No 



No 



No 



Yes 



Yes 



No 



Yes 



Yes 



No 



No 



No 



No 



No 



Yes 



Yes 



No 



No 



Yes 



Yes 



Yes 



Yes 



250 



946 



2002 Edition 



13-158 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



18 in. (0.46 m) 
maximum 







X ..-■ 


X 














X 


X 














y 1 -"-' ••'•". x 


-.■•;.■ ■.■::.'■ 



II 

a- to 



n 



8 ft (2.44 m) Face S p r j n kiers 
maximum A 






\ 








x-...- 


-. X 




















X-"-- ■ 


■- -X 


A 










1 

S 
I 








St '. : 


'•■ X 




.^=-;i !•■•::; 














X 


X 


'V 


X 


























X 


X 


1 "x 1 


X 


























V" 


X 


x x 

























A 
I 
S 

L 

E 



1^ 



Barrier 



Barrier 



iT 



Barrier 



D 
D 



f 

10ft 

(3.05 m) 

approximately 

f_ 



Plan View 



Elevation View 



Note: Each square represents a storage cube measuring 4 ft to 5 ft (1 .22 m to 1 .53 m) on a side. Actual load heights can vary from approximately 
18 in. (0.46 m) up to 10 ft (3.05 m). Therefore, there could be as few as one load or as many as six or seven loads between in-rack sprinklers that 
are spaced 10 ft (3.05 m) apart vertically. 

FIGURE 12.3.5.4.1.3(a) In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, Cartoned Plastic and Uncartoned 
Unexpanded Plastic, Multiple-Row Racks, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 1 
(10 ft Maximum Spacing). 



18 in. (0.46 m) 
maximum 



x * 

x- 

ft] 

1 V ' 


X 


: >..X 



P 



u 



> '■ / ' /- 



maximum Face sprinklers 



x ' X ] 



1 / I ^- 



\ 






- X 
1 > '■■■> 


A 
1 

S 
L 

E 


X;.,.- ■ 

X -^ 


'■'■# ■ 

"X 



Plan View 



3 















1T~ 


— T 




r*" 


X 


^^Jf 






































X 


X 




: 


X 


x 






































lT~ 


— T 




r™" 


X 


X 







































A 
I 

S 
L 

E 



v~ 



Barrier 



•Barrier 



y- Barrier 

f 
10ft 
(3.05 m) 
approximately 

i_ 



Elevation View 

Note: Each square represents a storage cube measuring 4 ft to 5 ft (1 .22 m to 1 .53 m) on 
a side. Actual load heights can vary from approximately 18 in. (0.46 m) up to 10 ft (3.05 m). 
Therefore, there could be as few as one load or as many as six or seven loads between 
in-rack sprinklers that are spaced 10 ft (3.05 m) apart vertically. 

FIGURE 12.3.5.4.1.3(b) In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, Cartoned Plastic and Uncartoned 
Unexpanded Plastic, Multiple-Row Racks, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 2 
(10 ft Maximum Spacing). 



2002 Edition 



STORAGE 



13-159 



1 8 in. (0.46 m) ■ 
maximum 



CM 5 

«? E 



r~ 

A 
I 

S 
L 

E 







X 


X 






X 


X 






X 


X 






X 


X 






X X 


II 

1 — * — l_l — J__l 



n 



8 ft (2.44 m) 

maximum Face sprinklers 



\ 




<x 


X 






X 


X 






X 


X 






x 


X 






X 


"X 







1 — L 

* — L 


J — r 
J — r 











X X 


X X 


























X 


X 


"TT 


X 


























T"" 


X 


,- r 


x 



























!^F 



>^ 



1^ 



1^ 



Barrier 



Barrier 



f 



Barrier 



t 

10ft 

(3.05 m) 

approximately 

L 



Plan View 



Elevation View 



Note: Each square represents a storage cube measuring 4 ft to 5 ft (1 .22 m to 1 .53 m) on a side. Actual load heights can vary from approximately 
1 8 in. (0.46 m) up to 1 ft (3.05 m). Therefore, there could be as few as one load or as many as six or seven loads between in-rack sprinklers that 
are spaced 10 ft (3.05 m) apart vertically. 

FIGURE 12.3.5.4.1.3(c) In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, Cartoned Plastic and Uncartoned 
Unexpanded Plastic, Multiple-Row Racks, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 1 
(5 ft Maximum Spacing). 



18 in. (0.46 m)-* 
maximum 

?E 

CM 3 

w E 

■>- X 

*=E 









X 


X 


X 








X 


V 


x 








X 


X 


X 








X 


X 


x 








X 


X 


X 


+- 


^ 


■— * — ■ 



1 



-8 ft (2.44 m) 
maximum Face sprinklers 



z£n 



\ 










XX X 












x x X 












XXX 












xxx 












xxx 




— ■/— ' — f — 1 — * — 



Plan View 















x 1 


'T 




r — "■ 


■"X 


— r 






































X 


x 




: 


x 


x 






































X 


X 1 




! 


Y 


T 







































\sT 



V~ 



Barrier 



■Barrier 



iT 



Barrier 



t 

10 ft 

(3.05 m) 

approximately 

L 



Elevation View 

Note: Each square represents a storage cube measuring 4 ft to 5 ft (1 .22 m to 1 .53 m) 
on a side. Actual load heights can vary from approximately 18 in. (0.46 m) up to 10 ft 
(3.05 m). Therefore, there could be as few as one load or as many as six or seven 
loads between in-rack sprinklers that are spaced 10 ft (3.05 m) apart vertically. 

FIGURE 12.3.5.4.1.3(d) In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, Cartoned Plastic and Uncartoned 
Unexpanded Plastic, Multiple-Row Racks, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 2 
(5 ft Maximum Spacing). 



2002 Edition 



13-160 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



18 in. (0.46 m) -> 
maximum 

CM 3 

w E 



?sz 



3^ -to 
*=E 



2S: 



3* 



££ 



35 



35 



8 ft (2.44 m) 

maximum Face sprinklers 



"xa 



*~~g. 



x a x 



AC 



32 



3=5 



221 



=22 



SC 



3S 



IS* 



5d E LULU E & 



3S 



Plan View 



PP 
PP 






















E ZS S 



" 2 




Elevation View 

Note: Each square represents a storage cube measuring 4 ft to 5 ft 
(1 .22 m to 1 .53 m) on a side. Actual load heights can vary from 
approximately 18 in. (0.46 m) up to 10 ft (3.05 m). Therefore, there 
could be as few as one load or as many as six or seven loads between 
in-rack sprinklers that are spaced 10 ft (3.05 m) apart vertically. 

FIGURE 12.3.5.4.1.3(e) In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, 
Cartoned Plastic and Uncartoned Unexpanded Plastic, 
Multiple-Row Racks, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — 
Option 3 (5 ft Maximum Spacing). 



18 in. (0.46 m) 
maximum 



T 



x A 


f A 








A AX 








X A 


! A 








A AX 








X A 


[ A 








A AX 


I — * — I * 


^P 



EEr*— f 



^E 



*~~! A 7 



* ? 



A 
I 
S 

L 

1 E E 



* — g 



8 ft (2.44 m) 

maximum Face sprinklers 

X AX A x £f /\ ^ A g A. 



CZS 



A X A X~ 



g — '■■ A "x- 



X A =£ 



czs 



5=S 



A * A — T 



x A ;nzg 



g — '■ 4 * 



Plan View 









1 


, 


A 








X 




; 








I 


L 


A 








X 




: 








J 


L 


A 








X 




[ 









& 8 A g 



X A IZZS 



1 E c 



A * A X- 



X A X A 



3ZUZZZ3ZZZ 

















A A ii 














X 




; x 
















. , 


A A A 














X 




[ x 


: 














A 


A A A 














X 




; x 

















V 



A S 

" 

I A 

x 

X X : 



Elevation View 

Note: Each square represents a storage cube measuring 4 ft to 5 ft 
(1 .22 m to 1 .53 m) on a side. Actual load heights can vary from 
approximately 18 in. (0.46 m) up to 10 ft (3.05 m). Therefore, there 
could be as few as one load or as many as six or seven loads between 
in-rack sprinklers that are spaced 10 ft (3.05 m) apart vertically. 

FIGURE 12.3.5.4.1.3(f) In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, Car- 
toned Plastic and Uncartoned Unexpanded Plastic, Multiple- 
Row Racks, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 4 
(5 ft Maximum Spacing). 



2002 Edition 



STORAGE 



13-161 



12.3.5.4.1.4 In single-row and double-row racks without solid 
shelves with storage height over 25 ft (7.6 m) with aisles 
greater than 4 ft (1.2 m), in-rack sprinklers shall be located in 
accordance with Figure 12.3.5.4.1.4 and the ceiling sprinklers 
shall be designed for 0.45 gpm/ft 2 over a minimum design 
area of 2000 ft 2 . 



24 ft 



(7.31 m) 

15 ft BjtJIJ^m) 
(4.57 m) £_ 



6 in. (152 mm 
Sprinklers 




2J3% ft (1.06 m) 



3 1 / 2 ft 
(190 mm) (1.06 m) 

Plan View 



6ft 
(1.83 m)_ 




nn 


nn 


nn 


v 

N — Ceiling 






n'r 


n'r 


^^ Rack uprights 




T 


nr 


nr 






T 


n'r 




JT4 ft (1.22 m) 




nr 


nr 


nr 


Pallet loads 


54 ft 
(16.46 m) 




n'r 


n'r 


^ — Pallets 












r-6 in. (152 mm) 




T 


n'r 


n'r 


-*- Deflector to 
\ top of load 




T 


nr 


nr 






nr 


n'r 




r — 12 in. /— Fl 

-J- (305 mm) / 

T / 


' 


nr 


nr 


nr 



Elevation View 

Notes: 

1 . Sprinklers in alternate tiers at every transverse flue space. 

2. Each square represents a storage cube measuring 4 ft to 5 ft (1 .22 m 
to 1 .53 m) on a side. Actual load heights can vary from approximately 
18 in. (0.46 m) up to 10 ft (3.05 m). Therefore, there could be as few as 
one load or as many as six or seven loads between in-rack sprinklers 
that are spaced 10 ft (3.05 m) apart vertically. 

FIGURE 12.3.5.4.1.4 In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, Car- 
toned Expanded and Unexpanded Plastic and Uncartoned 
Unexpanded Plastic Commodities, Single- and Double-Row 
Racks, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m). 



12.3.5.4.2 In-Rack Sprinkler Spacing for Rack Storage of 
Plastics Commodities Stored Over 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height. 

12.3.5.4.2.1 In-rack sprinklers for storage higher than 25 ft 
(7.6 m) in double-row racks shall be spaced horizontally and shall 
be located in the horizontal space nearest the vertical intervals 
specified in Figure 12.3.5.1.2(a) or Figure 12.3.5.1.2(b). 

12.3.5.4.2.2 The minimum of 6-in. (152.4-mm) vertical clear 
space shall be maintained between the sprinkler deflectors 
and the top of a tier of storage. 



12.3.5.4.3 In-Rack Sprinkler Water Demand for Rack Storage 
of Plastics Commodities Stored Over 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height. 

The water demand for sprinklers installed in racks shall be 
based on simultaneous operation of the most hydraulically re- 
mote sprinklers as follows: 

(1) Eight sprinklers where only one level is installed in racks 

(2) Fourteen sprinklers (seven on each top two levels) where 
more than one level is installed in racks 

12.3.5.4.4 In-Rack Sprinkler Discharge Pressure for Rack 
Storage of Plastics Commodities Stored Over 25 ft (7.6 m) in 
Height. Sprinklers in racks shall discharge at not less than 
30gpm (113.6 L/min). 

12.4 Protection of Rubber Tire Storage. 

12.4.1 General. The sprinkler system criteria of Section 12.4 
shall apply to buildings with ceiling slopes not exceeding 2 in 12 
(16.7 percent). 

12.4.1.1 Columns within Rubber Tire Storage . 

12.4.1.1.1 Where fireproofing is not provided, steel columns 
shall be protected as follows: 

(1) Storage exceeding 15 ft through 20 ft (4.6 m through 
6 m) in height — one sidewall sprinkler directed to one 
side of the column at a 15-ft (4.6-m) level 

(2) Storage exceeding 20 ft (6.1 m) in height — two sidewall 
sprinklers, one at the top of the column and the other at a 
15-ft (4.6-m) level, both directed to the side of the column 

12.4.1.1.2 The flow from a column sprinkler(s) shall be 
permitted to be omitted from the sprinkler system hydrau- 
lic calculations. 

12.4.1.2 The protection specified in 12.3.1.7, 12.4.1.1.1(1), 
and 12.4.1.1.1(2) shall not be required where storage in fixed 
racks is protected by in-rack sprinklers. 

12.4.1.3 The protection specified in 12.4.1.1.1 shall not be 
required where ESFR or large drop sprinkler systems that are 
approved for rubber tire storage are installed. 

12.4.1.4 The rate of water supply shall be sufficient to provide 
the required sprinkler discharge density over the required 
area of application plus provision for generation of high- 
expansion foam and in-rack sprinklers where used. 

12.4.1.5 Total water supplies shall be in accordance with the 
following options: 

(1) A minimum of not less than 750 gpm (2835 L/min) for 
hose streams in addition to that required for automatic 
sprinklers and foam systems. Water supplies shall be ca- 
pable of supplying the demand for sprinkler systems and 
hose streams for not less than 3 hours. 

(2) For on-floor storage up to and including 5 ft (1.5 m) in 
height, hose stream requirements shall be permitted to 
be 250 gpm (946 L/min) with a water supply duration of 
not less than 2 hours. 

(3) For ESFR and large drop sprinkler systems approved for 
rubber tire storage, duration and hose demand shall be in 
accordance with Table 12.4.2(c) and Table 12.4.2(d). 

12.4.1.6 Miscellaneous Tire Storage. Miscellaneous tire stor- 
age shall be protected in accordance with 12.1.10. 

12.4.2* Ceiling Systems. Sprinkler discharge and area of appli- 
cation shall be in accordance with Table 12.4.2(a) and Table 
12.4.2(b) for standard spray sprinklers. Large drop and ESFR 
sprinklers shall be in accordance with Table 12.4.2(c) and 
Table 12.4.2(d), respectively. 



2002 Edition 



13-162 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Table 12.4.2(a) Protection Criteria for Rubber Tire Storage Using Control Mode Density-Area Sprinklers 



Areas of Application (ft 2 ) 

(see Note 1) 



Piling Method 



Piling Height (ft) 



Sprinkler Discharge Density 
(gpm/ft 2 ) 

(see Note 1) 



Ordinary 
Temperature 



High 
Temperature 

(see Note 1) 



(1) On-floor storage Up to 5 

(a) Pyramid piles, on-side Over 5 to 12 

(b) Other arrangements such that no Over 12 to 18 
horizontal channels are formed (see 

Note 2) 



0.19 



2000 



2000 



0.30 



2500 



2500 



0.60 



Not allowed 



2500 



(2) On-floor storage 
Tires on-tread 



Up to 5 


0.19 


2000 


2000 


Over 5 to 12 


0.30 


2500 


2500 


Up to 5 


0.19 


2000 


2000 


Over 5 to 20 


See Table 12.4.2(b) 


— 


— 



(3) Palletized portable rack storage 
On-side or on-tread 



Over 20 to 30 



0.30 plus high-expansion 
foam 



3000 



3000 



(4) Palletized portable rack storage On-side Up to 5 



0.19 



2000 



2000 



Over 5 to 20 



See Table 12.4.2(b) 



20 to 25 



0.60 and 

0.90 (see Note 3) or 

0.75 with 1-hour fire-resistive 


Not allowed 
Not allowed 
Not allowed 


5000 
3000 
4000 


rating of roof and ceiling 
assembly 







(5) Open portable rack storage, on-side or 
on-tread 



Up to 5 



0.19 



2000 



2000 



Over 5 to 12 



0.60 



5000 



3000 



(6) Single-, double-, and multiple-row fixed Up to 5 
rack storage on pallets, on-side or 
on-tread 



Over 12 to 20 


0.60 and 

0.90 (see Note 3) or 
0.30 plus high-expansion 
foam 


Not allowed 

Not allowed 

3000 


5000 
3000 
3000 


Up to 5 


0.19 


2000 


2000 


Over 5 to 20 


See Table 12.4.2(b) or 0.40 
plus one level in-rack 
sprinklers or 

0.30 plus high-expansion 
foam 


3000 
3000 


3000 
3000 


Over 20 to 30 


0.30 plus high-expansion 
foam 


Not allowed 


3000 



(7) Single-, double-, and multiple-row fixed Up to 5 
rack storage without pallets or shelves 
on-side or on-tread 



0.19 



2000 



2000 



Over 5 to 12 



0.60 



5000 



3000 



Over 12 to 20 


0.60 and 

0.90 (see Note 3) or 

0.40 plus one level in-rack 

sprinklers or 
0.30 plus high-expansion 

foam 


Not allowed 

Not allowed 

3000 

3000 


5000 
3000 
3000 

3000 


Over 20 to 30 


0.30 plus high-expansion 
foam 


Not allowed 


3000 



For SI units, 1 ft = 0.3048 m; 1 ft 2 = 0.0929 m 2 ; 1 gpm/ft 2 = 40.746 mm/min. 
Notes: 

1. Sprinkler discharge densities and areas of application are based on a maximum clearance of 10 ft (3.1 m) 
between sprinkler deflectors and the maximum available height of storage. The maximum clearance is noted 
from actual testing and is not a definitive measurement. 

2. Laced tires on-floor, vertical stacking on-side (typical truck tires), and off-road tires. Laced tires are not 
stored to a significant height by this method due to the damage inflicted on the tire (i.e., bead). 

3. Water supply shall fulfill both requirements. 



2002 Edition 



STORAGE 



13-163 



Table 12.4.2(b) Control Mode Density-Area Sprinklers System Density for Palletized Portable 
Rack Storage and Fixed Rack Storage of Rubber Tires with Pallets, Over 5 ft to 20 ft in Height 



Sprinkler Temperature 



Storage Height 



High Temperature 



Ordinary Temperature 



>5 ft to 10 ft 
>10fttol2ft 
>12fttol4ft 
>14fttol6ft 
>16fttol8ft 
>18 ft to 20 ft 



0.32/2000 
0.39/2000 
0.45/2000 
0.5/2300 
0.55/2600 
0.6/3000 



0.32/2000 
0.39/2600 
0.45/3200 
0.5/3700 
0.55/4400 
0.6/5000 



Table 12.4.2(c) Large Drop Sprinklers and Specific Application Control Mode Sprinkler 
Protection for Rubber Tires (see Note 1) 



Piling Method 



Pile Height 



Number of Sprinklers and 
Minimum Operating 
Pressures (see Note 2) 



Maximum Building Duration Hose 

Height (hr) Demand 



Rubber tire storage, on-side 
or on-tread, in palletized 
portable racks, or open 
portable racks, or fixed 
racks without solid 
shelves 



Up to 25 ft (7.6 m) 



15 sprinklers at 75 psi (5.2 
bar) (see Note 3) 



32 ft (9.8 m) 



500 gpm 

(1893 
L/min) 



Notes: 

1. Wet systems only. 

2. Sprinkler operating pressures and number of sprinklers in the design are based on tests in which the 
clearance was 5 ft to 7 ft (1.5 m to 2.1 m) between the sprinkler deflector and the maximum height 

of storage. 

3. The design area shall consist of the most hydraulically demanding area of 15 sprinklers, consisting of five 
sprinklers on each of three branch lines. The design shall include a minimum operating area of 1200 ft 2 
(112 m 2 ) and a maximum operating area of 1500 ft 2 (139 m 2 ) and shall utilize a high temperature-rated 
sprinkler. 



2002 Edition 



13-164 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Table 12.4.2(d) Early Suppression Fast-Response (ESFR) Sprinklers for Protection of Rubber Tires (see Note 1) 





Pile Height 


Maximum 
Building 
Height 


Nominal 
K-factor 


Orientation 


Number of 
Sprinklers 

(see Note 2) 


Minimum 
Operating 
Pressure 

(see Note 2) 


Duration 
(hours) 


Hose Demand 


Piling Method 


ft 


m 


psi 


bar 


gpm 


L/min 


Rubber tire storage, 
on-side or on-tread, in 
palletized portable 
racks, open portable 


Up to 25 ft 
(7.6 m) 


30 


9.1 


14.0 


Upright or 
pendent 


12 

(see Note 3) 


50 


3.5 




250 


946 


16.8 


Pendent 


12 

(see Note 3) 


35 


2.4 




250 


946 


racks, or fixed racks 
without solid shelves 


25.2 


Pendent 


12 

(see Note 3) 


15 


1.0 




250 


946 


Rubber tire storage, 
on-side, in palletized 
portable racks, open 
portable racks, or fixed 


Up to 

25 ft(7.6 m) 


35 


10.7 


14.0 


Upright or 
pendent 


12 

(see Note 3) 


75 


5.2 




250 


946 


16.8 


Pendent 


12 

(see Note 3) 


52 


3.6 




250 


946 


racks without solid 
shelves 


25.2 


Pendent 


12 

(see Note 3) 


25 


1.7 




250 


946 


Laced tires in open 
portable steel racks 


Up to 

25 ft(7.6 m) 


30 


9.1 


14.0 


Pendent 


20 

(see Notes 4 
and 5) 


75 


5.2 


3 


500 


1892 


Rubber tire storage, 
on-side, in palletized 
portable racks 


Up to 

25 ft(7.6 m) 


40 


12.2 


14.0 


Pendent 


12 


75 


5.2 


1 


250 


946 



Notes: 

1. Wet systems only. 

2. Sprinkler operating pressures and number of sprinklers in the design are based on tests in which the 
clearance was 5 ft to 7 ft (1.5 m to 2.1 m) between the sprinkler deflector and the maximum height of 
storage. 

3. The shape of the design area shall be in accordance with 12.2.2.3.3 and 12.2.2.3.4. 

4. Where used in this application, ESFR protection is expected to control rather than to suppress the fire. 

5. The design area shall consist of the most hydraulically demanding area of 20 sprinklers, consisting of five 
sprinklers on each of four branch lines. The design shall include a minimum operating area of 1600 ft 2 
(149 m 2 ). 



2002 Edition 



STORAGE 



13-165 



12.4.3 In-Rack Sprinkler System Requirements for Protection 
of Rubber Tires. 

12.4.3.1 In-rack sprinklers, where provided, shall be installed 
in accordance with Section 12.3, except as modified by 

12.4.3.2 through 12.4.3.4. 

12.4.3.2 The maximum horizontal spacing of sprinklers in 
rack shall be 8 ft (2.4 m). 

12.4.3.3 Water demand for sprinklers installed in racks shall 
be based on simultaneous operation of the most hydraulically 
remote 12 sprinklers where only one level is installed in racks. 

12.4.3.4 Sprinklers in racks shall discharge at not less than 
30psi (2.1 bar). 

12.4.4 Where high-expansion foam systems are installed in 
accordance with NFPA 11 A, Standard for Medium- and High- 
Expansion Foam Systems, a reduction in sprinkler discharge 
density to one-half the density specified in Table 12.4.2(a) 
or 0.24 gpm/ft 2 (9.78 mm/min), whichever is higher, shall 
be permitted. 

12.5 Protection of Baled Cotton Storage. 

12.5.1 General. 

12.5.1.1 The total water supply available shall be sufficient to 
provide the recommended sprinkler discharge density over 
the area to be protected, plus a minimum of 500 gpm 
(1893 L/min) for hose streams. 

12.5.1.2 Water supplies shall be capable of supplying the 
total demand for sprinklers and hose streams for not less 
than 2 hours. 

12.5.2 Control Mode Density-Area Sprinkler Protection Crite- 
ria for Baled Cotton Storage. 

12.5.2.1 For tiered or rack storage up to a nominal 15 ft 
(4.6 m) in height, sprinkler discharge densities and areas of 
application shall be in accordance with Table 12.5.2.1. 



Table 12.5.2.1 Baled Cotton Storage Up to and 
Including 15 ft (4.6 m) 



Baled Cotton Storage Up to 
and Including 15 ft 


System Type 


Tiered 

Storage Rack Storage 


Untiered 
Storage 


Wet 
Dry 


0.25/3000 0.33/3000 
0.25/3900 0.33/3900 


0.15/3000 
0.15/3900 



12.5.2.2 Where roof or ceiling heights would prohibit storage 
above a nominal 10 ft (3.1 m), the sprinkler discharge density 
shall be permitted to be reduced by 20 percent of that indi- 
cated in Table 12.5.2.1 but shall not be reduced to less than 
0.15 gpm/ft 2 (6.1 mm/min). 

12.6* Protection of Roll Paper Storage. 

12.6.1 General. 

12.6.1.1 The water supply system for automatic fire protec- 
tion systems shall be designed for a minimum duration of 
2 hours. 



12.6.1.1.1 For ESFR sprinklers, the water supply duration 
shall be 1 hour. 

12.6.1.2 At least 500 gpm (1893 L/min) shall be added to the 
sprinkler demand for large and small hose stream demand. 

12.6.1.2.1 For ESFR sprinklers, the hose stream allowance 
shall be for 250 gpm (947 L/min). 

12.6.1.3 The water supply design shall include the demand of 
the automatic sprinkler system plus the hose stream demand 
plus, where provided, the high-expansion foam system. 

12.6.1.4 Wet pipe systems shall be used in tissue storage areas. 

12.6.1.5 Horizontal storage of heavyweight or mediumweight 
paper shall be protected as a closed array. 

12.6.1.6 Mediumweight paper shall be permitted to be pro- 
tected as heavyweight paper where wrapped completely on the 
sides and both ends, or where wrapped on the sides only with 
steel bands. Wrapping material shall be either a single layer of 
heavyweight paper with a basis weight of 40 lb (18.1 kg) or two 
layers of heavyweight paper with a basis weight of less than 
401b (18.1kg). 

12.6.1.7 Lightweight paper or tissue paper shall be permitted 
to be protected as mediumweight paper where wrapped com- 
pletely on the sides and both ends, or where wrapped on the 
sides only with steel bands. Wrapping material shall be either a 
single layer of heavyweight paper with a basis weight of 40 lb 
(18.1 kg) or two layers of heavyweight paper with a basis 
weight of less than 40 lb (18.1 kg). 

12.6.1.8 For purposes of sprinkler system design criteria, 
lightweight class paper shall be protected as tissue. 

12.6.2* Protection Criteria for the Protection of Roll Paper 
Storage. 

12.6.2.1 Control Mode Density-Area Sprinkler Protection Cri- 
teria for the Protection of Roll Paper Storage. 

12.6.2.1.1 Storage of heavyweight or mediumweight classes 
of rolled paper up to 10 ft (3.1 m) in height shall be protected 
by sprinklers designed for ordinary hazard Group 2 densities. 

12.6.2.1.2 Storage of tissue and lightweight classes of paper 
up to 10 ft (3.1 m) in height shall be protected by sprinklers in 
accordance with extra hazard Group 1 densities. 

12.6.2.1.3 Sprinkler design criteria for storage of roll paper 
10 ft (3.1 m) high and higher in buildings or structures with 
roof or ceilings up to 30 ft (9.1 m) shall be in accordance with 
Table 12.6.2.1.3(a) and Table 12.6.2.1.3(b). 

12.6.2.1.4* High-temperature sprinklers shall be used for in- 
stallations protecting roll paper stored 15 ft (4.6 m) or higher. 

12.6.2.1.5 The protection area per sprinkler shall not exceed 
100 ft 2 (9.3 m 2 ) or be less than 70 ft 2 (6.5 m 2 ). 

12.6.2.1.6 Where high-expansion foam systems are installed 
in heavyweight class and mediumweight class storage areas, 
sprinkler discharge design densities can be reduced to not less 
than 0.24 gpm/ft 2 (9.8 mm/min) with a minimum operating 
area of 2000 ft 2 (186 m 2 ). 

12.6.2.1.7 Where high-expansion foam systems are installed 
in tissue storage areas, sprinkler discharge densities and areas 
of application shall not be reduced below those provided in 
Table 12.6.2.1.3(a) and Table 12.6.2.1.3(b). 



2002 Edition 



13-166 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Table 12.6.2.1.3(a) Control Mode Density-Area Sprinkler Protection Criteria for the Protection of Roll Paper Storage 
Buildings or Structures with Roof or Ceilings Up to 30 ft (Discharge Densities are gpm/ft 2 over ft 2 ) 



for 





Clearance 

(ft) 


Heavyweight 


Mediumweight 




Storage 


Closed 

Array 

Banded or 

Unbanded 


Standard Array 


Open Array 


Closed 

Array 

Banded or 

Unbanded 


Standard Array 


Open 

Array 

Banded or 

Unbanded 


Tissue 


Height 

(ft) 


Banded 


Unbanded 


Banded 


Unbanded 


Banded 


Unbanded 


All Storage 
Array 


10 


<5 


0.3/2000 


0.3/2000 


0.3/2000 


0.3/2000 


0.3/2000 


0.3/2000 


0.3/2000 


0.3/2000 


0.3/2000 


0.45/2000 


10 


>5 


0.3/2000 


0.3/2000 


0.3/2000 


0.3/2000 


0.3/2000 


0.3/2000 


0.3/2000 


0.3/2000 


0.3/2000 


0.45/2500 


15 


<5 


0.3/2000 


0.3/2000 


0.3/2000 


0.3/2500 


0.3/3000 


0.3/2000 


0.3/2000 


0.45/2500 


0.45/2500 


0.60/2000 


15 


>5 


0.3/2000 


0.3/2000 


0.3/2000 


0.3/3000 


0.3/3500 


0.3/2000 


0.3/2500 


0.45/3000 


0.45/3000 


0.60/3000 


20 


<5 


0.3/2000 


0.3/2000 


0.3/2500 


0.45/3000 


0.45/3500 


0.3/2000 


0.45/2500 


0.6/2500 


0.6/2500 


0.75/2500 


20 


>5 


0.3/2000 


0.3/2500 


0.3/3000 


0.45/3500 


0.45/4000 


0.3/2500 


0.45/3000 


0.6/3000 


0.6/3000 


0.75/3000 


25 


<5 


0.45/2500 


0.45/3000 


0.45/3500 


0.6/2500 


0.6/3000 


0.45/3000 


0.6/3000 


0.75/2500 


0.75/2500 


see Note 1 



Notes: 

1. Sprinkler protection requirements for tissue stored above 20 ft have not been determined. 

2. Densities or areas, or both, shall be permitted to be interpolated between any 5-ft storage height increment. 



Table 12.6.2.1.3(b) Control Mode Density-Area Sprinkler Protection Criteria for the Protection of Roll Paper Storage for 
Buildings or Structures with Roof or Ceilings Up to 9.1 m (Discharge Densities are mm/min over m 2 ) 





Clearance 

(m) 


Heavyweight 


Mediumweight 




Storage 


Closed 

Array 

Banded or 

Unbanded 


Standard Array 


Open Array 


Closed 

Array 

Banded or 

Unbanded 


Standard Array 


Open 

Array 

Banded or 

Unbanded 


Tissue 


Height 

(m) 


Banded 


Unbanded 


Banded 


Unbanded 


Banded 


Unbanded 


All Storage 
Arrays 


3.1 


<1.5 


12.2/185.8 


12.2/185.8 


12.2/185.8 


12.2/185.8 


12.2/185.8 


12.2/185.8 


12.2/185.8 


12.2/185.8 


12.2/185.8 


18.3/185.8 


3.1 


>1.5 


12.2/185.8 


12.2/185.8 


12.2/185.8 


12.2/185.8 


12.2/185.8 


12.2/185.8 


12.2/185.8 


12.2/185.8 


12.2/185.8 


18.3/232.3 


4.6 


<1.5 


12.2/185.8 


12.2/185.8 


12.2/185.8 


12.2/232.3 


12.2/278.7 


12.2/185.8 


12.2/185.8 


18.3/232.3 


18.3/232.3 


24.5/185.8 


4.6 


>1.5 


12.2/185.8 


12.2/185.8 


12.2/185.8 


12.2/278.7 


12.2/322.2 


12.2/185.8 


12.2/232.3 


18.3/278.7 


18.3/278.7 


24.5/278.7 


6.1 


<1.5 


12.2/185.8 


12.2/185.8 


12.2/232.3 


18.3/278.7 


18.3/325.2 


12.2/185.8 


18.3/232.3 


24.5/232.3 


24.5/232.3 


30.6/232.3 


6.1 


>1.5 


12.2/185.8 


12.2/232.3 


12.2/278.7 


18.3/325.2 


18.3/371.6 


12.2/232.3 


18.3/278.7 


24.5/278.7 


24.5/278.7 


30.6/278.7 


7.6 


<1.5 


18.3/232.3 


18.3/278.7 


18.3/325.2 


24.5/232.3 


24.5/278.7 


18.3/278.7 


24.5/278.7 


30.6/232.3 


30.6/232.3 


see Note 1 



Notes: 

1. Sprinkler protection requirements for tissue stored above 6.1 m have not been determined. 

2. Densities or areas, or both, shall be permitted to be interpolated between any 1.5-m storage height increment. 



12.6.2.2 Large Drop Sprinklers and Specific Application Con- 
trol Mode Sprinklers for the Protection of Roll Paper Storage. 

Where automatic sprinkler system protection utilizes large 
drop sprinklers, hydraulic design criteria shall be as specified 
in Table 12.6.2.2. Design discharge pressure shall be 50 psi 
(3.4 bar). The number of sprinklers to be calculated is indi- 
cated based on storage height, clearance, and system type. 

12.6.2.3 Early Suppression Fast-Response (ESFR) Sprinklers 
for the Protection of Roll Paper Storage. Where automatic 
sprinkler system protection utilizes ESFR sprinklers, hydraulic 
design criteria shall be as specified in Table 12.6.2.3. Design 
discharge pressure shall be applied to 12 operating sprinklers. 

12.7 Special Designs. 

12.7.1* Plastic Motor Vehicle Components. Plastic automotive 
components and associated packaging material shall be per- 
mitted to be protected in accordance with Table 12.7.1. 



12.7.2* Sprinkler Design Criteria for Storage and Display of 
Class I through Class rV Commodities, Cartoned Non- 
Expanded Group A Plastics, and Non-Expanded Exposed 
Group A Plastics in Retail Stores. 

12.7.2.1 A wet pipe system designed to meet two separate 
design points — 0.6 gpm/ft 2 density over 2000 ft 2 and 0.7 
gpm/ft density for the four hydraulically most demanding 
sprinklers — shall be permitted to protect single- and double- 
row slatted shelf racks when the following conditions are met: 

(1) An extended coverage sprinkler with a nominal K-factor 
of 25.2 listed for storage occupancies shall be provided. 

(2) Shelves shall be slatted using a 2-in. thick by maximum 
6-in. wide slat held in place by spacers that maintain a 
minimum 2-in. opening between each slat. 

(3) There shall be no slatted shelf levels in the rack above 
nominal 12-ft level. Wire mesh (greater than 50 percent 
opening) shall be permitted for shelf levels above 12 ft. 



2002 Edition 



STORAGE 



13-167 



Table 12.6.2.2 Large Drop Sprinklers for the Protection of Roll Paper Storage (Number of Sprinklers to be Calculated) 











System 
Type 


Heavyweight 


Mediumweight 




Storage 
Height 


Clearance 


Closed 
Array 


Standard Array 


Open Array 


Closed 
Array 


Standard Array 


Open Array 


Tissue 
All 


ft 


m 


ft 


m 


Banded or 
Unhanded 


Banded 


Unhanded 


Banded 


Unhanded 


Banded or 
Unhanded 


Banded 


Unhanded 


Banded 


Unhanded 


Storage 
Arrays 


20 


6.1 


<10 


<3.1 


W 


15 


15 


15 


15 


NA 


15 


15 


15 


NA 


NA 


See Note 3 


20 


6.1 


<10 


<3.1 


D 


25 


25 


25 


NA 


NA 


25 


25 


25 


NA 


NA 


NA 


26 


7.9 


<34 


<10.4 


W 


15 


15 


15 


15 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


26 


7.9 


<34 


<10.4 


D 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 



Notes: 

1 . W = wet; D = dry; NA = not applicable. 

2. For definition of storage height, see 3.9.2. 

3.Twenty-five large drop srpinklers @ 75 psi (5.2 bar) for closed or standard array; other arrays NA. 



Table 12.6.2.3 ESFR 


Sprinklers for the Protection of Roll Paper Storage 


(Maximum 


Height of 


Storage Permitted) 








Orientation 


System 
Type 


Pressure 


Building 
Height 


Heavyweight 


Mediumweight 




ESFR 
K-Factor 


Closed 


Standard 


Open 


Closed 


Standard 


Open 


Tissue 

All 
Arrays 


psi 


bar 


ft 


m 


ft 


m 


ft 


m 


ft 


m 


ft 


m 


ft 


m 


ft 


m 


11.2 


Upright 


Wet 


50 


3.4 


25 


7.6 


20 


6.1 


20 


6.1 


20 


6.1 


20 


6.1 


20 


6.1 


20 


6.1 


NA 


14.0 


Upright or 
pendent 


Wet 


50 


3.4 


30 


9.1 


25 


7.6 


25 


7.6 


25 


7.6 


25 


7.6 


25 


7.6 


25 


7.6 


NA 


14.0 


Pendent 


Wet 


75 


5.2 


40 


12.2 


30 


9.1 


30 


9.1 


30 


9.1 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


25.2 


Pendent 


Wet 


15 


1.0 


30 


9.1 


25 


7.6 


25 


7.6 


25 


7.6 


25 


7.6 


25 


7.6 


25 


7.6 


NA 


25.2 


Pendent 


Wet 


25 


1.7 


40 


12.2 


30 


9.1 


30 


9.1 


30 


9.1 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


25.2 


Pendent 


Wet 


50 


3.4 


45 


13.7 


30 


9.1 


30 


9.1 


30 


9.1 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 



(4) Solid plywood shelving (3V2 f t x 8 f t 3 in.) shall be per- 
missible over the wood slats at the 5-ft level. 

(5) Perforated metal (open area of 40 percent or more) 
shall be permitted over the slatted shelves up to the 
60-in. level. 

(6) Other than what is allowed in this section, solid plywood 
or similar materials shall not be placed on the slatted 
shelves. 

(7) Solid veneered particleboard displays shall be permis- 
sible provided that all flues are maintained and only one 
display is installed per bay. 

(8) Maximum roof height shall be 30 ft in the protected 
area. 

(9) Maximum storage height shall be 22 ft. 



(10) Aisle widths shall be a minimum of 8 ft. 

(11) Minimum transverse flue spaces of 3 in. every 10 ft hori- 
zontally shall be provided. 

(12) Minimum longitudinal flue spaces of 6 in. shall be pro- 
vided for double-row racks. 

(13) Storage in the aisle shall be permissible provided the 
aisle storage is no more than 4 ft high and a minimum 
clear aisle of 4 ft is maintained. 

12.7.2.2 A wet pipe system designed to meet two separate 
design points — 0.425 gpm/ft 2 density over 2000 ft 2 and 0.50 
gpm/ft 2 density for the four hydraulically most demanding 
sprinklers — shall be permitted in solid steel cantilever style 



2002 Edition 



13-168 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Table 12.7.1 K-25.2 ESFR Sprinkler Design Criteria for Portable Racks (Closed Array 1 ) 
without Solid Shelves Containing Automotive Components 





Maximum 
Storage 
Height 


Maximum 

Ceiling/Roof 

Height 


Type of 
System 


Maximum 
Sprinkler 
Spacing 2 


Number of 

Design Sprinklers 

by Minimum 

Operating 

Pressure 3 


Maximum 

Deflector 

Distance Below 

Ceiling 4 


Hose Stream 
Demand 


Water 

Supply 

Duration 

(hours) 


Commodity 


ft 


m 


ft 


m 


ft 2 


~»2 

m 


psi 


bar 


in. 


mm 


gpm 


L/min 


Automotive 
components 
and associated 
packaging 
material 


25 


7.6 


35 


10.7 


Wet 


100 


9.3 


16 at 
37 psi 


16 at 
2.5 bar 


18 


457 


500 


1900 


2 



Portable rack array shall be tightly nested without any flue spaces. 

2 Sprinkler spacing can exceed 100 ft 2 (9.3 m 2 ) where sprinklers are listed for larger spacing. 

3 System hydraulic design shall also be capable of delivering a discharge density of 0.60 gpm/ft 2 over the most 

hydraulically remote 4000 ft 2 area. 

4 Maximum deflector distance below ceiling shall be permitted to exceed 18 in. 2 where sprinklers are listed 

for greater distances. 



retail shelving racks (gondola racks) when the following con- 
ditions are met: 

(1) An extended coverage sprinkler with a nominal K-factor 
of 25.2 listed for storage occupancies shall be provided. 

(2) The storage height shall not exceed 12 ft. 

(3) The ceiling height shall not exceed 22 ft in the protected 
area. 

(4) Gondola rack structure shall not exceed 48 in. in aggre- 
gate depth or 78 in. in height. 

(5) A minimum aisle of 5 ft between storage shall be main- 
tained. 

(6) Rack lengths shall be no more than 70 ft. 

12.7.2.3 A wet system designed to meet two separate design 
points — 0.425 gpm/ft 2 density over 2000 ft 2 and 0.50 gpm/ft 2 
density for the four hydraulically most demanding sprinklers — 
shall be permitted in solid steel cantilever-style retail shelving 
racks (gondola racks) when the following conditions are met: 

(1) An extended coverage sprinkler with a nominal K-factor 
of 25.2 listed for storage occupancies shall be provided. 

(2) Storage height shall not exceed 15 ft. 

(3) Ceiling height shall not exceed 25 ft in the protected area. 

(4) Gondola rack structure shall not exceed 60 in. in aggre- 
gate depth or 8 ft in height. 

(5) A perforated metal deck at the 8-ft level shall be permis- 
sible with storage placed on top with or without flue 
spaces to a maximum height from floor of 15 ft. 

(6) Rack lengths shall not exceed 70 ft. 

(7) A minimum aisle space of 6 ft shall be provided. 

12.7.2.4 A wet pipe system designed to meet two separate 
design points — 0.45 gpm/ft 2 density over 2000 ft and 
0.55 gpm/ft 2 density for the four hydraulically most demand- 
ing sprinklers — shall be permitted without the use of in-rack 
sprinklers when the following are met: 

(1) An extended coverage sprinkler with a nominal K-factor 
of 25.2 listed for storage occupancies shall be provided. 

(2) Storage height shall not exceed 15 ft. 

(3) Ceiling height shall not exceed 20 ft 6 in. 

(4) Shelving structure shall not exceed 48-in. aggregate 
depth or 12 ft in height. 



(5) Shelving shall be permitted to be made of solid particle- 
board. 

(6) A minimum aisle space of 3 ft shall be maintained. 

(7) Rack length shall be a maximum of 70 ft. 

12.7.2.5 A wet pipe system designed to meet two separate 
design points — 0.38 gpm/ft 2 density over 2000 ft 2 and 
0.45 gpm/ft 2 density for the four hydraulically most demand- 
ing sprinklers — shall be permitted without the use of in-rack 
sprinklers in steel retail sales floor shelving racks where the 
following are met: 

(1) An extended coverage sprinkler with a nominal K-factor 
of 25.2 listed for storage occupancies shall be provided. 

(2) Storage height shall not exceed 14 ft. 

(3) Ceiling height shall not exceed 20 ft. 

(4) Solid metal shelving shall be permissible up to the 72-in. 
level and wire shelving shall be permissible up to the 10-ft 
level. 

(5) The solid metal shelving shall not exceed 66 in. in ag- 
gregate depth with a 6-in. longitudinal flue between 
two 30-in. deep shelves. 

(6) A minimum aisle space of 5 ft shall be maintained. 

(7) A minimum longitudinal flue of 6 in. shall be maintained. 

(8) Rack length shall be a maximum of 70 ft. 

12.7.2.6 A wet pipe system designed to meet two separate 
design points — 0.49 gpm/ft 2 density over 2000 ft 2 and 
0.55 gpm/ft 2 density for the four hydraulically most demand- 
ing sprinklers — shall be permitted without the use of in-rack 
sprinklers in retail solid shelved steel rack structure when the 
following are met: 

(1) An extended coverage sprinkler with a nominal K-factor 
of 25.2 listed for storage occupancies shall be provided. 

(2) Storage height shall not exceed 16.5 ft. 

(3) Ceiling height shall not exceed 22 ft. 

(4) Shelving structure shall not exceed 51 in. aggregate depth 
or 148 in. in height. 

(5) The intersection of perpendicular steel racks shall be per- 
missible as long as no storage is placed within the void 
space at the junction of the racks. 

(6) The top shelf shall be wire mesh. 

(7) A minimum aisle width of 4 ft shall be maintained be- 
tween shelf units and other displays. 



2002 Edition 



SPECIAL OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



13-169 



Chapter 13 Special Occupancy Requirements 

13.1 General. 

13.1.1 Application. 

13.1.1.1 In addition to the requirements of Chapters 8, 11, 
12, and 14, the following special occupancy requirements 
shall apply. 

13.1.1.2 Where the requirements of the reference standard 
differ from the requirements of this standard, the reference 
standard shall take precedence. 

13.1.2 Definitions. For terms not defined in Chapter 3, the 
definitions of the reference standard shall apply. 

13.2 Flammable and Combustible Liquids. 

13.2.1 Design Requirements. Sprinkler system discharge cri- 
teria for the protection of flammable and combustible liq- 
uids shall comply with NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible 
Liquids Code. 

13.2.2 Installation Requirements. (Reserved) 

13.3 Aerosol Products. 

13.3.1 Design Requirements. Sprinkler system discharge cri- 
teria for the protection of aerosol products shall comply 
with NFPA 30B, Code for the Manufacture and Storage of Aerosol 
Products. 

13.3.2 Installation Requirements. (Reserved) 

13.4 Spray Application Using Flammable and Combustible 
Materials. 

13.4.1 Design Requirements. 

13.4.1.1* Automatic sprinkler systems in spray areas and mix- 
ing areas shall be designed for Extra Hazard (Group 2) occu- 
pancies. [33:7.2.1] 

Exception: As provided for in 13.4.1.4. [33:7.2.1] 

13.4.1.2 The automatic sprinkler system shall be a wet pipe 
system where practical. Spray operations that require an open- 
head deluge system, a combination open- and closed-head au- 
tomatic sprinkler system, a foam-water sprinkler system, or any 
other type of extinguishing system (dry chemical or gaseous 
agent) shall be so protected, subject to the approval of the 
authority havingjurisdiction. [33:7.2.2] 

13.4.1.3 Water supply for sprinklers shall be sufficient to supply 
all sprinklers likely to open in any one fire incident without de- 
pleting the available water for use in hose streams. Where sprin- 
klers are installed to protect spray areas and mixing rooms only, 
water shall be permitted to be furnished from the domestic sup- 
ply, subject to the approval of the authority havingjurisdiction 
and provided the domestic supply can meet the design criteria 
for extra hazard, Group 2 occupancies. [33:7.2.3] 

13.4.1.4 Resin application areas shall be protected by an au- 
tomatic sprinkler system that is designed for at least Ordinary 
Hazard (Group 2) occupancies. [33:15.3] 

13.4.2 Installation Requirements. 

13.4.2.1* The sprinklers for each spray area and mixing room 
shall be controlled by a separate, accessible, listed indicating 
valve. Sprinkler systems in stacks or ducts shall be automatic 
and of a type not subject to freezing. [33:7.2.4] 



13.4.2.2 Sprinklers protecting spray areas and mixing rooms 
shall be protected against overspray residue so that they will 
operate quickly in event of fire. If covered, cellophane bags 
having a thickness of 0.003 in. (0.076 mm) or less, or thin 
paper bags shall be used. Coverings shall be replaced fre- 
quently so that heavy deposits of residue do not accumulate. 
Sprinklers that have been painted or coated, except by the 
sprinkler manufacturer, shall be replaced with new listed 
sprinklers having the same characteristics. [33:7.2.5] 

13.5 Solvent Extraction Plants. 
13.5.1* Design Requirements. 

13.5.2 Installation Requirements. (Reserved) 

13.6 Nitrate Film. 

13.6.1 Design Requirements. 

13.6.1.1 Rooms where nitrate film is stored or handled in 
quantities greater than 50 lb [23 kg (10 standard rolls)] shall 
be protected with an automatic sprinkler system that is de- 
signed for extra hazard occupancies. 

Exception: Motion picture projection booths or rooms and rewinding 
rooms. [40:3.1.2] 

13.6.1.2 Water supplies for automatic sprinklers shall be 
based on 20 gpm (1.26 L/sec) per sprinkler for 20 minutes for 
the total number of sprinklers in one vault, plus 25 percent of 
the sprinklers in the communicating fire area. [40:3.2.2] 

13.6.2 Installation Requirements. 

13.6.2.1 In areas or rooms where nitrate film is handled, the 
area that is protected per sprinkler shall not exceed 64 ft 2 (6 m 2 ) 
with sprinklers and branch lines not being over 8 ft (2.4 m) apart. 
[40:3.1.4] 

13.6.2.2 Cabinet Protection. [40:4.2.5] 

13.6.2.2.1 Where cabinets are required to be sprinklered, 
they shall be provided with at least one automatic sprinkler. 
[40:4.2.5.1] 

13.6.2.2.2 Where cans are stored on more than one shelf, as 
shown in Figure 13.6.2.2.2 and as described in 4.2.6.1 or 
4.2.6.2 of NFPA 40, Standard for the Storage and Handling of Cel- 
lulose Nitrate Film, one sprinkler shall be provided for each 
shelf. [40:4.2.5.2] 

13.6.2.3 Vaults Other than Extended Term Storage Vaults. 

[40:4.3] (See Figure 13.6.2.3.) 

13.6.2.3.1 Sprinkler protection utilizing regular automatic 
sprinklers or open sprinklers shall be calculated on the basis 
of one sprinkler for each 62.5 ft 3 (1.8 m 3 ) of the interior vault 
volume. [40:4.3.6.1] 

13.6.2.3.2 The minimum number of sprinklers for a standard 
750-ft 3 (21-m 3 ) vault shall be not less than 12. [40:4.3.6.2] 

13.6.2.3.3* Sprinklers or nozzles shall be arranged to provide 
coverage over the tops and fronts of shelves. [40:4.3.6.3] 

13.6.2.3.4 Where automatic sprinklers are used, barriers 
made of No. 24 U.S. gauge sheet steel or other acceptable 
noncombustible material shall be installed between each 
sprinkler. Barriers shall be fastened rigidly in place and shall 
extend from the ceiling down to 4 in. (10 cm) below the sprin- 
kler deflectors. [40:4.3.6.4] 

13.6.2.4 Extended Term Storage Vaults. See Figure 13.6.2.4. 



2002 Edition 



13-170 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Vent flue is equivalent to No. 18 U.S. gauge riveted steel. When inside 
building, it is to be covered with 1 in. (2.5 cm) of insulating material. 




Decomposition vent • 



Shelves shall fit 
tightly against 
the back and 
sides of cabinet. 



Not more 
than 5 cans 
high or more 
than 3 piles. 



Shelves of, 

noncombustible, 

insulating 



material not 
less than % in. 
(9.5 mm) thick 
or hardwood not 
less than 1 in. 
(2.5 cm) thick. 



■* — ^ 



Automatic sprinkler 

Not more than 25 cans 
on a single shelf. 





Side Elevation 



Front Elevation 




Three-point lock 
/ 

Cabinet and self- 
closing door of 
insulated or hollow 
metal construction 



Front Elevation 



FIGURE 13.6.2.2.2 
[40:Figure 4.2] 



Standard Film Cabinet for Other than Extended Term Storage Film. 



Decomposition vent 

\ 



^-t-T*- 



Lights of fixed type at ceiling only. 
Lights should be guarded. 



1 1 1 1 

Shelves of hardwood or 

noncombustible, insulating material 

tightly fitted to walls and barriers 

I ! I 



Shelves should be 1 in. (2.5 vm) wider 
than diameter of largest container. 



Explosion relief 

[1 ft 2 for 

50 ft 3 (0.1 m 2 for 

each 1.4 m 3 )]. 

Provide wing 

walls 

necessary yW- 



Elevation view 



Spray-type fixed nozzles 



fc 



2-hr-rated 

swinging-type 

self-closing 

fire door in 

approved 

frame 



Vertical barriers of 

noncombustible, 

insulating material 



2-hr-rated sliding-type 

automatic-closing 

fire door 







r^ 



Automatic sprinklers 



K 



1 in. (2.5 cm) 



Decomposition 
vent 



■ Switch 
and pilot 
light 



i£ 



^ 



-Barriers 



Elevation view 



Shelves and barriers 
tightly fitted to walls 



FIGURE 13.6.2.3 Standard Film Vault (for Other than Extended Term Storage Film). [40:Figure 4.3] 



2002 Edition 



SPECIAL OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



13-171 



Decomposition vent 



^-y-fL 



Lights of fixed type at ceiling only. 
Lights shall be guarded. 

7* 



Explosion relief 
[1 ft 2 for each 
50 ft 3 (0.1 m 2 for 
each 1 .4 m 3 )]. 
Provide wing 
walls as 
necessary. 



Elevation view 



Spray-type fixed nozzles 



2-hr-rated 

swinging-type 

self-closing 

fire door in 

approved 

frame 




Shelves and 

barriers tightly fitted 

to walls 



2-hr-rated sliding-type 
automatic-closing fire door 



j+r 



& 



_Floor drains 
or scuppers 



Plan view 



Decomposition 
vent 



M 



% 



> / \ < 



Automatic sprinklers 



1 in. (2.5 cm) 



Switch 
-and pilot 
light 



Shelves and vertical barriers of noncombustible, insulating 

material at least 3 /s in. (9.5 mm) thick or of hardwood 

construction not less than 1 in. (2.5 cm) thick. 



FIGURE 13.6.2.4 Extended Term Storage Vault. [40:Figure 4.5] 




Barriers 



Elevation view 



13.6.2.4.1 Sprinklers shall be provided in a ratio of one sprin- 
kler for each 62.5 ft 3 (1.8 m 3 ) of vault volume. 

Exception: Sprinkler systems in existing extended term storage vaults 
that were in compliance with the provisions ofNFPA 40 at the time of 
installation shall be permitted to be continued in use. [4:0:4.5.5. 1] 

13.6.2.4.2 The minimum number of sprinklers for a 1000-ft 3 
(28-m 3 ) vault shall be 15 sprinklers. 

Exception: Sprinkler systems in existing extended term storage vaults 
that were in compliance with the provisions ofNFPA 40 at the time of 
installation shall be permitted to be continued in use. [40:4.5.5.2] 

13.6.2.4.3 Directional sprinklers that will provide coverage 
into the face of the shelves shall be provided. [40:4.5.5.3] 

13.6.2.5 Motion Picture Film Laboratories. In all cases, sprin- 
klers shall be arranged so that not more than two machines 
are protected by any one sprinkler. [40:7.2.5.2] 

13.7 Storage of Pyroxylin Plastic. 

13.7.1 Design Requirements. 

13.7.1.1 The water supply for automatic sprinklers shall be 
based on the number of sprinklers liable to be affected in any 
fire section between fire walls or fire-resistive partitions. It 
shall be assumed that any one of the following numbers of 
sprinklers can be affected and the condition giving maximum 
flow used as a basis: 

(1) All sprinklers in a vault 

(2) All sprinklers in a tote box storeroom 

(3) Three-fourths of the sprinklers in a finished-stock store- 
room 

(4) All sprinklers in a section of an isolated storage building 
[42:2.4.3.1] 



13.7.1.2 The water supply for an automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem shall be based on a flow of 20 gpm (76 Lpm) per sprin- 
kler for 20 minutes, with a minimum rate of flow of 500 gpm 
(1900 Lpm) . Such flow shall be with an effective pressure at 
the top line of sprinklers of not less than 40 psi (2.8 bar). 
[42:2.4.3.2] 

13.7.2 Installation Requirements. See Figure 13.7.2(a) and 
Figure 13.7.2(b). 

13.7.2.1 Where sprinkler systems are provided for isolated 
storage buildings per 3.4.3 ofNFPA 42, Code for the Storage of 
Pyroxylin Plastic, sprinklers shall be spaced so that there is one 
sprinkler per 32 ft 2 (3 m 2 ). [42:3.4.3] 

13.7.2.2 Sprinklers in buildings used for storage of loose 
scrap shall be installed in the ratio of one sprinkler for each 
1000 lb (454 kg) of storage. 

Exception: The ratio in 13. 7.2.2 shall need not apply if the scrap is 
in tanks or other receptacles kept filled with water. [4.2:3.4.4] 

13.7.2.3 Where cabinets are required to be sprinklered, they 
shall have at least one automatic sprinkler in each compart- 
ment. [42:4.2.10] 

13.7.2.4 Vaults Containing Pyroxylin Plastic. 

13.7.2.4.1 Vaults shall be equipped with automatic sprinklers 
in a ratio of one sprinkler to each 834 lb (378 kg) of pyroxylin 
plastic or one sprinkler to each 125 ft 3 (3.5 m 3 ) of total vault 
space. [42:4.4.1] 

13.7.2.4.2 A vault that is divided into two or more sections 
shall have at least one automatic sprinkler in each section. 

[42:4.4.2] 



2002 Edition 



13-172 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Scupper 




Scupper 



6 in. (15 cm) 



15 in 
(38 cm) 



Vent 



7 ft 6 in. 



I- 



(2.3 m) p|-: 

W [' " "Hacks " 



^ 



Door 
opening 



i 



^ >' 




3-in. (7.6-cm) concrete sill 



ze 



± 



1 



Racks 



1 



^/^y/vv^^^^^ 




Scupper 



FIGURE 13.7.2(a) Raw Stock Storage Vault Showing General 
Arrangement of Sprinklers, Racks, and Baffles. [42:Figure 

4.3.3.7(a)] 



13.7.2.4.3 Sprinkler systems for vaults shall be equipped with 
a 1-in. (2.5-cm) drip line with a V^-in. (13-mm) outlet valve. 
[42:4.4.5] 

13.7.2.5 Tote-Box Storeroom for Pyroxylin Plastic. Sprinkler 
protection provided for the tote box storeroom shall consist 
of one sprinkler in the center of the aisle immediately in 
front of the dividing partition between each pair of sec- 
tions. Proper baffles shall be provided between heads. 
[42:4.7.9] (See Figure 13. 7.2.5(a) and Figure 13. 7.2.5(b).) 

13.7.2.6 Finished Stock Storeroom for Pyroxylin Plastic. See 

Figure 13.7.2.6. 

13.7.2.6.1 Automatic sprinklers shall be installed with proper 
baffles between sprinklers in the center of the aisle opposite 
each section. [42:4.8.7] 

13.7.2.6.2 Special Rooms for Stock in Shipping Cases. The 

special room shall be protected by automatic sprinklers, with 
at least one sprinkler for each 64 ft 2 (6 m 2 ) . [42:4.9.4] 

13.8 Laboratories Using Chemicals. 

13.8.1 Design Requirements. An automatic sprinkler system, 
where required by Table 3.1(a) of NFPA 45, Standard on Fire 
Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals, depending on the 




22 in. 
(56 cm) 



2 in. x 2 in. (5 cm x 5 cm) strip to prevent 
stock being pushed against partitions 

Plan 



Slats 2 in. (5 cm) wide with 
1 in. (2.5 cm) separation """" 



2 in. x 2 in. (5 cm x 5 cm) strip 
to prevent stock being pushed 
back to wall 



S 



5L 



i rl ln nffl 



r-i r-l 1-1 I 



3L 



3C 



1 "-i i-"- 1 



3L^ 



3 



.j^i i ■ I n.clJn r i iii r~LA ii ii i i mi j. j i 

Front Elevation 



2 in. x 2 in. (5 cm x 5 cm 
strip to prevent 
stock being pushed 
above partition 




Side Elevation 



FIGURE 13.7.2(b) Details of Storage Racks in Raw Stock 
Storage Vault. [42:Figure 4.3.3.7(b)] 



construction of the building, the hazard class of the laboratory 
unit, the construction of the laboratory unit enclosure, and 
the area of the laboratory unit shall be in accordance with the 
following: 

(1) Automatic sprinkler system protection for Class A and 
Class B laboratories shall be in accordance with ordinary 
hazard, Group 2 occupancies. 

(2) Automatic sprinkler system protection for Class C and 
Class D laboratories shall be in accordance with ordinary 
hazard, Group 1 occupancies. [45:4.2.1.1] 

13.8.2 Installation Requirements. (Reserved) 

13.9 Oxygen-Fuel Gas Systems for Welding, Cutting, and Al- 
lied Processes. 

13.9.1 Design Requirements. Where sprinkler systems are re- 
quired per 2.3.1 of NFPA 51, Standard for the Design and Instal- 
lation of Oxygen-Fuel Gas Systems for Welding, Cutting, and Allied 
Processes, they shall provide a sprinkler discharge density of at 
least 0.25 gpm/ft 2 (10.2 mm/min) over a minimum operating 
area of at least 3000 ft 2 (88 m 2 ). [51:2.3.1, Exception No. 1] 



2002 Edition 



SPECIAL OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



13-173 



Location of sprinklers 
with relation to racks 




4 ft (1.2 m) 
o 



■F 



4 ft (1.2 m) ' 

o | o 

f Self-closing fire door 



Plan 

Total area of storeroom not to 
exceed 1000 ft 2 (93 m 2 ) 

Dimensions of racks, distance 
between baffles, and other 

dimensions will vary with the 1 in. (2.5 cm) cement plaster unless 
size of tote box . present ceiling is fire resistive 
6 in. (15 cm) -^ K M 



Shelves 
to be 
4 in. 
(10 cm) 
above 
floor 



=P 



*+ 



ZI 



i_A 



15 in. 
(38 cm) 



4 in. (10 cm) -^ 

Elevation 

FIGURE 13.7.2.5(a) Tote Box Storeroom Showing General 
Arrangement of Racks and Sprinklers. [42:Figure 4.7] 

13.9.2 Installation Requirements. Where sprinkler systems 
are provided per NFPA51, 2.3.1, Exception No. 1, sprinklers 
shall be located not more than 20 ft (6 m) above the floor 
where the cylinders are stored. [51:2.3.1, Exception No. 1] 

13.10 Acetylene Cylinder Charging Plants. 

13.10.1 Design Requirements. Where an automatic sprinkler 
system is required per NFPA51A, Standard for Acetylene Cylinder 
Charging Plants, it shall be an extra hazard (Group 1) open or 
closed head sprinkler system. [51A:9.2.2] 

13.10.2 Installation Requirements. (Reserved) 

13.11 Storage, Use, and Handling of Compressed and Lique- 
fied Gases in Portable Cylinders. 

1 3. 1 1 . 1 Design Requirements. 



Automatically opening windows 
>T > 



■ 20 U.S. gauge 
galvanized iron 
baffles 



Plan 



10 in. x 12 in. x 24 in. 
(25 cm x 30 cm x 61 cm) 




FIGURE 13.7.2.5(b) Tote Box Storeroom Showing Arrange- 
ment of Sprinklers and Baffles and Section of Tote Box Stor- 
age Rack. [42:Figure 4.7.7] 



13.11.1.1 Where an automatic sprinkler system is required per 
NFPA55, Standard for tfie Storage, Use, and Handling of Compressed 
and Liquefied Gases in Portable Cylinders, the sprinkler system pro- 
tecting the gas cylinder storage, and for a distance of 25 ft (7.6 m) 
beyond in all directions, shall be capable of providing a sprinkler 
density of at least 0.3 gpm/ft 2 (12.2 mm/min) over the most 
hydraulically remote 2500 ft 2 (232.25 m 2 ). [55:2.2.2.1] 

13.11.1.2 Where sprinkler systems are provided per NFPA55, 
2.2.2.2, Exception No. 1, they shall be designed for ordinary 
hazard, Group 1 occupancies. [55:2.2.2.2] 

13.11.1.3 Where sprinkler systems are provided per NFPA55, 
2.2.2.2, Exception No. 2, they shall be designed for ordinary 
hazard, Group 1 occupancies. [55:2.2.2.2] 

13.11.1.4 Where sprinkler systems are required for gas cylin- 
der storage rooms per NFPA 55, they shall be capable of pro- 
viding a minimum density of 0.3 gpm/ft 2 (12.2 mm/min) 
over the most hydraulically remote 2500 ft 2 (232.25 m 2 ) or the 
entire room area, whichever is smaller. [55:2.2.3.2] 

13.11.2 Installation Requirements. (Reserved) 

13.12 Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases at 
Utility Gas Plants. 



2002 Edition 



13-174 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 




Building wall 



3 ft (0.9 m) 



4 ft (1.2 m) 



5 ft (1.5 m) 

4 ft (1.2 m) 

3 ft (0.9 m) 

4 ft (1.2 m) 



3 ft (0.9 m) 



Plan 



-Automatic sprinklers 



aM a a *a 














































> 

































































Elevation 



Cement board or 
%-in. (22-mm) 
tongue-and-groove boards 



Top to be covered 
with 1 /2-in. (13-mm) 
mesh wire 



s, 




I 


r— !■— ■ 














«-4ft(1.2m)-* 


I 






rnrJ 


== 







-!-Notover8ft 
(2.4 m) 
Top at least 
2 ft (0.6 m) 
below 
sprinklers 

%-in. (22-mm) 
tongue-and- 
groove boards 
or equivalent 

I. 











[ 


L 


J 


J 


[ 


*- 3 ft _£ 
(0.9 m) 


U- 3ft _♦ 
(0.9 m) 


J 


[ 




L 

,15 in. 


j 

(381 mm) 


J 


[ 


L 


j 


J 


[ 


L 


j 


J 


h 1 


i ii 



Section AAof Figure 13.7.2.6 



Section BB of Figure 13.7.2.6 



FIGURE 13.7.2.6 Finished-Stock Storeroom Showing Gen- 
eral Arrangement of Racks. [42:Figure 4.8] 



13.12.1 Design Requirements. The design of fire water supply 
and distribution systems, if required by NFPA 59, Utility LP-Gas 
Plant Code, shall provide for the simultaneous supply of those 
fixed fire protection systems, including monitor nozzles, at 
their design flow and pressure, involved in the maximum 
single incident expected in the plant. An additional supply of 



1000 gpm (3785 L/min) shall be available for hand hose 
streams for a period of not less than 2 hours. Manually actu- 
ated monitors shall be permitted to be used to augment hand 
hose streams. [59:10.5.2] 

13.12.2 Installation Requirements. (Reserved) 

13.13 Production, Storage, and Handling of Liquefied Natu- 
ral Gas (LNG). 

13.13.1 Design Requirements. The design of fire water supply 
and distribution systems, if required by NFPA 59A, Standard for 
the Production, Storage, and Handling of Liquefied Natural Gas 
(LNG), shall provide for the simultaneous supply of those 
fixed fire protection systems, including monitor nozzles, at 
their design flow and pressure, involved in the maximum 
single incident expected in the plant plus an allowance of 
1000 gpm (3785 L/min) for hand hose streams for not less 
than 2 hours. [59A: 9.5.2] 

13.13.2 Installation Requirements. (Reserved) 

13.14 Electronic Computer Systems. 

13.14.1 Design Requirements. (Reserved) 

13.14.2 Installation Requirements. Where sprinkler systems 
are provided per NFPA 75, Standard for the Protection of Electronic 
Computer/Data Processing Equipment, they shall be valved sepa- 
rately from other sprinkler systems. [75:6.1.3] 

13.15 Incinerators, Systems, and Equipment. 

13.15.1 Design Requirements. (Reserved) 

13.15.2 Installation Requirements. 

13.15.2.1 Chute Automatic Sprinklers. [82:3.2.5] 

13.15.2.1.1 Gravity Chute. Gravity chutes shall be protected 
internally by automatic sprinklers. This requires a sprinkler at 
or above the top service opening of the chute, and, in addi- 
tion, a sprinkler shall be installed within the chute at alternate 
floor levels in buildings over two stories in height with a man- 
datory sprinkler located at the lowest service level. [82:3.2.5.1] 
(See Figure 13.15.2.1.1.) 

Exception No. 1: Lined masonry chute that complies with 3.2.2.5 of 
NFPA 82. [82:3.2.5.1] 

Exception No. 2: Lined metal chute that complies with 3.2.2.6 of 
NFPA 82. [82:3.2.5.1] 

Exception No. 3: Listed medium-heat chimney that complies with 
3. 2. 2. 8 of NFPA 82, Standard on Incinerators and Waste and Linen 
Handling Systems and Equipment. [82:3.2.5.1] 

13.15.2.1.2 Chute Sprinkler Head Protection. Automatic 
sprinklers installed in gravity chute service openings shall be 
recessed out of the chute area through which the material 
travels. [82:3.2.5.2] 

13.15.2.2 Automatic Sprinklers, Full Pneumatic Systems. Full 
pneumatic-type risers shall be protected internally by auto- 
matic sprinklers. A sprinkler shall be required at or above the 
top loading station and at alternate floor levels in buildings 
over two stories in height, with a mandatory sprinkler located 
at the lowest loading station. Sprinklers shall be recessed out 
of the station area through which the material travels. 
[82:3.3.4] (See Figure 13.15.2.2.) 



2002 Edition 



SPECIAL OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



13-175 



Loading door 
1 hour"B" -nt 
label ^ 



-■ t ; 

— I ' 



-Chute extends 
above roof 



Sprinkler 

Loading door 
1 hour"B' 
label 
minimum 



Fire-rated 
enclosure 



Sprinkler 



-Self-closing fire 
rated door, with 
"B" label 




Sprinkler 



15° maximum 

Fire-rated 
enclosure 



Sprinkler 



Self-closing fire- 
rated door, with 
"B" label 



Gravity chute 



Gravity chute with offset 
only when necessary by building 
conditions and with approval of 
authority having jurisdiction 



FIGURE 13.15.2.1.1 Gravity Chute. [82:Figure 3.2.5.1] 



Air inlet 



Station door 

18 in. x 18 in. 

(457 mm x 457 mm) 

minimum 1 1 /2-hr. B label 



Fire damper (1 1 /2-hr 
rated) or alternative 
protection system 




Fire-rated enclosure 

Air inlet damper 
(normally closed) 

Sprinkler 

14-gauge minimum 
load station with 
normally closed 
inner door 



3- 



FIGURE 13.15.2.2 Full Pneumatic System. [82:Figure 3.3.4] 



13.15.2.3 Commercial-Industrial Compactors. All chute-fed 
compactors shall have an automatic special fine water spray sprin- 
kler with a minimum M>-in. (13-mm) orifice installed in the hop- 
per of the compactor. This sprinkler shall be an ordinary 
temperature-rated sprinkler. The sprinklers shall be supplied by 
a minimum 1-in. (25.4-mm) ferrous piping or %-in. (19-mm) 
copper tubing line from the domestic cold water supply. The 
sprinkler shall provide a suitable spray into the hopper. A cycling 
(on-off) , self-actuating, snap-action, heat-actuated sprinkler shall 
be permitted to be used, or the sprinkler shall be permitted to be 
controlled by a temperature sensor operating a solenoid valve. 
Sprinkler water piping shall be protected from freezing in out- 
door installations. [82:5.2.5.2.1] 

13.16 Industrial Furnaces Using a Special Process Atmosphere. 

13.16.1 Design Requirements. (Reserved) 

13.16.2 Installation Requirements. Where sprinkler systems 
are provided per NFPA 86C, Standard for Industrial Furnaces 
Using a Special Processing Atmosphere, 18.1.2(b), sprinklers shall 
be of extra high-temperature rating [325°F to 650°F (163°C to 
343°C] to avoid premature operation from localized flashing. 
[86C:18.1.2(b)] 

13.17 Ventilation Control and Fire Protection of Commercial 
Cooking Operations. 

13.17.1 Design Requirements. (Reserved) 

13.17.2 Installation Requirements. (Reserved) 

13.18 Class A Hyperbaric Chambers. 

13.18.1 Design Requirements. 

13.18.1.1 In chambers that consist of more than one chamber 
compartment (lock), the design of the deluge system shall en- 
sure adequate operation when the chamber compartments are at 
different depths (pressures). The design shall also ensure the 
independent or simultaneous operation of deluge systems. 

Exception: Chamber compartments that are used strictly as personnel 
transfer compartments (locks), and for no other purposes, are not re- 
quired to have a fixed deluge system. [99:19.2.5.2] 

13.18.1.2* Manual activation and deactivation deluge controls 
shall be located at the operator's console and in each chamber 
compartment (lock) containing a deluge system. Controls shall 
be designed to prevent unintended activation. [99:19.2.5.2.1] 

13.18.1.3 Water shall be delivered from the sprinkler heads 
as specified in 13.18.1.4 within 3 seconds of activation of any 
affiliated deluge control. [99:19.2.5.2.2] 

13.18.1.4* Average spray density at floor level shall be not less 
than 2 gpm/ft 2 (81.5 L/min/m 2 ) with no floor area larger 
than 1 m 2 receiving less than 1 gpm/ft 2 (40.75 L/min/m 2 ). 
[99:19.2.5.2.3] 

13.18.1.5* The number and positioning of sprinklers shall be 
sufficient to provide reasonably uniform spray coverage with ver- 
tical and horizontal (or near horizontal) jets. [99:19.2.5.2.3] 

13.18.1.6 There shall be sufficient water available in the del- 
uge system to maintain the flow specified in 13.18.1.4 simulta- 
neously in each chamber compartment (lock) containing the 
deluge system for 1 minute. The limit on maximum extin- 
guishment duration shall be governed by the chamber capac- 
ity (bilge capacity also, if so equipped) and/or its drainage 
system. [99:19.2.5.2.4] 



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INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



13.18.1.7 The deluge system shall have stored pressure to 
operate for at least 15 seconds without electrical branch 
power. [99:19.2.5.2.5] 

13.18.2 Installation Requirements. (Reserved) 

13.19 Fixed Guideway Transit Systems. 

13.19.1 Design Requirements. In all areas of enclosed struc- 
tures used for storage and maintenance of vehicles the sprin- 
kler system shall be of a closed-head type for Ordinary Hazard 
classification. [130:6.4.1] 

13.19.2 Installation Requirements. (Reserved) 

13.20 Race Track Stables. 

13.20.1 Design Requirements. Automatic sprinkler systems 
shall be designed in accordance with Ordinary Hazard 
Group 2 classification. [150:4.1.2] 

13.20.2 Installation Requirements. (Reserved) 

13.21 Water Cooling Towers. 
13.21.1 Design Requirements. 

13.21.1.1 Types of Systems. 

13.21.1.1.1* Because the counterflow tower design lends itself 
to either closed- or open-head systems, wet-pipe, dry-pipe, pre- 
action, or deluge systems shall be permitted to be used. 
[214:3.2.2.1] 

13.21.1.1.2* The open-head deluge system shall be used in 
crossflow towers to maximize the water distribution and heat 
detection activation. [214:3.2.2.2] 

13.21.1.2 Minimum Rate of Application. 

13.21.1.2.1 Under the fan decks of counterflow towers, the rate 
of application of water shall be 0.5 gpm/ft 2 (20.4 L/min-m 2 ) 
(including fan opening). [214:3.2.3.1] 

13.21.1.2.2 Under the fan decks of crossflow towers, the rate of 
application of water shall be 0.33 gpm/ft 2 (13.45 L/min-m 2 ) 
(including fan opening). [214:3.2.3.2] 

13.21.1.2.3 Over the fill areas of crossflow towers, the rate of 
application of water shall be 0.5 gpm/ft 2 (20.4 L/min-m 2 ). 
[214:3.2.3.3] 

13.21.1.3 Extended Fan Decks. On towers having extended 
fan decks that completely enclose the distribution basin, the 
discharge outlets protecting the fill area shall be located over 
the basin, under the extension of the fan deck. These dis- 
charge outlets shall be open directional spray nozzles or other 
approved spray devices arranged to discharge 0.35 gpm/ft 2 
(14.26 L/min-m 2 ) directly on the distribution basin and 
0.15 gpm/ft 2 (6.11 L/min-m 2 ) on the underside of the fan 
deck extension. On towers having extended fan decks that do 
not completely enclose the hot water basin, outlets protecting 
the fill shall be located under the distribution basin as set out 
in 3.2.4.2. of NFPA 214, Standard on Water-Cooling Towers. 
[214:3.2.4.3] 

13.21.1.4 Combustible Fan Decks. For deluge systems using 
directional spray nozzles in the pendent position, provisions 
shall be made to protect the underside of a combustible fan 
deck at a minimum of 0.15 gpm/ft 2 (6.11 L/min-m 2 ), which 
shall be included as part of the application rate specified in 
13.21.1.3. [214:3.2.4.4] 



13.21.1.5 Water Basin Covers. On film-filled towers that have 
solid, hot-water basin covers over the complete basin, the dis- 
charge oudets protecting the fill area shall be permitted to be 
located under the basin covers. These discharge oudets shall be 
open directional spray nozzles or other approved devices ar- 
ranged to discharge 0.35 gpm/ft 2 (14.26 L/min-m 2 ) directly on 
the distribution basin, and 0.15 gpm/ft 2 (6.11 L/min-m 2 ) on the 
underside of the water basin covers. [214:3.2.4.5] 

13.21.1.6 Exterior Protection. Systems for exterior protection 
shall be designed with the same attention and care as interior 
systems. Pipe sizing shall be based on hydraulic calculations. 
Water supply and discharge rate shall be based on a minimum 
0.15 gpm/ft 2 (6.11 L/min-m 2 ) for all surfaces being pro- 
tected. [214:3.2.10.2] 

13.21.1.7 Sprinkler System Water Supply. 

13.21.1.7.1 Deluge Systems. 

13.21.1.7.1.1* Where all cells of a cooling tower are protected 
by a single deluge system, the water supply shall be adequate 
to supply all discharge outlets on that system. [214:3.6.1.1] 

13.21.1.7.1.2 Where two or more deluge systems are used to 
protect a cooling tower and fire-resistant partitions are not 
provided between the deluge systems, the water supply shall 
be adequate to supply all discharge outlets in the two most 
hydraulically demanding adjacent systems. [214:3.6.1.2] 

13.21.1.7.1.3* Where two or more deluge systems are sepa- 
rated by fire-resistant partitions, the water supply shall be ad- 
equate to supply all discharge outlets in the single most hy- 
draulically demanding system. [214:3.6.1.3] 

13.21.1.7.2 Wet, Dry, and Preaction Systems. 

13.21.1.7.2.1* Where each cell of the cooling tower is sepa- 
rated by a fire-resistant partition, the water supply shall be 
adequate to supply all discharge outlets in the hydraulically 
most demanding single cell. [214:3.6.2.1] 

13.21.1.7.2.2* Where fire-resistant partitions are not provided 
between each cell of a cooling tower, the water supply shall be 
adequate to supply all discharge outlets in the two most hy- 
draulically demanding adjoining cells. [214:3.6.2.2] 

13.21.1.7.3 Hose Streams. Water supplies shall be sufficient to 
include a minimum of 500 gpm (1892.5 L/min) for hose 
streams in addition to the sprinkler requirements. [214:3.6.3] 

13.21.1.7.4 Duration. An adequate water supply of at least 
2-hour duration shall be provided for the combination of the 
water supply specified in 13.21.1.7.1 or 13.21.1.7.2, plus the 
hose stream demand specified in 13.21.1.7.3. [214:3.6.4] 

13.21.2 Installation Requirements. 

13.21.2.1* Counterflow Towers. [214:3.2.4.1] 

13.21.2.1.1 The discharge outlets shall be located under the 
fan deck and fan opening. [214:3.2.4.1.1] 

13.21.2.1.2 Except under the fan opening, all discharge out- 
lets shall have deflector distances installed in accordance with 
Section 8.5. [214:3.2.4.1.2] 

13.21.2.1.3 Closed-head discharge outlets for dry-pipe and 
preaction systems shall be installed in the upright position 
only. [214:3.2.4.1.3] 

13.21.2.2* Crossflow Towers. [214:3.2.4.2] 



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SPECIAL OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



13-177 



13.21.2.2.1 The discharge outlets protecting the plenum 
area shall be located under the fan deck and in the fan open- 
ing. [214:3.2.4.2.1] 

13.21.2.2.2 Discharge outlets protecting the fill shall be lo- 
cated under the distribution basin on either the louver or drift 
eliminator side, discharging horizontally through the joist 
channels. [214:3.2.4.2.2] 

13.21.2.2.3 Towers with a fill area longer than the maximum 
allowable for the discharge device being used shall have dis- 
charge devices placed on both sides of the fill area in each joist 
channel. The pressure at each discharge device shall be ad- 
equate to provide protection for half of the length of the fill 
area. [214:3.2.4.2.3] 

13.21.2.2.4 Where joist channels are wider than 2 ft (0.6 m), 
more than one discharge device shall be required per joist 
channel. 

Exception: If the discharge device being used is listed for the width of 
the joist channel being protected. /2 14: 3. 2. 4. 2. 4] 

13.21.2.3* Extended Fan Decks. On towers having extended 
fan decks that completely enclose the distribution basin, the 
discharge outlets protecting the fill area shall be located over 
the basin, under the extension of the fan deck. [214:3.2.4.3] 

13.21.2.4 Combustible Fan Decks. For deluge systems using 
directional spray nozzles in the pendent position, provisions 
shall be made to protect the underside of a combustible fan 
deck. [214:3.2.4.4] 

13.21.2.5* Water Basin Covers. On towers having basin covers 
that do not completely enclose the hot water basin, outlets 
protecting the fill shall be located under the distribution basin 
as set out in 13.21.2.2. [214:3.2.4.5] 

13.21.2.6 Valves. [214:3.2.6] 

13.21.2.6.1 General. Shutoff valves and automatically oper- 
ated water control valves, if provided, shall be located: 

(1) Outside the fire-exposed area 

(2) As close to the cooling tower as possible to minimize the 
amount of pipe to the discharge device 

(3) Where they will be accessible during a fire emergency 
[214:3.2.6.1] 

13.21.2.6.2 Manual Release Valve. Remote manual release 
valves, where required, shall be conspicuously located and readily 
accessible during a fire emergency. If remote, manual release 
valves are not required, an inspector's test valve shall be provided 
for each pilot-head-operated system. [214:3.2.6.2] 

13.21.2.7 Strainers. Strainers shall be required for systems uti- 
lizing discharge devices with waterways of less than 0.375-in. 
(9.5-mm) diameter. (See NFPA 15, Standard for Water Spray Fixed 
Systems for Fire Protection, for further details.) [214:3.2.7] 

13.21.2.8 Heat Detectors. [214:3.2.8] 

13.21.2.8.1 Where deluge or preaction systems are used, heat 
detectors shall be installed in accordance with the applicable 
sections oiNFPA 72, National Fire Alarm Code. [214:3.2.8.1] 

13.21.2.8.2 In mechanical induced-draft towers, heat detec- 
tors shall be located under the fan deck at the circumference 
of the fan opening and under the fan opening where neces- 
sary to comply with the following spacing requirements. (For 
extended fan decks, see 3.2.8.3 in NFPA 214.) [214:3.2.8.2] 



13.21.2.8.2.1 Fixed-temperature detectors shall be spaced 
not more than 8 ft (2.4 m) apart in any direction including the 
fan opening. Temperature ratings shall be selected in accor- 
dance with operating conditions, but shall be no less than in- 
termediate. [214:3.2.8.2.1] 

13.21.2.8.2.2 Rate-of-rise detectors shall be spaced not more 
than 15 ft (4.6 m) apart in any direction. In pneumatic-type 
systems, for detectors inside the tower, there shall be no more 
than one detector for each mercury check in towers operating 
in cold climates, and two detectors for each mercury check in 
towers used during the warm months only or year-round in 
warm climates. There shall be no more than four detectors for 
each mercury check where the detectors are located outside 
the tower. [214:3.2.8.2.2] 

13.21.2.8.3 On towers having extended fan decks that com- 
pletely enclose the distribution basin, detectors shall be located 
under the fan deck extension in accordance with standard, 
indoor-spacing rules for the type detectors used. (See NFPA 72, 
National Fire Alarm Code.) 

Exception: Where the fan deck extension is 16 ft (4.9 m) or less and 
this dimension is the length of the joist channel, then only one row of 
detectors centered on and at right angles to the joist channels shall be 
required. Spacing between detectors shall be in accordance with 
NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm Code. On towers having extended fan 
decks that do not completely enclose the hot water basin, detectors shall 
not be required under the fan deck extension. [214: 3.2.8.3] 

13.21.2.8.4 Where the total number of deluge systems ex- 
ceeds the number for which the water supply was designed, 
heat barriers shall be installed under the extended fan deck to 
separate the systems. Heat barriers shall extend from the fan 
deck structure to the distribution basin dividers. [214:3.2.8.4] 

13.21.2.8.5 Where heat detectors are inaccessible during 
tower operation, an accessible test detector shall be provided 
for each detection zone. [214:3.2.8.5] 

13.21.2.8.6 Heat detector components exposed to corrosive 
vapors or liquids shall be protected by materials of suitable 
construction or by suitable, protective coatings applied by the 
equipment manufacturer. [214:3.2.8.6] 

13.21.2.9 Protection for Fan Drive Motor. [214:3.2.9] 

13.21.2.9.1 A heat detector and water discharge outlet shall 
be provided over each fan drive motor when the motor is lo- 
cated so that it is not within the protected area of the tower. 
[214:3.2.9.1] 

13.21.2.9.2 Provision shall be made to interlock the fan mo- 
tors with the fire protection system so that the cooling tower 
fan motors will be stopped in the cell(s) for which the system is 
actuated. Where the continued operation of the fans is vital to 
the process, a manual override switch may be provided to re- 
activate the fan when it is determined that there is no fire. 
[214:3.2.9.2] 

13.21.2.10 Corrosion Protection. [214:3.3] 

13.21-2.10.1 Piping, fittings, hangers, braces, and attachment 
hardware including fasteners shall be hot-dip galvanized steel 
per ASTM A 153, Standard Specification for Zinc Coating (Hot Dip) 
on Iron and Steel Hardware, or other materials having a superior 
corrosion resistance. Exposed pipe threads and bolts on fit- 
tings shall be protected against corrosion. All other compo- 
nents shall be corrosion resistant or protected against corro- 
sion by a suitable coating. [214:3.3.1] 



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INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



13.21.2.10.2* Wax-type coatings shall not be used on devices 
without fusible elements. [214:3.3.2] 

13.21.2.10.3* Special care shall be taken in the handling and 
installation of wax-coated or similar sprinklers to avoid damaging 
the coating. Corrosion-resistant coatings shall not be applied to 
the sprinklers by anyone other than the manufacturer of the 
sprinklers, except that in all cases any damage to the protective 
coating occurring at the time of installation shall be repaired at 
once using only the coating of the manufacturer of the sprinkler 
in an approved manner so that no part of the sprinkler will be 
exposed after the installation has been completed. [214:3.3.3] 

13.22 Piers, Terminals, and Wharves. 

13.22.1 Design Requirements. 
13.22.1.1* Piers and Wharves. 

13.22.1.1.1 Sprinklers shall be 12.7-mm (V^-in.) orifice and 
shall discharge at a minimum pressure of 85 kPa (12.5 psi). 
[307:3.3.3.1. 3(a)5] 

13.22.1.1.2 Design area shall be based upon the largest area 
between firestops plus an additional area embracing at least 
two branch lines on opposite sides of the fire-stop. 
[307:3.3.3.1.3(a)5b] 

13.22.1.1.3 Minimum design area shall be not less than 
465 m 2 (5000 ft 2 ). [307:3.3.3.1.3(a)5c] 

13.22.1.1.4 The maximum area to be protected by any one sys- 
tem shall be limited to 2325 m 2 (25,000 ft 2 ). [307:3.3.3. 1.3 (a) 7] 

13.22.1.2 Terminal Buildings. 

13.22.1.2.1 Due to the widely varying nature of commodities 
that might pass through transit sheds, container freight sta- 
tions, transload facilities, and similar buildings used for han- 
dling and temporary storage of general cargo, minimum 
sprinkler design shall be based upon Extra Hazard (Group 1) 
classification. [307:4.4.2] 

13.22.1.2.2 If the maximum storage height that the building 
will permit exceeds 3.7 m (12 ft), the requirements shall be 
followed for the protection of Class I, II, III, IV, or plastic com- 
modities piled to the maximum height permitted by building 
construction, and the clearance requirements of 8.5.6 of 
NFPA307, Standard for the Construction and Fire Protection of Ma- 
rine Terminals, Piers, and Wharves. [307:4.4.3] 

13.22.1.2.3 If racks or shelving are present or likely to be 
present, the requirements shall be followed for the protection 
of Class I, II, III, IV, or plastic commodities. Protection in ware- 
houses for the long-term storage of specific commodities shall 
be designed for the specific use unless the buildings exceed 
465 m 2 (5000 ft 2 ) total floor area. [307:4.4.4] 

13.22.2 Installation Requirements. 

13.22.2.1 Where there is danger of damage to sprinkler 
equipment by floating objects, physical barriers shall be pro- 
vided to exclude such objects. [307:3.3.3.1.2] 

13.22.2.2 The following installation criteria shall also apply. 

(1) Where narrow horizontal channels or spaces are caused 
by caps, stringers, ties, and other structural members, the 
standard upright sprinkler might not project sufficient 
water upward to extinguish or control fires on the under- 
side of the pier or wharf deck. In these cases, a sprinkler 
that projects water upward to wet the overhead, such as a 
pendent sprinkler installed in an upright position, or the 



old-style sprinkler shall be used. Location, spacing, and 
deflector position shall be governed by the discharge pat- 
tern of the sprinkler and the structure being protected. 
The following design and installation guides shall apply 
where pendent sprinklers in the upright position or old- 
style sprinklers are to be utilized: 

(a) The maximum coverage per sprinkler head shall be 
limited to 7.5 m 2 (80 ft 2 ) . 

(b) Where spacing or arrangement of stringers consti- 
tutes typical open^joist construction directly support- 
ing the deck, sprinkler branch lines shall be installed 
between the bents at right angles to the stringers. 
Spacing between branch lines shall not exceed 3 m 
(10 ft). Sprinklers on branch lines shall be staggered 
and spaced not to exceed 2.5 m (8 ft) on centers. 

(c) Where crisscross construction (typically ties on 
stringers — see diagram in Appendix B of 
NFPA 307) is involved, closer spacing of sprinklers 
shall be permitted as necessary to provide wetting 
of the entire structure. 

(d) The deflectors of sprinklers on lines under stringers 
shall be located not less than 100 mm (4 in.) nor 
more than 250 mm (10 in.) below the bottom plane 
of the stringer, and not more than 450 mm (18 in.) 
below the underside of the pier or wharf deck. 

(e) The temperature rating of the sprinkler shall not ex- 
ceed 74°C (165 °F). 

(f) The maximum area to be protected by any one system 
shall be limited to 2325 m 2 (25,000 ft 2 ). 

(2) Sprinklers designed and approved specifically for protec- 
tion of combustible substructures shall be installed in 
conformity with their listing. 

(3) The pipe hangers shall be placed in a location where they 
will be in the wetting pattern of the sprinkler to prevent the 
lag screws from burning or charring out, dropping sprinkler 
piping, and bleeding the system. The distance from the 
sprinkler to the hanger shall not exceed 460 mm (18 in.) . 

(4) Horizontal and vertical bracing shall be provided at not 
more than 6-m (20-ft) intervals on all sprinkler piping 
76 mm (3 in.) or larger that is parallel to and within 15 m 
(50 ft) of the face of the pier or wharf and where it might 
be subjected to heavy fireboat nozzle streams. 

(5) Sprinkler systems, including hanger assemblies and brac- 
ing, in underdeck areas shall be properly protected 
throughout against corrosion. Sprinklers shall be of 
corrosion-resistant type. When the fire protection design 
for substructures involves the use of detectors or other 
electrical equipment for smoke or heat detection, pre- 
action or deluge-type sprinkler protection, all detectors 
and wiring systems shall be moisture- and corrosion-proof 
to protect against unfavorable atmospheric conditions 
that exist beneath these structures. Frequent inspection 
and testing of these systems shall be conducted in accor- 
dance with applicable NFPA standards. 

(6) Water supply systems, hydrants, fire hose valves, and sprin- 
kler systems shall be installed with adequate protection 
against freezing and physical damage. 

[307:3.3.3.1.3] 

13.23 Cleanrooms. 

13.23.1 Design Requirements. 

13.23.1.1* Automatic sprinklers for cleanrooms or clean zones 
shall be hydraulically designed for a density of 0.20 gpm/ft 2 
(8.15 L/min-m 2 ) over a design area of 3000 ft 2 (278.8 m 2 ). 
[318:2.1.2.1] 



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SPECIAL OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



13-179 



13.23.1.2 Automatic sprinkler protection shall be designed 
and installed in the plenum and interstitial space above clean- 
rooms for a density of 0.20 gpm/ft 2 (8.15 L/min-m 2 ) over a 
design area of 3000 ft 2 (278.8 m 2 ). 

Exception: Automatic sprinklers can be omitted if the construction 
and occupancy of these spaces are noncombustible. [318:2. 1.2.6] 

13.23.1.3* Sprinklers installed in duct systems shall be hydrau- 
lically designed to provide 0.5 gpm (1.9 L/min) over an area 
derived by multiplying the distance between the sprinklers in 
a horizontal duct by the width of the duct. Minimum dis- 
charge shall be 20 gpm (76 L/min) per sprinkler from the five 
hydraulically most remote sprinklers. [318:2.1.2.6.1] 

13.23.2 Installation Requirements. 

13.23.2.1 Wet pipe automatic sprinkler protection shall be 
provided throughout facilities containing cleanrooms and 
clean zones. [318:2.1.1] 

13.23.2.2* Quick response sprinklers shall be utilized for 
sprinkler installations within down-flow airstreams in clean- 
rooms and clean zones. [318:2.1.2.2] 

13.23.2.3* Sprinklers installed in ductwork shall be spaced a 
maximum of 20 ft (6.1 m) apart horizontally and 12 ft (3.7 m) 
apart vertically. [318:2.1.2.6.1] 

13.23.2.4 A separate indicating control valve shall be pro- 
vided for sprinklers installed in ductwork. [318:2.1.2.6.2] 

13.23.2.5 The sprinklers shall be accessible for periodic in- 
spection and maintenance. [318:2.1.2.6.5] 

13.24 Aircraft Hangars. 

13.24.1 Design Requirements. Sprinkler systems installed in 
aircraft hangars shall comply with NFPA 409, Standard on Air- 
craft Hangars. 

13.24.2 Installation Requirements. Sprinkler systems installed 
in aircraft hangars shall comply with NFPA 409, Standard on 
Aircraft Hangars. 

13.25 Airport Terminal Buildings, Fueling Ramp Drainage, 
and Loading Walkways. 

13.25.1 Design Requirements. 

13.25.1.1 Passenger handling areas [in airport terminal build- 
ings] shall be classified as ordinary hazard, Group 1 occupancy 
for the purpose of sprinkler system design. [415:2.5.1.1] 

13.25.1.2* Other areas of the airport terminal building shall 
be classified in accordance with Chapter 5 of NFPA 13, based 
on the occupancy of the area. [415:2.5.1.2] 

13.25.1.3 Sprinkler System Water Supply. Water supply from 
public or private sources shall be adequate to supply maximum 
calculated sprinkler demand plus a minimum of 500 gpm 
(1893 L/min) for hose streams. The supply shall be available at 
the rate specified for a period of at least 1 hour. [415:2.5.5] 

13.25.2 Installation Requirements. (Reserved) 

13.26 Aircraft Engine Test Facilities. 

13.26.1 Design Requirements. 

13.26.1.1* In engine test cells, the minimum design discharge 
density shall be 0.5 gpm/ft 2 (20.4 mm/min) of protected area. 
[423.-5.6.3J 



13.26.1.2 In engine test cells, water supplies shall be capable 
of meeting the largest demand at the design rate plus hose 
stream demand for a period of 30 minutes. Hose stream de- 
mand shall be a minimum of 250 gpm (946 L/min). The hy- 
draulic calculation and the water supply shall be based on the 
assumption that all sprinklers in the test cell are operating 
simultaneously. [423:5.6.4] 

13.26.2 Installation Requirements. (Reserved) 

13.27 Liquid and Solid Oxidizers. 

13.27.1 Design Requirements. 

13.27.1.1 Dry-pipe and double-interlock pre-action sprinkler 
systems shall not be permitted for protection of buildings or 
areas containing oxidizers. 

Exception: Dry-pipe and double-interlock pre-action systems shall be 
permitted for protection of Class I oxidizers in noncombustible struc- 
tures. [430:2.11.3] 

13.27.1.2 Sprinkler System Water Supplies. 

13.27.1.2.1 Water supplies shall be adequate for the protection 
of the oxidizer storage by hose streams and automatic sprinklers. 
The water system shall be capable of providing not less than 
750 gpm (2840 L/min) where protection is by means of hose 
streams, or 500 gpm (1890 L/min) for hose streams in excess of 
the automatic sprinkler water demand. [430:2.11.4.1] 

13.27.1.2.2 Duration of the water supply shall be a minimum 
of 2 hours. [430:2.11.4.2] 

13.27.1.3 Class 1 Oxidizers. Class 1 oxidizers in noncombus- 
tible or combustible containers (paper bags or noncombustible 
containers with removable combustible liners) shall be desig- 
nated as a Class 1 commodity; as a Class 2 commodity where 
contained in fiber packs or noncombustible containers in com- 
bustible packaging; and as a Class 3 commodity where contained 
in plastic containers. [430:3.3.2] 

13.27.1.4 Class 2 Oxidizers. 

13.27.1.4.1* Sprinkler protection for Class 2 oxidizers shall be 
designed in accordance with Table 13.27.1.4.1. [430:4.4.1] 

13.27.1.4.2 Storage Protection with In-Rack Sprinklers. In- 

rack sprinklers shall be designed to provide 30 psi (2.1 bar) on 
the hydraulically most remote six sprinklers on each level. 

[430:4.4.4,4.4.4.1] 

13.27.1.5 Class 3 Oxidizers. 

13.27.1.5.1* Sprinkler protection for Class 3 oxidizers shall be 
designed in accordance with Table 13.27.1.5.1. [430:5.4.1] 

13.27.1.5.2 Where more than 200 lb but less than 2300 lb of 
Class 3 oxidizers are stored in racks, height of such storage shall 
be limited to 6 ft, and a level of in-rack sprinklers spaced at maxi- 
mum 8-ft intervals shall be provided over each level of storage. 

13.27.1.5.3 Storage Protection with In-Rack Sprinklers. In- 
rack sprinklers shall be designed to provide 30 psi (2.1 bar) on 
the hydraulically most remote six sprinklers on each level. 
[430:5.4.4,5.4.4.1] 

13.27.1.6 Class 4 Oxidizers. Sprinkler protection for Class 4 
oxidizers shall be installed on a deluge sprinkler system to 
provide water density of 0.35 gpm (14.3 mm/min) over the 
entire storage area. [430:6.4.1] 

13.27.2* Installation Requirements. See NFPA 430, Code for the 
Storage of Liquid and Solid Oxidizers. 



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INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Table 13.27.1.4.1 Sprinkler Protection for Class 2 Oxidizers 



Ceiling Sprinklers 





Storage Height 


Density 


Area of Application 


Type of Storage 


ft 


m 


gpm/ft 2 L/min/m 2 


ft 2 m 2 


Palletized or bulk 
Palletized or bulk 
Rack 


8 
12 
12 


2.4 
3.7 
3.7 


0.20 8 
0.35 14 
0.20 8 


3750 348 
3750 348 
3750 348 



In-Rack Sprinklers 



Rack 



16 



4.9 



0.30 



12 



One line above each level of 

storage except the top level 

2000 186 One line above each level of 

storage except the top level 



Table 13.27.1.5.1 Sprinkler Protection for Class 3 Oxidizers [430:Table 5.4.1] 



Type of Storage 



Storage Height 



Density 



ft 



m 



gpm/ft 2 L/min/m 2 



Area of 
Application 

it m 



In-Rack Sprinklers 



Palletized or bulk 5 1.5 

Palletized rack or bulk 10 3 

Rack 10 3 



0.35 
0.65 
0.35 



14 
26 
14 



5000 465 
5000 465 
5000 465 



1 level at midpoint of rack 



13.28 Storage of Organic Peroxide Formulations. 

13.28.1 Design Requirements. 

13.28.1.1 Where [automatic sprinkler systems are required 
per NFPA 432, Code for the Storage of Organic Peroxide Formula- 
tions, they] shall provide the following discharge densities: 



Class I [organic peroxides] — 0.5 gpm/ft 2 (20. 4 mm/min) 

Class II [organic peroxides] — 0.4 gpm/ft 2 (16.3 mm/min) 

Class III [organic peroxides] — 0.3 gpm/ft 2 

(12.2 mm/min) 

Class IV [organic peroxides] — 0.25 gpm/ft 2 

(10.2 mm/min) [432:2.8.2] 



13.28.1.2 The system shall be designed to provide the re- 
quired density over a 3000-ft 2 (279-m 2 ) area for areas pro- 
tected by a wet pipe sprinkler system or 3900 ft 2 (363 m 2 ) for 
areas protected by a dry pipe sprinkler system. The entire area 
of any building of less than 3000 ft 2 (279 m 2 ) shall be used as 
the area of application. [432:2.8.2.1] 

13.28.1.3 Sprinkler System Water Supply. Water supplies for 
automatic sprinkler systems, fire hydrants, and so forth, shall 
be capable of supplying the anticipated demand for at least 
90 minutes. [432:2.8.3] 

13.28.1.4 Detached Storage of Class I Organic Peroxide For- 
mulations. Sprinkler protection for Class I organic peroxide 
formulations in quantities exceeding 2000 lb (908 kg) in de- 
tached storage shall be of the deluge type. [432:5.5.2] 

13.28.2 Installation Requirements. Where automatic sprin- 
kler protection is provided for Class I organic peroxide formu- 
lations in quantities exceeding 2000 lb (907 kg), it shall be a 
deluge system. [432:5.5.2] 



13.29 Advanced Light Water Reactor Electric Generating Plants. 

13.29.1 Design Requirements. 

13.29.1.1* Sprinkler System Water Supply. The fire water sup- 
ply shall be calculated on the basis of the largest expected 
flow rate for a period of 2 hours, but shall not be less than 
300,000 gal (1,135,500 L). This flow rate shall be based on 
500 gpm (1892.5 L/min) for manual hose streams plus the 
largest design demand of any sprinkler system. The fire wa- 
ter supply shall be capable of delivering this design demand 
with the hydraulically least demanding portion of fire main 
loop out of service. [804:7.2.1] 

13.29.1.2 Yard Mains. The underground yard fire main loop 
shall be installed to furnish anticipated water requirements. The 
type of pipe and water treatment shall be design considerations, 
with tuberculation as one of the parameters. Means for inspect- 
ing and flushing the systems shall be provided. [804:7.4.1] 

13.29.1.3 Cable Tunnels. [804:8.4.2] 

13.29.1.3.1 Automatic sprinkler systems shall be designed for 
a density of 0.3 gpm/ft 2 (12.2 mm/min) for the most remote 
100 linear feet (30.5 linear meters) of cable tunnel up to the 
most remote 2500 ft 2 (232.2 m 2 ). [804:8.4.2.2.1] 

13.29.1.3.2 Deluge sprinkler systems or deluge spray systems 
shall be zoned to limit the area of protection to that which the 
drainage system can handle with any two adjacent systems actu- 
ated. The systems shall be hydraulically designed with each zone 
calculated with the largest adjacent zone flowing. [804:8.4.2.2.3] 

13.29.1.4 Cable Spreading Room. The cable spreading room 
shall have an automatic water-based suppression system. The 
location of sprinklers or spray nozzles shall consider cable tray 
arrangements to ensure adequate water coverage for areas 
that could present exposure fire hazards to the cable raceways. 
Automatic sprinkler systems shall be designed for a density of 
0.30 gpm/ft (12.2 L/min-m 2 ) over the most remote 2500 ft 2 
(232.2 m 2 ). [804:8.4.1.1] 



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PLANS AND CALCULATIONS 



13-181 



13.29.1.5* Beneath Turbine Generator Operating Floor. All 

areas beneath the turbine generator operating floor shall be 
protected by an automatic sprinkler or foam-water sprinkler 
system. The sprinkler system beneath the turbine generator 
shall take into consideration obstructions from structural 
members and piping and shall be designed to a minimum 
density of 0.3 gpm/fr (12.2mm/min) over a minimum appli- 
cation of 5000 ft 2 (464.5 m 2 ). [804:8.8.2.1] 

13.29.1.6* Turbine Generator Bearings. 

13.29.1.6.1 Lubricating oil lines above the turbine operating 
floor shall be protected with an automatic sprinkler system 
covering those areas subject to oil accumulation, including 
the area within the turbine lagging (skirt). The automatic 
sprinkler system shall be designed to a minimum density of 
0.30gpm/ft 2 (12.2mm/min). [804:8.8.4] 

13.29.1.6.2 If shaft-driven ventilation systems are used, an au- 
tomatic preaction sprinkler system providing a density of 
0.3 gpm/ft 2 (12.2 mm/min) over the entire area shall be pro- 
vided. [804:8.8.6] 

13.29.1.7 Standby Emergency Diesel Generators and Com- 
bustion Turbines. Sprinkler and water spray protection sys- 
tems shall be designed for a 0.25-gpm/ft 2 (10.2-mm/min) 
density over the entire area. [804:8.9.2] 

13.29.1.8 Fire Pump Room/House. If sprinkler and water 
spray systems are provided for fire pump houses, they shall 
be designed for a minimum density of 0.25 gpm/ft 2 
(10.2 mm/min) over the entire fire area. [804:8.22] 

13.29.1.9 Oil-Fired Boilers. Sprinkler and water spray systems 
shall be designed for a minimum density of 0.25 gpm/ft 2 
(10.2 mm/min) over the entire area. [804:8.24.2] 

13.29.2 Installation Requirements. 

13.29.2.1 Yard Mains, Hydrants, and Building Standpipes. 

[804:7.4] 

13.29.2.1.1 Approved visually indicating sectional control 
valves such as post-indicator valves shall be provided to isolate 
portions of the main for maintenance or repair without simul- 
taneously shutting off the supply to both primary and backup 
fire suppression systems. [804:7.4.2] 

13.29.2.1.2* Sectional control valves shall permit maintaining 
independence of the individual loop around each unit. For 
such installations, common water supplies shall also be per- 
mitted to be utilized. For multiple-reactor sites with widely 
separated plants [approaching 1 mi. (1.6 km) or more], sepa- 
rate yard fire main loops shall be used. [804:7.4.4] 

13.29.2.1.3 Sprinkler systems and manual hose station stand- 
pipes shall have connections to the plant underground water 
main so that a single active failure or a crack in a moderate- 
energy line can be isolated so as not to impair both the pri- 
mary and backup fire suppression systems. Alternatively, head- 
ers fed from each end are permitted inside buildings to supply 
both sprinkler and standpipe systems, provided steel piping 
and fittings meeting the requirements of ANSI/ASME B31.1, 
Code for Power Piping, are used for the headers (up to and in- 
cluding the first valve) supplying the sprinkler systems where 
such headers are part of the seismically analyzed hose stand- 
pipe system. Where provided, such headers are considered an 
extension of the yard main system. Each sprinkler and stand- 
pipe system shall be equipped with an outside screw and yoke 
(OS&Y) gate valve or other approved shutoff valve. [804:7.4.7] 



13.29.2.2 Cable Concentrations. The location of sprinklers or 
spray nozzles shall consider cable array arrangements and pos- 
sible transient combustibles to ensure adequate water cover- 
age for areas that could present exposure fire hazards to the 
cable raceways. [804:8.4.2.2.2] 

13.29.2.3 Turbine Building. Deluge sprinkler systems or del- 
uge spray systems shall be zoned to limit the area of protection 
to that which the drainage system can handle with any two 
adjacent systems actuated. The systems shall be hydraulically 
designed with each zone calculated with the largest adjacent 
zone flowing. [804:8.4.2.2.3] 

13.30 Light Water Nuclear Power Plants. 

13.30.1* Design Requirements. Afire protection water supply 
of adequate reliability, quantity, and duration shall be pro- 
vided by one of the two following methods: 

(1) Provide a fire protection water supply of not less than two 
separate 300,000-gal (1,135,500-L) supplies. 

(2) Calculate the fire flow rate for 2 hours. This fire flow rate 
shall be based on 500 gpm (1892.5 L/min) for manual 
hose streams plus the largest design demand of any sprin- 
kler or fixed water spray system (s) in the power block as 
determined in accordance with NFPA 13 or NFPA 15, Stan- 
dard for Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire Protection. The fire 
water supply shall be capable of delivering this design de- 
mand with the hydraulically least demanding portion of 
fire main loop out of service. 

[805:3.5.1] 

13.30.2 Installation Requirements. (Reserved) 

1 3.31 Electric Generating Plants and High Voltage Direct Cur- 
rent Converter Stations. [NFPA 850] 

13.31.1* Design Requirements. 

13.31.2* Installation Requirements. 

13.32 Hydroelectric Generating Plants. [NFPA 851] 
13.32.1* Design Requirements. 

13.32.2* Installation Requirements. 

13.33 Fire Protection in Places of Worship. [NFPA 909] 
13.33.1* Design Requirements. 

13.33.2 Installation Requirements. (Reserved) 



Chapter 14 Plans and Calculations 

14.1* Working Plans. 

14.1.1* Working plans shall be submitted for approval to the 
authority havingjurisdiction before any equipment is installed 
or remodeled. 

14.1.2 Deviation from approved plans shall require permis- 
sion of the authority havingjurisdiction. 

14.1.3 Working plans shall be drawn to an indicated scale, on 
sheets of uniform size, with a plan of each floor, and shall show 
those items from the following list that pertain to the design of 
the system: 

(1) Name of owner and occupant 

(2) Location, including street address 

(3) Point of compass 



2002 Edition 



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INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



(4) Full height cross section, or schematic diagram, includ- 
ing structural member information if required for clarity 
and including ceiling construction and method of pro- 
tection for nonmetallic piping 

(5) Location of partitions 

(6) Location of fire walls 

(7) Occupancy class of each area or room 

(8) Location and size of concealed spaces, closets, attics, and 
bathrooms 

(9) Any small enclosures in which no sprinklers are to be 
installed 

(10) Size of city main in street and whether dead end or cir- 
culating; if dead end, direction and distance to nearest 
circulating main; and city main test results and system 
elevation relative to test hydrant (see A. 15. 1.8). 

(11) Other sources of water supply, with pressure or elevation 

(12) Make, type, model, and nominal K-factor of sprinklers 
including sprinkler identification number 

(13) Temperature rating and location of high-temperature 
sprinklers 

(14) Total area protected by each system on each floor 

(15) Number of sprinklers on each riser per floor 

(16) Total number of sprinklers on each dry pipe system, pre- 
action system, combined dry pipe-preaction system, or 
deluge system 

(17) Approximate capacity in gallons of each dry pipe system 

(18) Pipe type and schedule of wall thickness 

(19) Nominal pipe size and cutting lengths of pipe (or center- 
to-center dimensions). Where typical branch lines pre- 
vail, it shall be necessary to size only one typical line 

(20) Location and size of riser nipples 

(21) Type of fittings and joints and location of all welds and 
bends. The contractor shall specify on drawing any sec- 
tions to be shop welded and the type of fittings or forma- 
tions to be used 

(22) Type and locations of hangers, sleeves, braces, and meth- 
ods of securing sprinklers when applicable 

(23) All control valves, check valves, drain pipes, and test con- 
nections 

(24) Make, type, model, and size of alarm or dry pipe valve 

(25) Make, type, model, and size of preaction or deluge valve 

(26) Kind and location of alarm bells 

(27) Size and location of standpipe risers, hose outlets, hand 
hose, monitor nozzles, and related equipment 

(28) Private fire service main sizes, lengths, locations, weights, 
materials, point of connection to city main; the sizes, 
types and locations of valves, valve indicators, regulators, 
meters, and valve pits; and the depth that the top of the 
pipe is laid below grade 

(29) Piping provisions for flushing 

(30) Where the equipment is to be installed as an addition to 
an existing system, enough of the existing system indi- 
cated on the plans to make all conditions clear 

(31) For hydraulically designed systems, the information on 
the hydraulic data nameplate 

(32) A graphic representation of the scale used on all plans 

(33) Name and address of contractor 

(34) Hydraulic reference points shown on the plan that cor- 
respond with comparable reference points on the hy- 
draulic calculation sheets 

(35) The minimum rate of water application (density), the 
design area of water application, in-rack sprinkler de- 
mand, and the water required for hose streams both in- 
side and outside 



(36) The total quantity of water and the pressure required 
noted at a common reference point for each system 

(37) Relative elevations of sprinklers, junction points, and 
supply or reference points 

(38) If room design method is used, all unprotected wall 
openings throughout the floor protected 

(39) Calculation of loads for sizing and details of sway bracing 

(40) The setting for pressure-reducing valves 

(41) Information about backflow preventers (manufacturer, 
size, type) 

(42) Information about antifreeze solution used (type and 
amount) 

(43) Size and location of hydrants, showing size and number 
of outlets and if outlets are to be equipped with indepen- 
dent gate valves. Whether hose houses and equipment 
are to be provided, and by whom, shall be indicated. 
Static and residual hydrants that were used in flow tests 
shall be shown 

(44) Size, location, and piping arrangement of fire depart- 
ment connections 

14.1.4 The working plan submittal shall include the manu- 
facturer's installation instructions for any specially listed 
equipment, including descriptions, applications, and limita- 
tions for any sprinklers, devices, piping, or fittings. 

14.1.5* Working Plans for Automatic Sprinkler Systems with 
Non-Fire Protection Connections. Special symbols shall be 
used and explained for auxiliary piping, pumps, heat ex- 
changers, valves, strainers, and the like, clearly distinguishing 
these devices and piping runs from those of the sprinkler sys- 
tem. Model number, type, and manufacturer's name shall be 
identified for each piece of auxiliary equipment. 

14.2 Water Supply Information. 

14.2.1 Water Supply Capacity Information. The following in- 
formation shall be included: 

( 1 ) Location and elevation of static and residual test gauge 
with relation to the riser reference point 

(2) Flow location 

(3) Static pressure, psi (bar) 

(4) Residual pressure, psi (bar) 

(5) Flow, gpm (L/min) 

(6) Date 

(7) Time 

(8) Test conducted by or information supplied by 

(9) Other sources of water supply, with pressure or elevation 

14.2.2 Water Supply Treatment Information. The following 
information shall be included where required by 15.1.5: 

(1) Type of condition that requires treatment 

(2) Type of treatment needed to address the problem 

(3) Details of treatment plan 

14.3 Hydraulic Calculation Forms. 

14.3.1 General. Hydraulic calculations shall be prepared on 
form sheets that include a summary sheet, detailed work- 
sheets, and a graph sheet. [See copies of typical forms in Figure 
A.M. 3.2(a), Figure A. 14.3.3, and Figure A. 14.3.4.] 

14.3.2* Summary Sheet. The summary sheet shall contain the 
following information, where applicable: 

(1) Date 

(2) Location 

(3) Name of owner and occupant 



2002 Edition 



PLANS AND CALCULATIONS 



13-183 



(4) Building number or other identification 

(5) Description of hazard 

(6) Name and address of contractor or designer 

(7) Name of approving agency 

(8) System design requirements, as follows: 

(a) Design area of water application, ft 2 (m 2 ) 

(b) Minimum rate of water application (density), gpm/ft 2 
(mm/min) 

(c) Area per sprinkler, ft 2 (m 2 ) 

(9) Total water requirements as calculated, including allow- 
ance for inside hose, outside hydrants, and water curtain 
and exposure sprinklers 

(10) Allowance for in-rack sprinklers, gpm (L/min) 

(11) Limitations (dimension, flow, and pressure) on ex- 
tended coverage or other listed special sprinklers 

14.3.3* Detailed Worksheets. Detailed worksheets or com- 
puter printout sheets shall contain the following information: 

(1) Sheet number 

(2) Sprinkler description and discharge constant (K) 

(3) Hydraulic reference points 

(4) Flow in gpm (L/min) 

(5) Pipe size 

(6) Pipe lengths, center-to-center of fittings 

(7) Equivalent pipe lengths for fittings and devices 

(8) Friction loss in psi/ft (bar/m) of pipe 

(9) Total friction loss between reference points 

(10) In-rack sprinkler demand balanced to ceiling demand 

(11) Elevation head in psi (bar) between reference points 

(12) Required pressure in psi (bar) at each reference point 

(13) Velocity pressure and normal pressure if included in cal- 
culations 

(14) Notes to indicate starting points or reference to other 
sheets or to clarify data shown 

(15)*Diagram to accompany gridded system calculations to 

indicate flow quantities and directions for lines with 

sprinklers operating in the remote area 
(16) Combined K-factor calculations for sprinklers on drops, 

armovers, or sprigs where calculations do not begin at 

the sprinkler 

14.3.4* Graph Sheet. A graphic representation of the complete 
hydraulic calculation shall be plotted on semiexponential graph 
paper (Q 1 ' 85 ) and shall include the following: 

( 1 ) Water supply curve 

(2) Sprinkler system demand 

(3) Hose demand (where applicable) 

(4) In-rack sprinkler demand (where applicable) 

14.4 Hydraulic Calculation Procedures. 
14.4.1* General. 

14.4.1.1 A calculated system for a building, or a calculated 
addition to a system in an existing sprinklered building, shall 
supersede the rules in this standard governing pipe schedules, 
except that all systems shall continue to be limited by area. 

14.4.1.2 Pipe sizes shall be no less than 1 in. (25.4 mm) nomi- 
nal for ferrous piping and % in. (19 mm) nominal for copper 
tubing or nonmetallic piping listed for fire sprinkler service. 

14.4.1.3 The size of pipe, number of sprinklers per branch 
line, and number of branch lines per cross main shall other- 
wise be limited only by the available water supply. 

14.4.1.4 However, sprinkler spacing and all other rules cov- 
ered in this and other applicable standards shall be observed. 



14.4.2 Formulas. 

14.4.2.1 Friction Loss Formula. 

14.4.2.1.1 Pipe friction losses shall be determined on the ba- 
sis of the Hazen- Williams formula, as follows: 

_ 4.52Q' 85 

P ~ ^1.85 i4.87 

where: 

p = frictional resistance in psi per foot of pipe 

<2 = flow in gpm 

C = friction loss coefficient 

d = actual internal diameter of pipe in inches 

14.4.2.1.2 For SI units, the following equation shall be used: 

,1.85 > \ 



Pm = 605 



QL 



c'-V 



10 5 



where: 

p m = frictional resistance in bar per meter of pipe 
Q, n = flow in L/min 
C = friction loss coefficient 

d m = actual internal diameter in mm 

14.4.2.2 Velocity Pressure Formula. Velocity pressure shall be 
determined on the basis of the following formula: 



P.= 



_ 0.001123Q 2 
D 4 



where: 

P v - velocity pressure in psi (SI: 1 psi - 0.0689 bar) 
Q_ = flow in gpm (SI : 1 gal = 3.785 L) 
D = inside diameter in inches (SI: 1 in. = 25.4 mm) 

14.4.2.3 Normal Pressure Formula. Normal pressure (P n ) 
shall be determined on the basis of the following formula: 

P n =P l -P v 

where: 

P n ■= normal pressure 

P t = total pressure in psi (bar) 

P v = velocity pressure in psi (bar) 

14.4.2.4 Hydraulic Junction Points. 

14.4.2.4.1 Pressures at hydraulic junction points shall bal- 
ance within 0.5 psi (0.03 bar). 

14.4.2.4.2 The highest pressure at the junction point, and the 
total flows as adjusted, shall be carried into the calculations. 

14.4.2.4.3 Pressure balancing shall be permitted through the 
use of a K-factor developed for branch lines or portions of 
systems using K p =Q/(p) . 

14.4.3 Equivalent Pipe Lengths of Valves and Fittings. 

14.4.3.1 Pipe and Fittings. 

14.4.3.1.1 Table 14.4.3.1.1 shall be used to determine the 
equivalent length of pipe for fittings and devices unless manu- 
facturer's test data indicate that other factors are appropriate. 

14.4.3.1.2 For saddle-type fittings having friction loss greater 
than that shown in Table 14.4.3.1.1, the increased friction loss 
shall be included in hydraulic calculations. 



2002 Edition 



13-184 








INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 














Table 14.4.3.1.1 


Equivalent Schedule 40 Steel 


Pipe Length Chart 




























Fittings 


and Valves Expressed in 


Equivalent Feet of Pipe 










Fittings and 
Valves 


V2 in. 


3 A in. 


lin. 


l'Ain. 


IV* in. 


2 in. 


2V4 in. 


3 in. 


3'/2 in. 


4 in. 


5 in. 


6 in. 


8 in. 


10 in. 


12 in. 


45° elbow 


— 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


3 


3 


3 


4 


5 


7 


9 


11 


13 


90° standard 
elbow 


1 


2 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


10 


12 


14 


18 


22 


27 


90° long-turn 
elbow 


0.5 


1 


2 


2 


2 


3 


4 


5 


5 


6 


8 


9 


13 


16 


18 


Tee or cross (flow 
turned 90°) 


3 


4 


5 


6 


8 


10 


12 


15 


17 


20 


25 


30 


35 


50 


60 


Butterfly valve 












6 


7 


10 


— 


12 


9 


10 


12 


19 


21 


Gate valve 












1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


Swing check* 


— 


— 


5 


7 


9 


11 


14 


16 


19 


22 


27 


32 


45 


55 


65 



For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm; 1 ft = 0.3048 m. 

Note: Information on Vi -in. pipe is included in this table only because it is allowed under 8.14.19.3 and 8.14.19.4. 

*Due to the variation in design of swing check valves, the pipe equivalents indicated in this table are considered average. 



14.4.3.1.3 Equivalent Feet Modifier. 

14.4.3.1.3.1 For internal pipe diameters different from 
Schedule 40 steel pipe, the equivalent feet shown in Table 
14.4.3.1.1 shall be multiplied by a factor derived from the fol- 
lowing formula: 



Actual inside diameter 



Schedule 40 steel pipe inside diameter 



Factor 



14.4.3.1.3.2 The factor thus obtained shall be further modi- 
fied as required by Table 14.4.3.1.1. This table shall apply to 
other types of pipe listed in Table 14.4.3.1.1 only where modi- 
fied by factors from 14.4.3.1.1 and 14.4.3.2. 

14.4.3.2 C-Factors. Table 14.4.3.1.1 shall be used with a 
Hazen-Williams C factor of 120 only. For other values of C, the 
values in Table 14.4.3.1.1 shall be multiplied by the factors 
indicated in Table 14.4.3.2. 



Table 14.4.3.2 C Value Multiplier 

Value of C 100 130 140 150 

Multiplying 0.713 1.16 1.33 1.51 

factor 

Note: These factors are based upon the friction loss through the fit- 
ting being independent of the C factor available to the piping. 



14.4.3.3 Valves. Specific friction loss values or equivalent pipe 
lengths for alarm valves, dry pipe valves, deluge valves, strain- 
ers, and other devices shall be made available to the authority 
having jurisdiction. 

14.4.3.4 Differing Values. Specific friction loss values or 
equivalent pipe lengths for listed fittings not in Table 6.4.1 
shall be used in hydraulic calculations where these losses or 
equivalent pipe lengths are different from those shown in 
Table 14.4.3.1.1. 



14.4.4* Calculation Procedure. 

14.4.4.1* For all systems the design area shall be the hydrauli- 
cally most demanding based on the criteria of Chapter 11, 
Chapter 12, or the special design approaches in accordance 
with the requirements of Chapter 13. 

14.4.4. 1 . 1 Density-Area Method. 

14.4.4.1.1.1 Where the design is based on the density-area 
method, the design area shall be a rectangular area having a 
dimension parallel to the branch lines at least 1.2 times the 
square root of the area of sprinkler operation (A) used, which 
shall permit the inclusion of sprinklers on both sides of the 
cross main. 

14.4.4.1.1.2 Any fractional sprinkler shall be carried to the 
next higher whole sprinkler. 

14.4.4.1.1.3 In systems having branch lines with an insuffi- 
cient number of sprinklers to fulfill the 1.2 requirement, the 
design area shall be extended to include sprinklers on adja- 
cent branch lines supplied by the same cross main. 

14.4.4.1.2 Room Design Method. Where the design is based 
on the room design method, the calculation shall be based on 
the room and communicating space, if any, that is hydrauli- 
cally the most demanding. (See 11.2.3.3.) 

14.4.4.2* Gridded Systems. 

14.4.4.2.1 For gridded systems, the designer shall verify that 
the hydraulically most demanding area is being used. 

14.4.4.2.2 A minimum of two additional sets of calculations 
shall be submitted to demonstrate peaking of demand area 
friction loss when compared to areas immediately adjacent on 
either side along the same branch lines, unless the require- 
ments of 14.4.4.2.3 are met. 

14.4.4.2.3 Computer programs that show the peaking of the 
demand area friction loss shall be acceptable based on a single 
set of calculations. 

14.4.4.3 Design Densities. 

14.4.4.3.1 System piping shall be hydraulically designed us- 
ing design densities and areas of operation in accordance 



2002 Edition 



PLANS AND CALCULATIONS 



13-185 



with 11.2.3.2 or Chapter 12 as required for the occupancies 
or hazards involved. 

14.4.4.3.2* The density shall be calculated on the basis of floor 
area of sprinkler operation. 

14.4.4.3.3 The area covered by any sprinkler used in hydrau- 
lic design and calculations shall be the horizontal distances 
measured between the sprinklers on the branch line and be- 
tween the branch lines in accordance with 8.5.2. 

14.4.4.3.4* Where sprinklers are installed above and below a 
ceiling or in a case where more than two areas are supplied 
from a common set of branch lines, the branch lines and sup- 
plies shall be calculated to supply the largest water demand. 

14.4.4.4* Design Area Sprinklers. 

14.4.4.4.1 Each sprinkler in the design area and the remainder 
of the hydraulically designed system shall discharge at a flow rate 
at least equal to the stipulated minimum water application rate 
(density) multiplied by the area of sprinkler operation. 

14.4.4.4.2 The requirements of 14.4.4.4.1 to include every 
sprinkler in the design area to be included in the system 
discharge shall not apply and where the area of application 
is equal to or greater than the minimum allowable area of 
Figure 11.2.3.1.5 for the appropriate hazard classification 
(including a 30 percent increase for dry pipe systems), 
sprinkler discharge in closets, washrooms, and similar small 
compartments requiring only one sprinkler shall be permit- 
ted to be omitted from hydraulic calculations within the 
area of application. Sprinklers in these small compartments 
shall, however, be capable of discharging minimum densi- 
ties in accordance with Figure 11.2.3.1.5. 

14.4.4.4.3 The requirements of 14.4.4.4.1 to include every 
sprinkler in the design area to be included in the system 
discharge shall not apply and where spray sprinklers and 
large drop sprinklers are provided above and below ob- 
structions such as wide ducts or tables, the water supply for 
one of the levels of sprinklers shall be permitted to be omit- 
ted from the hydraulic ceiling design calculations within 
the area of application. 

14.4.4.4.4 The requirements of 14.4.4.4.1 to include every 
sprinkler in the design area to be included in the system dis- 
charge shall not apply, and where ESFR sprinklers are in- 
stalled above and below obstructions, the discharge for up to 
two sprinklers from one of the levels shall be included with 
those of the other level in the hydraulic calculation. 

14.4.4.4.5 Calculations shall begin at the hydraulically most 
remote sprinkler. 

14.4.4.4.6 The calculated pressure at each sprinkler shall be 
used to determine the discharge flow rate for that particular 
sprinkler. 

14.4.4.5 Friction Loss. Pipe friction loss shall be calculated in 
accordance with the Hazen-Williams formula with C values 
from Table 14.4.4.5, as follows: 

(1) Include pipe, fittings, and devices such as valves, meters, 
flow switches in pipes 2 in. or less in size, and strainers, 
and calculate elevation changes that affect the sprinkler 
discharge. 

(2) Tie-in drain piping shall not be included in the hydraulic 
calculations. 

(3) Calculate the loss for a tee or a cross where flow direc- 
tion change occurs based on the equivalent pipe length 
of the piping segment in which the fitting is included. 



(4) The tee at the top of a riser nipple shall be included in 
the branch line, the tee at the base of a riser nipple shall 
be included in the riser nipple, and the tee or cross at a 
cross main-feed main junction shall be included in the 
cross main. 

(5) Do not include fitting loss for straight-through flow in a 
tee or cross. 

(6) Calculate the loss of reducing elbows based on the 
equivalent feet value of the smallest outlet. 

(7) Use the equivalent feet value for the standard elbow on any 
abrupt 9(kiegree turn, such as the screw-type pattern. 

(8) Use the equivalent feet value for the long-turn elbow on 
any sweeping 90-degree turn, such as a flanged, welded, 
or mechanical joint-elbow type. (See Table 14.4.3.1.1.) 

(9) Friction loss shall be excluded for the fitting directly 
connected to a sprinkler. 

(10) Losses through a pressure-reducing valve shall be in- 
cluded based on the normal inlet pressure condition. 
Pressure loss data from the manufacturer's literature 
shall be used. 



Table 14.4.4.5 Hazen-Williams C Values 



Pipe or Tube 



C Value* 



Unlined cast or ductile iron 


100 


Black steel (dry systems 


100 


including preaction) 




Black steel (wet systems 


120 


including deluge) 




Galvanized (all) 


120 


Plastic (listed) all 


150 


Cement-lined cast or ductile 


140 


iron 




Copper tube or stainless steel 


150 


Asbestos cement 


140 


Concrete 


140 



*The authority having jurisdiction is permitted to consider other C 
values. 



14.4.4.6* Orifice Plates. 

14.4.4.6.1 Unless the requirements of 14.4.4.6.2 or 14.4.4.6.3 
are met, orifice plates or sprinklers of different orifice sizes 
shall not be used for balancing the system. 

14.4.4.6.2 Sprinklers with different orifice sizes shall be ac- 
ceptable for special use such as exposure protection, small 
rooms or enclosures, or directional discharge. (See 3.3.20 for 
definition of small rooms.) 

14.4.4.6.3 Extended-coverage sprinklers with a different ori- 
fice size shall be acceptable for part of the protection area 
where installed in accordance with their listing. 

14.4.4.7* Pressures. 

14.4.4.7.1 When calculating flow from an orifice, the total 
pressure (P t ) shall be used, unless the calculation method of 

14.4.4.7.2 is utilized. 

14.4.4.7.2 Use of the normal pressure (P n ) calculated by sub- 
tracting the velocity pressure from the total pressure shall be 
permitted. Where the normal pressure is used, it shall be used 
on all branch lines and cross mains where applicable. 



2002 Edition 



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INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



14.4.4.7.3 Flow from a sprinkler shall be calculated using the 
nominal K-factor. 

14.4.4.8 Minimum Operating Pressure. 

14.4.4.8.1 Minimum operating pressure of any sprinkler shall 
be7psi (0.5 bar). 

14.4.4.8.2 Where a higher minimum operating pressure for 
the desired application is specified in the listing of the sprin- 
kler, this higher pressure shall be required. 

14.4.4.9 Maximum Operating Pressure. For extra hazard occu- 
pancies, palletized, solid-pile, in bin box, on shelf storage, the 
maximum operating pressure of any sprinkler shall be 175 psi. 

14.5 Pipe Schedules. Pipe schedules shall not be used, except 
in existing systems and in new systems or extensions to existing 
systems described in Chapter 11. Water supplies shall conform 
to 11.2.2. 

14.5.1* General. 

14.5.1.1 The pipe schedule sizing provisions shall not apply 
to hydraulically calculated systems. 

14.5.1.2 Sprinkler systems having sprinklers with K-factors 
other than 5.6 nominal, listed piping material other than 
that covered in Table 6.3.1.1, extra hazard Groups 1 and 2 
systems, and exposure protection systems shall be hydrauli- 
cally calculated. 

14.5.1.3 The number of automatic sprinklers on a given pipe 
size on one floor shall not exceed the number given in 14.5.2, 
14.5.3, or 14.5.4 for a given occupancy. 

14.5.1.4* Size of Risers. Each system riser shall be sized to 
supply all sprinklers on the riser on any one floor as deter- 
mined by the standard schedules of pipe sizes in 14.5.2, 14.5.3, 
or 14.5.4. 

14.5.1.5 Slatted Floors, Large Floor Openings, Mezzanines, 
and Large Platforms. Buildings having slatted floors or large 
unprotected floor openings without approved stops shall be 
treated as one area with reference to pipe sizes, and the feed 
mains or risers shall be of the size required for the total num- 
ber of sprinklers. 

14.5.1.6 Stair Towers. Stairs, towers, or other construction 
with incomplete floors, if piped on independent risers, shall 
be treated as one area with reference to pipe sizes. 

14.5.2 Schedule for Light Hazard Occupancies. 

14.5.2.1 Branch Lines. 

14.5.2.1.1 Unless permitted by 14.5.2.1.2 or 14.5.2.1.3, 
branch lines shall not exceed eight sprinklers on either side of 
a cross main. 

14.5.2.1.2 Where more than eight sprinklers on a branch 
line are necessary, lines shall be permitted to be increased 
to nine sprinklers by making the two end lengths 1 in. 
(25.4 mm) and VA in. (33 mm), respectively, and the sizes 
thereafter standard. 

14.5.2.1.3 Ten sprinklers shall be permitted to be placed on a 
branch line, making the two end lengths 1 in. (25.4 mm) and 
VA in. (33 mm), respectively, and feeding the tenth sprinkler 
bya2M>-in. (64-mm) pipe. 

14.5.2.2 Pipe Sizes. 

14.5.2.2.1 Pipe sizes shall be in accordance with Table 
14.5.2.2.1. 



Table 14.5.2.2.1 Light Hazard Pipe Schedules 



Steel 


Copper 


lin. 


2 sprinklers 


lin. 


2 sprinklers 


IViin. 


3 sprinklers 


lV4in. 


3 sprinklers 


lVfcin. 


5 sprinklers 


lVfcin. 


5 sprinklers 


2 in. 


10 sprinklers 


2 in. 


12 sprinklers 


2V& in. 


30 sprinklers 


2V& in. 


40 sprinklers 


3 in. 


60 sprinklers 


3 in. 


65 sprinklers 


3V2 in. 


100 sprinklers 


3V2 in. 


115 sprinklers 


4 in. 


See Section 


4 in. 


See Section 




8.2 




8.2 



For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm. 

14.5.2.2.2 Each area requiring more sprinklers than the 
number specified for 3Vfc-in. (89-mm) pipe in Table 14.5.2.2.1 
and without subdividing partitions (not necessarily fire walls) 
shall be supplied by mains or risers sized for ordinary hazard 
occupancies. 

14.5.2.3 Where sprinklers are installed above and below 
ceilings in accordance with Figure 14.5.2.3(a) through Fig- 
ure 14.5.2.3(c), and such sprinklers are supplied from a 
common set of branch lines or separate branch lines from a 
common cross main, such branch lines shall not exceed 
eight sprinklers above and eight sprinklers below any ceil- 
ing on either side of the cross main. 




2 in. 2 in. 2 in. 1 1 /2 in. 1 1 /2 in. 1 V2 in. 1 1 /4 in. "IViin. 1 in. 1 in. 
For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm. 

FIGURE 14.5.2.3(a) Arrangement of Branch Lines Supplying 
Sprinklers Above and Below a Ceiling. 



Sprinkler in 
concealed space 



I I ■ Reducer 



L— 12 in. (305 mm) 



— ^ — minimum 
Sprinkler-. /\ 

^y \ Nipple 

jnzrz 

1, I £ ,_ 

V mT__i uJ"V ^1 




FIGURE 14.5.2.3(b) Sprinkler on Riser Nipple from Branch 
Line in Lower Fire Area. 



2002 Edition 



PLANS AND CALCULATIONS 



13-187 



Upright sprinkler^ 
in concealed space" 



Upright 
deflector 




90° ell 



II 



Ceiling 
(lower) ^ 



S 



Plate 

- Pendent sprinkler 

- Pendent deflector 



FIGURE 14.5.2.3(c) Arrangement of Branch Lines Supplying 
Sprinklers Above, in Between, and Below Ceilings. 



(25.4 mm) and 1V4 in. (33 mm), respectively, and the sizes 
thereafter standard. 

14.5.3.3 Ten sprinklers shall be permitted to be placed on a 
branch line, making the two end lengths 1 in. (25.4 mm) and 
VA in. (33 mm), respectively, and feeding the tenth sprinkler 
by a 2 J /2-in. (64-mm) pipe. 

14.5.3.4 Pipe sizes shall be in accordance with Table 14.5.3.4. 
Table 14.5.3.4 Ordinary Hazard Pipe Schedule 



Steel 


Copper 


lin. 


2 sprinklers 


lin. 


2 sprinklers 


PA in. 


3 sprinklers 


VA in. 


3 sprinklers 


IV* in. 


5 sprinklers 


IV* in. 


5 sprinklers 


2 in. 


10 sprinklers 


2 in. 


12 sprinklers 


2V* in.. 


20 sprinklers 


2 V* in. 


25 sprinklers 


3 in. 


40 sprinklers 


3 in. 


45 sprinklers 


31/2 in. 


65 sprinklers 


3 V* in. 


75 sprinklers 


4 in. 


100 sprinklers 


4 in. 


115 sprinklers 


5 in. 


160 sprinklers 


5 in. 


180 sprinklers 


6 in. 


275 sprinklers 


6 in. 


300 sprinklers 


8 in. 


See Section 8.2 


8 in. 


See Section 

8.2 



For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm. 



14.5.2.4 Unless the requirements of 14.5.2.5 are met, pipe 
sizing up to and including 2 V* in. (64 mm) shall be as shown in 
Table 14.5.2.4 utilizing the greatest number of sprinklers to be 
found on any two adjacent levels. 



14.5.3.5 Where the distance between sprinklers on the 
branch line exceeds 12 ft (3.7 m) or the distance between the 
branch lines exceeds 12 ft (3.7 m), the number of sprinklers 
for a given pipe size shall be in accordance with Table 14.5.3.5. 



Table 14.5.2.4 Number of Sprinklers Above and Below a 
Ceiling 



Steel 



lin. 
lV4in. 
IV* in. 

2 in. 
2V* in.. 



2 sprinklers 
4 sprinklers 
7 sprinklers 
15 sprinklers 
50 sprinklers 



Copper 



lin. 
lV4in. 
IV* in. 

2 in. 
2V* in. 



2 sprinklers 
4 sprinklers 
7 sprinklers 
18 sprinklers 
65 sprinklers 



For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm. 



14.5.2.5 Branch lines and cross mains supplying sprinklers 
installed entirely above or entirely below ceilings shall be sized 
in accordance with Table 14.5.2.2.1. 

14.5.2.6* Where the total number of sprinklers above and below 
a ceiling exceeds the number specified in Table 14.5.2.2.1 for 
2V* -in. (64-mm) pipe, the pipe supplying such sprinklers shall be 
increased to 3 in. (76 mm) and sized thereafter according to the 
schedule shown in Table 14.5.2.2.1 for the number of sprinklers 
above or below a ceiling, whichever is larger. 

14.5.3 Schedule for Ordinary Hazard Occupancies. 

14.5.3.1 Unless permitted by 14.5.3.2 or 14.5.3.3, branch lines 
shall not exceed eight sprinklers on either side of a cross main. 

14.5.3.2 Where more than eight sprinklers on a branch 
line are necessary, lines shall be permitted to be increased 
to nine sprinklers by making the two end lengths 1 in. 



Table 14.5.3.5 Number of Sprinklers 
(3.7-m) Separations 



Greater than 12-ft 



Steel 



2V* in. 

3 in. 

3V* in. 



15 sprinklers 
30 sprinklers 
60 sprinklers 



Copper 



2V* in 

3 in. 

3V* in. 



20 sprinklers 
35 sprinklers 
65 sprinklers 



For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm. 

Note: For other pipe and tube sizes, see Table 14.5.3.4. 

14.5.3.6 Where sprinklers are installed above and below ceil- 
ings and such sprinklers are supplied from a common set of 
branch lines or separate branch lines supplied by a common 
cross main, such branch lines shall not exceed eight sprinklers 
above and eight sprinklers below any ceiling on either side of 
the cross main. 

14.5.3.7 Pipe sizing up to and including 3 in. (76 mm) shall 
be as shown in Table 14.5.3.7 in accordance with Figure 
14.5.2.3(a), Figure 14.5.2.3(b), and Figure 14.5.2.3(c) utiliz- 
ing the greatest number of sprinklers to be found on any two 
adjacent levels. 

14.5.3.8 Branch lines and cross mains supplying sprinklers 
installed entirely above or entirely below ceilings shall be sized 
in accordance with Table 14.5.3.4 or Table 14.5.3.5. 

14.5.3.9* Where the total number of sprinklers above and be- 
low a ceiling exceeds the number specified in Table 14.5.3.7 
for 3-in. (76-mm) pipe, the pipe supplying such sprinklers 



2002 Edition 



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INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Table 14.5.3.7 Number of Sprinklers Above and Below a 
Ceiling 



Steel 


Copper 


lin. 


2 sprinklers 


lin. 


2 sprinklers 


FA in. 


4 sprinklers 


FA in. 


4 sprinklers 


P/2 in. 


7 sprinklers 


F/ 2 in. 


7 sprinklers 


2 in. 


15 sprinklers 


2 in. 


18 sprinklers 


2V2 in.. 


30 sprinklers 


2M> in. 


40 sprinklers 


3 in. 


60 sprinklers 


3 in. 


65 sprinklers 



For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm. 



shall be increased to V-A in. (89 mm) and sized thereafter 
according to the schedule shown in Table 14.5.2.2.1 or Table 
14.5.3.4 for the number of sprinklers above or below a ceiling, 
whichever is larger. , 

14.5.3.10 Where the distance between the sprinklers protecting 
the occupied area exceeds 12 ft (3.7 m) or the distance between 
the branch lines exceeds 12 ft (3.7 m), the branch lines shall be 
sized in accordance with either Table 14.5.3.5, taking into consid- 
eration the sprinklers protecting the occupied area only, or 
14.5.3.7, whichever requires the greater size of pipe. 

14.5.4* Extra Hazard Occupancies. Extra hazard occupancies 
shall be hydraulically calculated. 

14.6 Deluge Systems. Open sprinkler and deluge systems shall 
be hydraulically calculated according to applicable standards. 

14.7* Exposure Systems. Exposure sprinklers shall be hydrau- 
lically calculated using Table 14.7 and a relative classification 
of exposures guide number. 



14.8 In-Rack Sprinklers. 

14.8.1 Pipes to in-rack sprinklers shall be sized by hydraulic 
calculations. 

14.8.2 Water demand of sprinklers installed in racks shall be 
added to ceiling sprinkler water demand over the same pro- 
tected area at the point of connection. 

14.8.3 The demand shall be balanced to the higher pressure. 



Chapter 15 Water Supplies 



15.1 General. 



15.1.1 Number of Supplies. Every automatic sprinkler system 
shall have at least one automatic water supply. 

15.1.2 Capacity. Water supplies shall be capable of providing 
the required flow and pressure for the required duration as 
specified in Chapter 11, Chapter 12, and Chapter 13. 

15.1.3 Size of Fire Mains. 

15.1.3.1 No pipe smaller than 6 in. (152.4 mm) in diameter 
shall be installed as a private service main. 

15.1.3.2 For mains that do not supply hydrants, sizes smaller 
than 6 in. (152.4 mm) shall be permitted to be used subject to 
the following restrictions: 

( 1 ) The main supplies only automatic sprinkler systems, open 
sprinkler systems, water spray fixed systems, foam systems, 
or Class II standpipe systems. 

(2) Hydraulic calculations show that the main will supply the 
total demand at the appropriate pressure. Systems that 
are not hydraulically calculated shall have a main at least 
as large as the system riser. 



Table 14.7 Exposure Protection 



Section A — Window Sprinklers 





Level of Window 


Window Sprinkler 
Orifice Size 


Discharge 
Coefficient 


Flow Rate 


Application 

Rate Over 

25 ft of 

Window 

Area 








Guide Number 


Sprinkler 


in. 


mm 


(K-factor) 


(Q) (gpm) 


(gpm/ft 2 ) 


1.50 or less 


Top 2 levels 


% 


9.5 


2.8 


7.4 


0.30 




Next lower 2 levels 


5 /l6 


7.9 


1.9 


5.0 


0.20 




Next lower 2 levels 


Vi 


6.4 


1.4 


3.7 


0.15 


1.51-2.20 


Top 2 levels 


V2 


12.7 


5.6 


14.8 


0.59 




Next lower 2 levels 


7 /l6 


11.1 


4.2 


11.1 


0.44 




Next lower 2 levels 


% 


9.5 


2.8 


7.4 


0.30 


2.21-13.15 


Top 2 levels 


% 


15.9 


11.2 


29.6 


1.18 




Next lower 2 levels 


17 /32 


13.5 


8.0 


21.2 


0.85 




Next lower 2 levels 


V2 


12.7 


5.6 


14.8 


0.59 







Section B - 


- Cornice 


Sprinklers 








Cornice 


Sprinkler 


Orifice Size 


- Application 


Rate per Lineal Foot 
(gpm) 


Guide Number 


in. 








mm 


1.50 or less 
1.51-2.20 
2.21-13.15 










9.5 
12.7 
15.9 




0.75 
1.50 
3.00 



For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm; 1 gpm = 3.785 L/min; 1 gpm/ft 2 = 40.76 mm/min. 



2002 Edition 



SYSTEMS ACCEPTANCE 



13-189 



15.1.4 Underground Supply Pipe. For pipe schedule systems, 
the underground supply pipe shall be at least as large as the 
system riser. 

15.1.5* Water Supply Treatment. Water supplies and environ- 
mental conditions shall be evaluated for the existence of mi- 
crobes and conditions that contribute to microbiologically in- 
fluenced corrosion (MIC). Where conditions are found that 
contribute to MIC, the owner (s) shall notify the sprinkler sys- 
tem installer and a plan shall be developed to treat the system 
using one of the following methods: 

(1) Install a water pipe that will not be affected by the MIC 
microbes. 

(2) Treat all water that enters the system using an approved 
biocide. 

(3) Implement an approved plan for monitoring the interior 
conditions of the pipe at established time intervals and 
locations. 

15.1.6 Arrangement. 

15.1.6.1 Connection Between Underground and Above- 
ground Piping. 

15.1.6.1.1 The connection between the system piping and 
underground piping shall be made with a suitable transition 
piece and shall be properly strapped or fastened by approved 
devices. 

15.1.6.1.2 The transition piece shall be protected against pos- 
sible damage from corrosive agents, solvent attack, or me- 
chanical damage. 

15.1.6.2* Connection Passing Through or Under Foundation 
Walls. When system piping pierces a foundation wall below 
grade or is located under the foundation wall, clearance shall 
be provided to prevent breakage of the piping due to building 
settlement. 

15.1.7* Meters. Where meters are required by other authori- 
ties, they shall be listed. 

15.1.8* Connection from Waterworks System. 

15.1.8.1 Where connections are made from public water- 
works systems, it might be necessary to guard against possible 
contamination of the public supply. 

15.1.8.2 The requirements of the public health authority hav- 
ingjurisdiction shall be determined and followed. 

15.1.8.3 Where equipment is installed to guard against pos- 
sible contamination of the public water system, such equip- 
ment and devices shall be listed for fire protection service. 

15.2 Types. 

15.2.1* Connections to Water Works Systems. 

15.2.1.1 A connection to a reliable water works system shall 
be an acceptable water supply source. 

15.2.1.2 The volume and pressure of a public water supply 
shall be determined from waterflow test data. An adjustment 
to the waterflow test data to account for daily and seasonal 
fluctuations, possible interruption by flood or ice conditions, 
large simultaneous industrial use, future demand on the water 
supply system, or any other condition that could affect the 
water supply shall be made as appropriate. 

15.2.2* Pumps. A single automatically controlled fire pump 
installed in accordance with NFPA 20, Standard for the Installa- 



tion of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection, shall be an acceptable 
water supply source. 

15.2.3 Pressure Tanks. 

15.2.3.1 Acceptability. 

15.2.3.1.1 A pressure tank installed in accordance with 
NFPA 22, Standard for Water Tanks for Private Fire Protection, shall 
be an acceptable water supply source. 

15.2.3.1.2 Pressure tanks shall be provided with an approved 
means for automatically maintaining the required air pressure. 

15.2.3.1.3 Where a pressure tank is the sole water supply, 
there shall also be provided an approved trouble alarm to in- 
dicate low air pressure and low water level with the alarm sup- 
plied from an electrical branch circuit independent of the air 
compressor. 

15.2.3.1.4 Pressure tanks shall not be used to supply other 
than sprinklers and hand hose attached to sprinkler piping. 

15.2.3.2 Capacity. 

15.2.3.2.1 In addition to the requirements of 15.1.2, the wa- 
ter capacity of a pressure tank shall include the extra capacity 
needed to fill dry pipe or preaction systems where installed. 

15.2.3.2.2 The total volume shall be based on the water ca- 
pacity plus the air capacity required by 15.2.3.3. 

15.2.3.3* Water Level and Air Pressure. 

15.2.3.3.1 Pressure tanks shall be kept with a sufficient supply 
of water to meet the demand of the fire protection system as 
calculated in Chapter 14 for the duration required by Chap- 
ter 11, Chapter 12, or Chapter 13. 

15.2.3.3.2 The pressure shall be sufficient to push all of the 
water out of the tank while maintaining the necessary residual 
pressure (required by Chapter 14) at the top of the system. 

15.2.4 Gravity Tanks. An elevated tank installed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 22, Standard for Water Tanks for Private Fire 
Protection, shall be an acceptable water supply source. 

15.2.5 Penstocks or Flumes, Rivers, or Lakes. Water supply 
connections from penstocks, flumes, rivers, lakes, or reservoirs 
shall be arranged to avoid mud and sediment and shall be 
provided with approved double removable screens or ap- 
proved strainers installed in an approved manner. 



Chapter 16 Systems Acceptance 

16.1 Approval of Sprinkler Systems and Private Fire Service 
Mains. The installing contractor shall do the following: 

(1) Notify the authority having jurisdiction and owner's rep- 
resentative of the time and date testing will be performed 

(2) Perform all required acceptance tests (see Section 16.2) 

(3) Complete and sign the appropriate contractor's material 
and test certificate (s) (see Figure 16.1) 

16.2 Acceptance Requirements. 

16.2.1 Hydrostatic Tests. 

16.2.1.1 Unless permitted by 16.2.1.2 through 16.2.1.6, all 
piping and attached appurtenances subjected to system work- 
ing pressure shall be hydrostatically tested at 200 psi (13.8 bar) 
and shall maintain that pressure without loss for 2 hours. 



2002 Edition 



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INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Contractor's Material and Test Certificate for Aboveground Piping 


PROCEDURE 

Upon completion of work, inspection and tests shall be made by the contractor's representative and witnessed by an owner's 
representative. All defects shall be corrected and system left in service before contractor's personnel finally leave the job. 

A certificate shall be filled out and signed by both representatives. Copies shall be prepared for approving authorities, owners, and 
contractor. It is understood the owner's representative's signature in no way prejudices any claim against contractor for faulty material, poor 
workmanship, or failure to comply with approving authority's requirements or local ordinances. 


Property name 


Date 


Property address 


Plans 


Accepted by approving authorities (names) 


Address 


Installation conforms to accepted plans EH Yes EH No 

Equipment used is approved EH Yes EH No 
If no, explain deviations 


Instructions 


Has person in charge of fire equipment been instructed as Q Yes EH No 
to location of control valves and care and maintenance 
of this new equipment? 
If no, explain 


Have copies of the following been left on the premises? EH Yes EH No 

1 . System components instructions EH Yes EH No 

2. Care and maintenance instructions EH Yes EH No 

3. NFPA25 EH Yes □ No 


Location of 
system 


Supplies buildings 


Sprinklers 


Make 


Model 


Year of 
manufacture 


Orifice 
size 


Quantity 


Temperature 
rating 






























































Pipe and 
fittings 


Type of 
Type of 


pips 


fittings 




Alarm 
valve or 

flow 
indicator 


Alarm device 


Maximum time to operate 
through test connection 


Type 


Make 


Model 


Minutes 


Seconds 






















Dry pipe 

operating 

test 


Dry valve 


Q. 0. D. 


Make 


Model 


Serial no. 


Make 


Model 


Serial no. 
















Time to trip 
through test 
connection 1 ' 2 


Water 
pressure 


Air 
pressure 


Trip point 
air pressure 


Time water 

reached 
test outlet 1 . 2 


Alarm 
operated 
properly 




Minutes 


Seconds 


psi 


psi 


psi 


Minutes 


Seconds 


Yes 


No 


Without 
Q.O.D. 




















With 
Q.O.D. 




















If no, explain 



1 Measured from time inspector's test connection is opened 

2 NFPA 13 only requires the 60-second limitation in specific sections 

FIGURE 16. 1 Contractor's Material and Test Certificate for Aboveground Piping. 

2002 Edition 



SYSTEMS ACCEPTANCE 



13-191 



Deluge and 

preaction 

valves 



Operation 



I I Pneumatic □ Electric 



I I Hydraulics 



Piping supervised 



I | Yes Q No Detecting media supervised 



□ Yes □ No 



Does valve operate from the manual trip, remote, or both 
control stations? 



□ Yes □ No 



Is there an accessible facility in each circuit 
for testing? 

□ Yes □ No 



Make 



Model 



Does each circuit operate 
supervision loss alarm? 



Yes 



No 



If no, explain 



Does each circuit operate 
valve release? 



Yes 



No 



Maximum time to 
operate release 



Minutes 



Seconds 



Pressure 
reducing 
valve test 



Location 
and floor 



Make and 
model 



Setting 



Static pressure 



Inlet (psi) 



Outlet (psi) 



Residual pressure 
(flowing) 



Inlet (psi) Outlet (psi) 



Flow rate 



Flow (gpm) 



Test 
description 



Hydrostatic: Hydrostatic tests shall be made at not less than 200 psi (13.6 bar) for 2 hours or 50 psi (3.4 bar) 
above static pressure in excess of 150 psi (10.2 bar) for 2 hours. Differential dry-pipe valve clappers shall be left 
open during the test to prevent damage. All aboveground piping leakage shall be stopped. 

Pneumatic: Establish 40 psi (2.7 bar) air pressure and measure drop, which shall not exceed 1 1 /2 psi (0.1 bar) 

in 24 hours. Test pressure tanks at normal water level and air pressure and measure air pressure drop, which shall 

not exceed 11/2 psi (0.1 bar) in 24 hours. 



Tests 



All piping hydrostatically tested at 
Dry piping pneumatically tested 
Equipment operates properly 



_ psi ( bar) for 

□ Yes □ No 

□ Yes □ No 



hours 



If no, state reason 



Do you certify as the sprinkler contractor that additives and corrosive chemicals, sodium silicate or derivatives 
of sodium silicate, brine, or other corrosive chemicals were not used for testing systems or stopping leaks? 

□ Yes □ No 



Drain 
test 



Reading of gauge located near water 
supply test connection: psi ( 



bar) 



Residual pressure with valve in test 
connection open wide: psi ( 



bar) 



Underground mains and lead-in connections to system risers flushed before connection made to 
sprinkler piping 

Verified by copy of the Contractor's Material and Test O Yes O No Other 

Certificate for Underground Piping. 

Flushed by installer of underground sprinkler piping Q Yes □ No 



Explain 



If powder-driven fasteners are used in concrete, 
has representative sample testing been 
satisfactorily completed? 



□ Yes □ No 



If no, explain 



Blank testing 
gaskets 



Number used 



Locations 



Number removed 



Welding 



Welding piping 



□ Yes □ No 



If yes. 



Do you certify as the sprinkler contractor that welding procedures comply 
with the requirements of at least AWS B2.1 ? 



Do you certify that the welding was performed by welders qualified in 
compliance with the requirements of at least AWS B2.1? 



Do you certify that the welding was carried out in compliance with a 
documented quality control procedure to ensure that all discs are retrieved, that 
openings in piping are smooth, that slag and other welding residue are 
removed, and that the internal diameters of piping are not penetrated? 



□ Yes □ No 

□ Yes □ No 

□ Yes □ No 



Cutouts 
(discs) 



Do you certify that you have a control feature to ensure that 
all cutouts (discs) are retrieved? 



□ Yes □ No 



FIGURE 16.1 Continued 



2002 Edition 



13-192 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Hydraulic 

data 
nameplate 


Nameplate provided 

□ Yes □ No 


If no, explain 


Remarks 


Date left in service with all control valves open 




Signatures 


Name of sprinkler contractor 


Tests witnessed by 


For property owner (signed) Title 


Date 


For sprinkler contractor (signed) Title 


Date 


Additional explanations and notes 



FIGURE 16.1 Continued 



16.2.1.2 Portions of systems normally subjected to system 
working pressures in excess of 150 psi (10.4 bar) shall be 
tested as described in 16.2.1.1 at a pressure of 50 psi (3.5 bar) 
in excess of system working pressure. 

16.2.1.3 Where cold weather will not permit testing with wa- 
ter, an interim air test shall be permitted to be conducted as 
described in 16.2.3. 

16.2.1.4 Modifications affecting 20 or fewer sprinklers shall 
not require testing in excess of system working pressure. 

16.2.1.5 Where addition or modification is made to an exist- 
ing system affecting more than 20 sprinklers, the new portion 
shall be isolated and tested at not less than 200 psi (13.8 bar) 
for 2 hours. 

16.2.1.6 Modifications that cannot be isolated, such as relo- 
cated drops, shall not require testing in excess of system work- 
ing pressure. 

16.2.1.7 Loss shall be determined by a drop in gauge pres- 
sure or visual leakage. 

16.2.1.8 The test pressure shall be read from a gauge located 
at the low elevation point of the system or portion being 
tested. 

16.2.1.9 Additives, corrosive chemicals such as sodium sili- 
cate, or derivatives of sodium silicate, brine, or other chemi- 
cals shall not be used while hydrostatically testing systems or 
for stopping leaks. 

16.2.1.10 Piping between the exterior fire department con- 
nection and the check valve in the fire department inlet pipe 
shall be hydrostatically tested in the same manner as the bal- 
ance of the system. 

16.2.1.11 When deluge systems are being hydrostatically 
tested, plugs shall be installed in fittings and replaced with 



open sprinklers after the test is completed, or the operating 
elements of automatic sprinklers shall be removed after the 
test is completed. 

16.2.1.12* The trench shall be backfilled between joints be- 
fore testing to prevent movement of pipe. 

16.2.1.13 Where required for safety measures presented by 
the hazards of open trenches, the pipe and joints shall be per- 
mitted to be backfilled provided the installing contractor 
takes the responsibility for locating and correcting leakage in 
excess of that permitted in 16.2.1.8. 

16.2.1.14 Provision shall be made for the proper disposal of 
water used for flushing or testing. 

16.2.1.15* Test Blanks. 

16.2.1.15.1 Test blanks shall have painted lugs protruding in 
such a way as to clearly indicate their presence. 

16.2.1.15.2 The test blanks shall be numbered, and the in- 
stalling contractor shall have a recordkeeping method ensur- 
ing their removal after work is completed. 

16.2.1.16 When subject to hydrostatic test pressures, the clap- 
per of a differential-type valve shall be held off its seat to pre- 
vent damaging the valve. 

16.2.2 Dry Pipe and Double Interlock System(s) Air Test. 

16.2.2.1 In addition to the standard hydrostatic test, an air 
pressure leakage test at 40 psi (2.8 bar) shall be conducted for 
24 hours. Any leakage that results in a loss of pressure in excess 
of 1V£ psi (0.1 bar) for the 24 hours shall be corrected. 

16.2.2.2 Where systems are installed in spaces that are ca- 
pable of being operated at temperatures below 32°F (0°C) , air 
pressure leakage tests required in 16.2.2 shall be conducted at 
the lowest nominal temperature of the space. 



2002 Edition 



SYSTEMS ACCEPTANCE 



13-193 



16.2.3 System Operational Tests. 

16.2.3.1 Waterflow Devices. Waterflow detecting devices in- 
cluding the associated alarm circuits shall be flow tested 
through the inspector's test connection and shall result in an 
audible alarm on the premises within 5 minutes after such 
flow begins and until such flow stops. 

16.2.3.2* Dry Pipe. 

16.2.3.2.1 A working test of the dry pipe valve alone and with 
a quick-opening device, if installed, shall be made by opening 
the inspector's test connection. 

16.2.3.2.2 The test shall measure the time to trip the valve 
and the time for water to be discharged from the inspector's 
test connection. All times shall be measured from the time the 
inspector's test connection is completely opened. 

16.2.3.2.3 The results shall be recorded using the contrac- 
tor's material and test certificate for aboveground piping. 

16.2.3.3 Deluge System. 

16.2.3.3.1 The automatic operation of a deluge or preaction 
valve shall be tested in accordance with the manufacturer's 
instructions. 

16.2.3.3.2 The manual and remote control operation, where 
present, shall also be tested. 

16.2.3.4 Main Drain. 

16.2.3.4.1 The main drain valve shall be opened and remain 
open until the system pressure stabilizes. 

16.2.3.4.2 The static and residual pressures shall be recorded 
on the contractor's test certificate. 

16.2.3.5 Operating Test. 

16.2.3.5.1 Each hydrant shall be fully opened and closed un- 
der system water pressure, and dry barrel hydrants shall be 
checked for proper drainage. 

16.2.3.5.2 Where fire pumps are available, this check shall be 
done with the pumps running. 

16.2.3.5.3 All control valves shall be fully closed and opened 
under system water pressure to ensure proper operation. 

16.2.4 Pressure Reducing Valves. 

16.2.4.1 Each pressure-reducing valve shall be tested upon 
completion of installation to ensure proper operation under 
flow and no-flow conditions. 

16.2.4.2 Testing shall verify that the device properly regulates 
outlet pressure at both maximum and normal inlet pressure 
conditions. 

16.2.4.3 The results of the flow test of each pressure-reducing 
valve shall be recorded on the contractor's test certificate. 

16.2.4.4 The results shall include the static and residual inlet 
pressures, static and residual outlet pressures, and the flow 
rate. 

16.2.5 Backflow Prevention Assemblies. 

16.2.5.1 The backflow prevention assembly shall be forward 
flow tested to ensure proper operation. 

16.2.5.2 The minimum flow rate shall be the system demand, 
including hose stream demand where applicable. 



16.2.6 Exposure Systems. Operating tests shall be made of 
exposure protection systems upon completion of the installa- 
tion, where such tests do not risk water damage to the building 
on which they are installed or to adjacent buildings. 

16.3 Circulating Closed Loop Systems. 

16.3.1 For sprinkler systems with non-fire protection con- 
nections, additional information shall be appended to the 
Contractor's Material and Test Certificate for Aboveground 
Piping shown in Figure 16.1 as follows: 

(1) Certification that all auxiliary devices, such as heat 
pumps, circulating pumps, heat exchangers, radiators, 
and luminaries, if a part of the system, have a pressure 
rating of at least 1 75 psi or 300 psi (12.1 bar or 20.7 bar) if 
exposed to pressures greater than 175 psi (12.1 bar). 

(2) All components of sprinkler system and auxiliary system 
have been pressure tested as a composite system in accor- 
dance with 16.2.2. 

(3) Waterflow tests have been conducted and waterflow 
alarms have operated while auxiliary equipment is in each 
of the possible modes of operation. 

(4) With auxiliary equipment tested in each possible mode of 
operation and with no flow from sprinklers or test con- 
nection, waterflow alarm signals did not operate. 

(5) Excess temperature controls for shutting down the auxil- 
iary system have been properly field tested. 

16.3.2 Discharge tests of sprinkler systems with non-fire pro- 
tection connections shall be conducted using system test con- 
nections described in 6.8.2. 

16.3.3 Pressure gauges shall be installed at critical points and 
readings shall be taken under various modes of auxiliary 
equipment operation. 

16.3.4 Waterflow alarm signals shall be responsive to dis- 
charge of water through system test pipes while auxiliary 
equipment is in each of the possible modes of operation. 

16.4 Instructions. The installing contractor shall provide the 
owner with the following: 

(1) All literature and instructions provided by the manufac- 
turer describing proper operation and maintenance of 
any equipment and devices installed 

(2) NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Mainte- 
nance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems 

16.5* Hydraulic Design Information Sign. 

16.5.1 The installing contractor shall identify a hydraulically 
designed sprinkler system with a permanently marked weath- 
erproof metal or rigid plastic sign secured with corrosion- 
resistant wire, chain, or other approved means. Such signs 
shall be placed at the alarm valve, dry pipe valve, preaction 
valve, or deluge valve supplying the corresponding hydrauli- 
cally designed area. 

16.5.2 The sign shall include the following information: 

(1) Location of the design area or areas 

(2) Discharge densities over the design area or areas 

(3) Required flow and residual pressure demand at the base 
of the riser 

(4) Occupancy classification or commodity classification and 
maximum permitted storage height and configuration 

(5) Hose stream demand included in addition to the sprin- 
kler demand 



2002 Edition 



13-194 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Chapter 17 Marine Systems 

17.1 General. 

17.1.1 Chapter 17 outlines the deletions, modifications, and 
additions that shall be required for marine application. 

17.1.2 All other requirements of this standard shall apply to 
merchant vessel systems except as modified by this chapter. 

17.1.3 The following definitions shall be applicable to this 
chapter (see Section 3.14): 

( 1 ) A-Class Boundary — A boundary designed to resist the pas- 
sage of smoke and flame for 1 hour when tested in accor- 
dance with ASTM E 119, Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests 
of Building Construction and Materials. 

(2) B-Class Boundary — A boundary designed to resist the pas- 
sage of flame for l A hour when tested in accordance with 
ASTM E 119, Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Building 
Construction and Materials. 

(3) Central Safety Station — A continuously manned control 
station from which all of the fire control equipment is 
monitored. If this station is not the bridge, direct com- 
munication with the bridge shall be provided by means 
other than the ship's service telephone. 

(4)* Heat-Sensitive Material — A material whose melting point 
is below 1700°F(926.7°C). 

(5) Heel — The inclination of a ship to one side. 

(6) Heel Angle — The angle defined by the intersection of a 
vertical line through the center of a vessel and a line 
perpendicular to the surface of the water. 

( 7 ) International Shore Connection — A universal connection com- 
plying with ASTM F 1121, Standard Specification for Interna- 
tional Shore Connections for Marine Fire Applications, to which 
shoreside fire-fighting hose are to be connected. 

(8)* Marine System — A sprinkler system installed on a ship, 
boat, or other floating structure that takes its supply 
from the water on which the vessel floats. 

(9)* Marine Thermal Barrier — An assembly that is constructed 
of noncombustible materials and made intact with the 
main structure of the vessel, such as shell, structural 
bulkheads, and decks. A marine thermal barrier shall 
meet the requirements of a B-Class boundary. In addi- 
tion, a marine thermal barrier shall be insulated such 
that, if tested in accordance with ASTM E 119, Standard 
Test Methods for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Mate- 
rials, for 15 minutes, the average temperature of the un- 
exposed side does not rise more than 250°F (193°C) 
above the original temperature, nor does the tempera- 
ture at any one point, including anyjoint, rise more than 
405°F (225°C) above the original temperature. 

(10) Supervision — A visual and audible alarm signal given at 
the central safety station to indicate when the system is in 
operation or when a condition that would impair the 
satisfactory operation of the system exists. Supervisory 
alarms shall give a distinct indication for each individual 
system component that is monitored. 

(11) Survival Angle — The maximum angle to which a vessel is 
permitted to heel after the assumed damage required by 
stability regulations is imposed. 

(12) Type 1 Stair — A fully enclosed stair that serves all levels of 
a vessel in which persons can be employed. 



( 13) Marine Water Supply — The supply portion of the sprinkler 
system from the water pressure tank or the sea suction of 
the designated sprinkler system pump up to and includ- 
ing the valve that isolates the sprinkler system from these 
two water sources. 

17.1.4* Occupancy Classifications. Marine environment clas- 
sifications shall be in accordance with Section 5.1. 

17.1.5* Partial Installations. 

17.1.5.1 Partial installation of automatic sprinklers shall not 
be permitted, unless the requirements of 17.1.5.2 or 17.1.5.3 
are met. 

17.1.5.2 Spaces shall be permitted to be protected with an 
alternative, approved fire suppression system where such areas 
are separated from the sprinklered areas with a 1 hour-rated 
assembly. 

17.1.5.3 The requirements of 17.1.5.1 shall not apply 
where specific sections of this standard permit the omission 
of sprinklers. 

17.2 System Components, Hardware, and Use. 

17.2.1* Sprinklers shall have a nominal discharge coefficient 
greater than 1.9. 

17.2.2* Sprinkler piping penetrations shall be designed to pre- 
serve the fire integrity of the ceiling or bulkhead penetrated. 

17.2.3 Spare Sprinklers. 

17.2.3.1 The required stock of spare sprinklers shall be car- 
ried for each type of sprinkler installed onboard the vessel. 

17.2.3.2 Where fewer than six sprinklers of a particular type 
are installed, 100 percent spares shall be kept in stock. 

17.2.3.3 Where applicable, at least one elastometric gasket 
shall be kept in the cabinet for each fire department connec- 
tion that is installed onboard the vessel. 

17.2.3.4 The cabinet containing spare sprinklers, special 
wrenches, and elastometric gaskets shall be located in the 
same central safety station that contains the alarm annuncia- 
tor panel (s) and supervisory indicators. 

17.2.4 System Pipe and Fittings. 

17.2.4.1* When ferrous materials are used for piping between 
the sea chest and zone control valves, these materials shall be 
protected against corrosion by hot dip galvanizing or by the 
use of Schedule 80 piping. 

17.2.4.2 Maximum design pressure for copper and brass pipe 
shall not exceed 250 psi (17.2 bar). 

17.2.5 Pipe Support. 

17.2.5.1* Pipe supports shall comply with the following: 

(1) Pipe supports shall be designed to provide adequate lat- 
eral, longitudinal, and vertical sway bracing. 

(2) The design shall account for the degree of bracing, which 
varies with the route and operation of the vessel. 

(3) Bracing shall be designed to ensure the following: 

(a) Slamming, heaving, and rolling will not shift sprin- 
kler piping, potentially moving sprinklers above ceil- 
ings, bulkheads, or other obstructions. 

(b) Piping and sprinklers will remain in place at a steady 
heel angle at least equal to the maximum required 
damaged survival angle. 



2002 Edition 



MARINE SYSTEMS 



13-195 



(4) Pipe supports shall be welded to the structure. 

(5) Hangers that can loosen during ship motion or vibration, 
such as screw-down-type hangers, shall not be permitted. 

(6) Hangers that are listed for seismic use shall be permitted 
to be used in accordance with their listing. 

17.2.5.2 Sprinkler piping shall be supported by the primary 
structural members of the vessel such as beams, girders, and 
stiffeners. 

17.2.5.3* The components of hanger assemblies that are 
welded directly to the ship structure shall not be required to 
be listed. 

17.2.5.4* U-hook sizes shall be no less than that specified in 
Table 9.1.2.3. 

17.2.6 Valves. 

17.2.6.1* All indicating, supply, and zone control valves shall 
be supervised open from a central safety station. 

17.2.6.2 Drain and test valves shall meet the applicable re- 
quirements of 46 CFR 56.20 and 56.60. 

17.2.6.3 Valve markings shall include the information re- 
quired by 46 CFR 56.20-5 (a). 

17.2.7 Fire Department Connections and International Shore 
Connections. 

17.2.7.1* Afire department connection and an International 
Shore Connection shall be installed. 

17.2.7.2 The requirements for a fire department connection 
in 17.2.7.1 shall not apply to vessels that operate primarily on 
international voyages. 

17.2.7.3 Connections shall be located near the gangway or 
other shore access point so that they are readily accessible to 
the land-based fire department. 

17.2.7.4 Fire department and International Shore Connec- 
tions shall be colored and marked so that the connections are 
easily located from the shore access point (i.e., gangway loca- 
tion) and will not be confused with a firemain connection. 

17.2.7.5 An 18 in. x 18 in. (0.46 m x 0.46 m) sign displaying 
the symbol for fire department connection as shown in Table 
5.2.1 of NFPA 170, Standard for Fire Safety Symbols, shall be 
placed at the connection so that it is in plain sight from the 
shore access point. 

17.2.7.6 Connections on both sides of the vessel shall be pro- 
vided where shore access arrangements make it necessary. 

17.2.7.7* Fire department connection thread type shall be 
compatible with fire department equipment. 

17.3 System Requirements. 

17.3.1* Relief Valves. Relief valves shall be provided on all wet 
pipe systems. 

17.3.2 Spare Detection Devices. The number of spare detec- 
tion devices or fusible elements used for protection systems 
that shall be carried per temperature rating is as follows: 

(1) Vessels shall have two spare detection devices or fusible 
elements when operating voyages are normally less than 
24 hours. 

(2) Vessels shall have four spare detection devices or fusible 
elements when operating voyages are normally more than 
24 hours. 



17.3.3 System Piping Supervision. All preaction sprinkler sys- 
tems shall be supervised regardless of the number of sprin- 
klers supplied. 

17.3.4 Circulating Closed Loop Systems. Circulating closed 
loop systems shall not be permitted. 

17.4 Installation Requirements. 

17.4.1 Temperature Zones. Intermediate temperature-rated 
sprinklers shall be installed under a noninsulated steel deck 
that is exposed to sunlight. 

17.4.2* Residential Sprinklers. Residential sprinklers shall be 
permitted for use only in sleeping accommodation areas. 

17.4.3 Window Protection. Where required, windows shall be 
protected by sprinklers installed at a distance not exceeding 
1 ft (0.3 m) from the glazing at a spacing not exceeding 6 ft 
(1.8 m) such that the entire glazing surface is wetted at a linear 
density not less than 6 gpm/ft (75 mm/min), unless listed 
window sprinkler protection systems are installed in accor- 
dance with their installation and testing criteria. 

17.4.4* Concealed Spaces. 

17.4.4.1 Concealed spaces that are constructed of combus- 
tible materials, or materials with combustible finishes or that 
contain combustible materials, shall be sprinklered. 

17.4.4.2 The requirements of 17.4.4.1 shall not apply to con- 
cealed spaces that contain only nonmetallic piping that is con- 
tinuously filled with water. 

17.4.5 Vertical Shafts. 

17.4.5.1 Sprinklers are not required in vertical shafts used as 
duct, electrical, or pipe shafts that are nonaccessible, noncom- 
bustible, and enclosed in an A-Class-rated assembly. 

17.4.5.2 Stairway enclosures shall be fully sprinklered. 

17.4.6 Bath Modules. Sprinklers shall be installed in bath 
modules (full room modules) constructed with combustible 
materials, regardless of room fire load. 

17.4.7 Ceiling Types. Drop-out ceilings shall not be used in 
conjunction with sprinklers. 

17.4.8 Return Bends. 

17.4.8.1 To prevent sediment buildup, return bends shall be 
installed in all shipboard sprinkler systems where pendent- 
type or dry pendent-type sprinklers are used in wet systems (see 
Figure 8.14.18.2). 

17.4.8.2 Consideration shall be given concerning the intru- 
sion of saltwater into the system. 

17.4.8.3 Specifically, sprinklers shall not be rendered ineffec- 
tive by corrosion related to saltwater entrapment within the 
return bend. 

17.4.9 Hose Connections. Sprinkler system piping shall not 
be used to supply hose connections or hose connections for 
fire department use. 

17.4.10 Heat-Sensitive Piping Materials. 

17.4.10.1 Portions of the piping system constructed with a heat- 
sensitive material shall be subject to the following restrictions: 

(1) Piping shall be of non-heat-sensitive type from the sea 
suction up through the penetration of the lastA-Class bar- 
rier enclosing the space (s) in which the heat-sensitive pip- 
ing is installed. 



2002 Edition 



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INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



(2) B-Class draft stops shall be fitted not more than 45 ft 
(13.7 m) apart between the marine thermal barrier (see 
definitions in Chapter 3 and 1 7. 1.3) and the deck or shell. 

(3) Portions of a system that are constructed from heat- 
sensitive materials shall be installed behind a marine ther- 
mal barrier, unless the provisions of item (4) are met. 

(4)*Piping materials with brazed joints shall not be required 
to be installed behind a marine thermal barrier, provided 
the following conditions are met: 

(a) The system is of the wet pipe type. 

(b) The piping is not located in spaces containing boil- 
ers, internal combustion engines, or piping contain- 
ing flammable or combustible liquids or gases under 
pressure, cargo holds, or vehicle decks. 

(c) A relief valve in compliance with 7.1.2 is installed in 
each section of piping that is capable of being iso- 
lated by a valve (s). 

(d) Avalve(s) isolating the section of piping from the re- 
mainder of the system is installed in accordance with 
17.4.10.2 and 17.4.10.3. 

17.4.10.2 Each zone in which heat-sensitive piping is installed 
shall be fitted with a valve capable of segregating that zone 
from the remainder of the system. 

17.4.10.3 The valve shall be supervised and located outside of 
the zone controlled and within a readily accessible compart- 
ment having A-Class boundaries or within a Type 1 stair. 

17.4.11 Discharge of Drain Lines. 

17.4.11.1 Drain lines shall not be connected to housekeep- 
ing, sewage, or deck drains. Drains shall be permitted to be 
discharged to bilges. 

17.4.11.2 Overboard discharges shall meet the requirements 
of 46 CFR 56.50-95 and shall be corrosion resistant in accor- 
dance with 46 CFR 56.60. 

17.4.11.3 Systems that contain water additives that are not 
permitted to be discharged into the environment shall be spe- 
cially designed to prevent such discharge. 

17.4.11.4 Discharges shall be provided with a down-turned 
elbow. 

17.4.12 Alarm Signals and Devices. 

17.4.12.1* A visual and audible alarm signal shall be given at 
the central safety station to indicate when the system is in op- 
eration or when a condition that would impair the satisfactory 
operation of the system exists. 

17.4.12.2 Alarm signals shall be provided for, but not limited 
to, each of the following: monitoring position of control 
valves, fire pump power supplies and operating condition, wa- 
ter tank levels and temperatures, zone waterflow alarms, pres- 
sure of tanks, and air pressure on dry pipe valves. 

17.4.12.3 Alarms shall give a distinct indication for each indi- 
vidual system component that is monitored. 

17.4.12.4 An audible alarm shall be given at the central safety 
station within 30 seconds of waterflow. 

17.4.12.5 Waterflow alarms shall be installed for every zone of 
the sprinkler system. 

1 7.4. 12.6 Sprinkler zones shall not encompass more than two 
adjacent decks or encompass more than one main vertical 
zone. 



17.4.12.7 Electrically operated alarm attachments shall com- 
ply with, meet, and be installed in accordance with the re- 
quirements of 46 CFR, SubchapterJ, "Electrical Engineering." 

17.4.12.8 All wiring shall be chosen and installed in accor- 
dance with IEEE 45, Recommended Practice for Electrical Installa- 
tions on Shipboard. 

17.4.13 Test Connections. Where test connections are below 
the bulkhead deck, they shall comply with the overboard dis- 
charge arrangements of 46 CFR 56.50-95. 

17.4.14 Protection of Copper Tubing. Copper tubing materi- 
als shall be protected against physical damage in areas where 
vehicles and stores handling equipment operate. 

17.5 Design Approaches. 
17.5.1 Design Options. 

17.5.1.1 Marine sprinkler systems shall be designed using the 
hydraulic calculation procedure of Chapter 10. 

17.5.1.2 The pipe schedule method shall not be used to de- 
termine the water demand requirements. 

17.5.2* Window Protection. Minimum water demand require- 
ments shall include sprinklers that are installed for the protec- 
tion of windows as described in 17.4.3. 

17.5.3* Hose Stream Allowance. No allowance for hose stream 
use shall be required. 

17.6 Plans and Calculations. 

17.6.1 Additional Information. The pressure tank size, high- 
pressure relief setting, high and low water alarm settings, 
low-pressure alarm setting, and pump start pressure shall be 
provided. 

17.6.2 Sprinklers specifically installed for the protection of 
windows under 17.4.3 shall be permitted to be of a different 
size from those protecting the remainder of the occupancy 
classification. 

17.6.3 All of the window sprinklers, however, shall be of the 
same size. 

17.6.4* Marine sprinkler systems shall be designed and in- 
stalled to be fully operational without a reduction in system 
performance when the vessel is upright and inclined at the 
angles of inclination specified in 46 CFR 58.01-40. 

17.7 Water Supplies. 

17.7.1 General. The water supply requirements for marine 
applications shall be in accordance with Section 17.7. 

17.7.2 Pressure Tank. 

17.7.2.1 Unless the requirements of 17.7.2.2 are met, a pres- 
sure tank shall be provided. The pressure tank shall be sized 
and constructed so that the following occurs: 

(1) The tank shall contain a standing charge of fresh water 
equal to that specified by Table 17.7.2.1. 

(2) The pressure tank shall be sized in accordance with 
12.2.3.2. 

(3) A glass gauge shall be provided to indicate the correct 
level of water within the pressure tank. 

(4) Arrangements shall be provided for maintaining an air 
pressure in the tank such that, while the standing charge 
of water is being expended, the pressure will not be less 



2002 Edition 



MARINE SYSTEMS 



13-197 



than that necessary to provide the design pressure and 
flow of the hydraulically most remote design area. 

(5) Suitable means of replenishing the air under pressure 
and the fresh water standing charge in the tank shall be 
provided. 

(6) Tank construction shall be in accordance with the appli- 
cable requirements of 46 CFR, Subchapter F, "Marine 
Engineering." 

Table 17.7.2.1 Required Water Supply 



System Type 



Additional Water Volume 



Wet pipe system 



Preaction system 
Deluge system 
Dry pipe system 



Flow requirement of the 
hydraulically most remote 
system demand for 1 
minute 

Flow requirement of the 
hydraulically most remote 
system demand for 1 
minute of system demand 
plus the volume needed to 
fill all dry piping 



17.7.2.2 Pressure Tank Alternative. In lieu of a pressure tank, 
a dedicated pump connected to a fresh water tank shall be 
permitted to be used, provided the following conditions are 
met: 

(1) The pump is listed for marine use and is sized to meet the 
required system demand. 

(2) The suction for the fire pump is located below the suction 
for the fresh water system so that there shall be a mini- 
mum water supply of at least 1 minute for the required 
system demand. 

(3) Pressure switches are provided in the system and the con- 
troller for the pump that automatically start the pump 
within 10 seconds after detection of a pressure drop of 
more than 5 percent. 

(4) There shall be a reduced pressure zone backflow preven- 
ter to prevent contamination of the potable water system 
by salt water. 

(5) There are at least two sources of power for this pump. 
Where the sources of power are electrical, these shall be a 
main generator and an emergency source of power. One 
supply shall be taken from the main switchboard, by sepa- 
rate feeder reserved solely for that purpose. This feeder 
shall be run to an automatic changeover switch situated 
near the sprinkler unit and the switch shall normally be 
kept closed to the feeder from the emergency switch- 
board. The changeover switch shall be clearly labeled, 
and no other switch shall be permitted in these feeders. 

17.7.2.3 Relief Valves. 

17.7.2.3.1 Relief valves shall be installed on the tank to avoid 
overpressurization and false actuation of any dry pipe valve. 

17.7.2.3.2 Relief valves shall comply with 46 CFR 54.15-10. 

17.7.2.4 Power Source. 

17.7.2.4.1 There shall be not less than two sources of power 
for the compressors that supply air to the pressure tank. 

17.7.2.4.2 Where the sources of power are electrical, these 
shall be a main generator and an emergency source of power. 



17.7.2.4.3 One supply shall be taken from the main switch- 
board, by separate feeders reserved solely for that purpose. 

17.7.2.4.4 Such feeders shall be run to a changeover switch 
situated near the air compressor, and the switch normally shall 
be kept closed to the feeder from the emergency switchboard. 

17.7.2.4.5 The changeover switch shall be clearly labeled, 
and no other switch shall be permitted in these feeders. 

17.7.2.5 Multiple Tanks. 

17.7.2.5.1 More than one pressure tank can be installed pro- 
vided that each is treated as a single water source when deter- 
mining valve arrangements. 

17.7.2.5.2 Check valves shall be installed to prohibit flow 
from tank to tank or from pump to tank, unless the tank is 
designed to hold only pressurized air. 

17.7.2.6 In systems subject to use with saltwater, valves shall 
be so arranged as to prohibit contamination of the pressure 
tank with saltwater. 

17.7.2.7* Where applicable, a means shall be provided to re- 
strict the amount of air that can enter the pressure tank from 
the air supply system. A means shall also be provided to pre- 
vent water from backflowing into the air supply system. 

17.7.3 Fire Pump. 

17.7.3.1 A dedicated, automatically controlled pump that is 
listed for marine service, which takes suction from the sea, 
shall be provided to supply the sprinkler system. 

17.7.3.2 Where two pumps are required to ensure the reli- 
ability of the water supply, the pump that supplies the fire 
main shall be allowed to serve as the second fire pump. 

17.7.3.3* The pump shall be sized to meet the water demand 
of the hydraulically most demanding area. 

17.7.3.4 Pumps shall be designed to not exceed 120 percent 
of the rated capacity of the pump. 

17.7.3.5 The system shall be designed so that, before the sup- 
ply falls below the design criteria, the fire pump shall be auto- 
matically started and shall supply water to the system until 
manually shut off. 

17.7.3.6 Where pump and fresh water tank arrangement is 
used in lieu of the pressure tank, there must be a pressure 
switch that senses a system pressure drop of 25 percent, and 
the controller must automatically start the fire pump(s) if 
pressure is not restored within 20 seconds. 

17.7.3.7 There shall be not less than two sources of power 
supply for the fire pumps. Where the sources of power are 
electrical, these shall be a main generator and an emergency 
source of power. 

17.7.3.8 One supply shall be taken from the main switch- 
board by separate feeders reserved solely for that purpose. 

17.7.3.9 Such feeders shall be run to a changeover switch 
situated near to the sprinkler unit, and the switch normally 
shall be kept closed to the feeder from the emergency switch- 
board. 

17.7.3.10 The changeover switch shall be clearly labeled, and 
no other switch shall be permitted in these feeders. 



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INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



17.7.3.11 Test Valves. 

17.7.3.11.1 A test valve (s) shall be installed on the discharge 
side of the pump with a short open-ended discharge pipe. 

17.7.3.11.2 The area of the pipe shall be adequate to permit 
the release of the required water output to supply the demand 
of the hydraulically most remote area. 

17.7.3.12 Multiple Pumps. 

17.7.3.12.1 Where two fire pumps are required to ensure the 
reliability of the water supply, each fire pump shall meet the 
requirements of 17.7.3.1 through 17.7.3.4. 

17.7.3.12.2 In addition, a system that is required to have 
more than one pump shall be designed to accommodate the 
following features: 

(l)*Pump controls and system sensors shall be arranged such 
that the secondary pump will automatically operate if the 
primary pump fails to operate or deliver the required wa- 
ter pressure and flow. [Figure A. 1 7. 7.3. 12.2(1) is an example 
of an acceptable dual pump arrangement] 

(2) Both pumps shall be served from normal and emergency 
power sources. However, where approved by the authority 
having jurisdiction, the secondary pump shall be permit- 
ted to be nonelectrically driven. 

(3) Pump failure or operation shall be indicated at the cen- 
tral safety station. 

17.7.3.13* If not specifically prohibited, the fire pump that 
supplies the fire main shall be permitted to be used as the 
second pump, provided the following conditions are met: 

(1) The pump is adequately sized to meet the required fire 
hose and sprinkler system pressure and flow demands si- 
multaneously. 

(2) The fire main system is segregated from the sprinkler sys- 
tem by a normally closed valve that is designed to auto- 
matically open upon failure of the designated fire pump. 

(3) The fire pump that supplies the fire main is automatically 
started in the event of dedicated fire pump failure or loss 
of pressure in the sprinkler main. (See Figure A. 17. 7.3.13.) 

17.7.4 Water Supply Configurations. 

17.7.4.1 The pressure tank and fire pump shall be located in 
a position reasonably remote from any machinery space of 
Category A. 

17.7.4.2 All valves within the water supply piping system shall 
be supervised. 

17.7.4.3 Only fresh water shall be used as the initial charge 
within the piping network. 

17.7.4.4 The sprinkler system shall be cross-connected with 
the ship's fire main system and fitted with a lockable screw- 
down nonreturn valve such that backflow from the sprinkler 
system to the fire main is prevented. 

17.7.4.5 The piping, tanks, and pumps that make up the wa- 
ter supply shall be installed in accordance with the applicable 
requirements of 46 CFR, Subchapter F, "Marine Engineering." 

17.7.4.6* When a shore water supply is to be used during ex- 
tended dockside periods, the water supply shall be qualified in 
the manner described in 15.2.1. 

17.7.4.7 Tests shall be conducted in accordance with the 
requirements of the local shore-based authority having 
jurisdiction. 



17.7.4.8 The water supply information listed in Section 11.3 
shall then be provided to the authority having jurisdiction. 

17.8 System Acceptance. 

17.8.1 Hydrostatic Tests. In addition to the interior piping, 
the test required by 16.2.1.10 shall also be conducted on all 
external water supply connections including international 
shore and fireboat connections. 

17.8.2 Alarm Test. A waterflow test shall result in an alarm at 
the central safety station within 30 seconds after flow through 
the test connection begins. 

17.8.3 Operational Tests. 

17.8.3.1 Pressure tank and pump operation, valve actuation, 
and waterflow shall also be tested. 

17.8.3.2 Pump operation and performance shall be tested in 
accordance with Chapter 14 of NFPA20, Standard for the Instal- 
lation of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection. 

17.9 System Instructions and Maintenance. 

17.9.1 Instructions for operation, inspection, maintenance, 
and testing shall be kept on the vessel. 

17.9.2 Records of inspections, tests, and maintenance re- 
quired by NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Main- 
tenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems, shall also be kept on 
the vessel. 



Chapter 18 System Inspection, Testing, and 
Maintenance 

18.1* General. A sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
this standard shall be properly inspected, tested, and main- 
tained in accordance with NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, 
Testing, and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems, to 
provide at least the same level of performance and protection 
as designed. 



Annex A Explanatory Material 

Annex A is not a part of the requirements of this NFPA document 
but is included for informational purposes only. This annex contains 
explanatory material, numbered to correspond with the applicable text 
paragraphs. 

A. 1.1 This standard provides a range of sprinkler system ap- 
proaches, design development alternatives, and component 
options that are all acceptable. Building owners and their des- 
ignated representatives are advised to carefully evaluate pro- 
posed selections for appropriateness and preference. 

A. 1.2 Since its inception, this document has been developed 
on the basis of standardized materials, devices, and design 
practices. However, Section 1.2 and other subsections such as 
6.3.6 and 8.4.9 allow the use of materials and devices not spe- 
cifically designated by this standard, provided such use is 
within parameters established by a listing organization. In us- 
ing such materials or devices, it is important that all condi- 
tions, requirements, and limitations of the listing be fully un- 
derstood and accepted and that the installation be in 
complete accord with such listing requirements. 



2002 Edition 



ANNEX A 



13-199 



A.3.2.1 Approved. The National Fire Protection Association 
does not approve, inspect, or certify any installations, proce- 
dures, equipment, or materials; nor does it approve or evalu- 
ate testing laboratories. In determining the acceptability of 
installations, procedures, equipment, or materials, the author- 
ity having jurisdiction may base acceptance on compliance 
with NFPA or other appropriate standards. In the absence of 
such standards, said authority may require evidence of proper 
installation, procedure, or use. The authority having jurisdic- 
tion may also refer to the listings or labeling practices of an 
organization that is concerned with product evaluations and is 
thus in a position to determine compliance with appropriate 
standards for the current production of listed items. 

A.3.2.2 Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ). The phrase "au- 
thority having jurisdiction," or its acronym AHJ, is used in 
NFPA documents in a broad manner, since jurisdictions and 
approval agencies vary, as do their responsibilities. Where pub- 
lic safety is primary, the authority having jurisdiction may be a 
federal, state, local, or other regional department or indi- 
vidual such as a fire chief; fire marshal; chief of a fire preven- 
tion bureau, labor department, or health department; build- 
ing official; electrical inspector; or others having statutory 
authority. For insurance purposes, an insurance inspection de- 
partment, rating bureau, or other insurance company repre- 
sentative may be the authority having jurisdiction. In many 
circumstances, the property owner or his or her designated 
agent assumes the role of the authority having jurisdiction; at 
government installations, the commanding officer or depart- 
mental official may be the authority having jurisdiction. 

A.3.2.3 Listed. The means for identifying listed equipment 
may vary for each organization concerned with product evalu- 
ation; some organizations do not recognize equipment as 
listed unless it is also labeled. The authority having jurisdic- 
tion should utilize the system employed by the listing organi- 
zation to identify a listed product. 

A.3.3.3 Bathroom. A room is still considered a bathroom if it 
contains just a toilet. Additionally, two bathrooms can be adjacent 
to each other and are considered separate rooms provided they 
are enclosed with the required level of construction. 

A.3.3.15 Miscellaneous Storage. The sprinkler system design 
criteria for miscellaneous storage at heights below 12 ft 
(3.7 m) is covered by this standard in Chapter 12. Chapter 12 
describes design criteria and Section 8.2 describes installation 
requirements (area limits). These requirements apply to all 
storage of 12 ft (3.7 m) or less in height. 

A.3.3.18 Reinforced Plastic Pallet. See Figure A.3.3.18(a) and 
Figure A.3.3.18(b). 

A.3.3.21 Sprinkler System. A sprinkler system is considered to 
have a single system riser control valve. The design and instal- 
lation of water supply facilities such as gravity tanks, fire 
pumps, reservoirs, or pressure tanks are covered by NFPA 20, 

Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection, 
and NFPA 22, Standard for Water Tanks for Private Fire Protection. 

A.3.4.6 Gridded Sprinkler System. See Figure A.3.4.6. 

A.3.4.7 Looped Sprinkler System. See Figure A.3.4.7. 

A.3.4.8 Preaction Sprinkler System. The actuating means of 
the valve are described in 7.3.2.1. Actuation of the detection sys- 
tem and sprinklers in the case of double-interlocked systems 
opens a valve that permits water to flow into the sprinkler piping 
system and to be discharged from any sprinklers that are open. 




Reinforcements 

FIGURE A.3.3. 18(a) Cut-Away Reinforced Plastic Pallet. 




Reinforcements 



FIGURE A.3.3.18(b) Assembled Reinforced Plastic Pallet. 



A.3.5 See Figure A.3. 5. 

A.3.6.1 General. The response time index (RTI) is a measure 
of the sensitivity of the sprinkler's thermal element as installed 
in a specific sprinkler. It is usually determined by plunging a 
sprinkler into a heated laminar airflow within a test oven. The 
plunge test is not currently applicable to certain sprinklers. 
The RTI is calculated using the following: 

(1) The operating time of the sprinkler 

(2) The operating temperature of the sprinkler's heat- 
responsive element (as determined in a bath test) 

(3) The air temperature of the test oven 

(4) The air velocity of the test oven 

(5) The sprinkler's conductivity (c) factor, which is the mea- 
sure of conductance between the sprinkler's heat- 
responsive element and the sprinkler oven mount 



2002 Edition 



13-200 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 































< 




To supply 
















< ■ 













FIGURE A.3.4.6 Gridded System. 



J To supply 
FIGURE A.3.4.7 Looped System. 



A System riser D Riser nipple 
B Feed main E Branch lines 
C Cross main F Underground 
supply 




FIGURE A.3.5 Building Elevation Showing Parts of Sprinkler 
Piping System. 



Other factors affecting response include the temperature 
rating, sprinkler position, fire exposure, and radiation. 

ISO standard 6182-1 currently recognizes the RTI range of 
greater than 50 (meters-seconds) 172 and less than 80 (meters- 
seconds) 172 as special response. Such sprinklers can be recog- 
nized as special sprinklers under 8.4.9.1. 

It should be recognized that the term fast response (like the 
term quick response used to define a particular type of sprinkler) 
refers to the thermal sensitivity within the operating element of a 
sprinkler, not the time of operation in a particular installation. 
There are many other factors, such as ceiling height, spacing, 
ambient room temperature, and distance below ceiling, that af- 
fect the time of response of sprinklers. In most fire scenarios, 
sprinkler activation times will be shortest where the thermal ele- 
ments are located 1 in. (25.4 mm) to 3 in. (76.2 mm) below the 
ceiling. A fast response sprinkler is expected to operate quicker 
than a standard response sprinkler in the same installation orien- 
tation. For modeling purposes, concealed sprinklers can be con- 
sidered equivalent to pendent sprinklers having a similar thermal 
response sensitivity installed 12 in. (305 mm) below smooth un- 
obstructed ceilings, and recessed sprinklers can be considered 
equivalent to pendent sprinklers having a similar thermal re- 
sponse sensitivity installed 8 in. (203 mm) below smooth unob- 
structed ceilings. 

A.3. 6.2.1 Early Suppression Fast-Response (ESFR) Sprinkler. 

It is important to realize that the effectiveness of these highly 
tested and engineered sprinklers depends on the combina- 
tion of fast response and the quality and uniformity of the 
sprinkler discharge. It should also be realized that ESFR sprin- 
klers cannot be relied upon to provide fire control, let alone 
suppression, if they are used outside the guidelines specified 
in Chapter 12. 

A.3.6.2.7 Quick-Response Early Suppression (QRES) Sprin- 
kler. Research into the development of QRES sprinklers is 
continuing under the auspices of the National Fire Protection 
Research Foundation. It is expected that the proposed design 
criteria will be added to the standard when a thorough analysis 
of the test data is completed. 

A.3.6.2.12 Specific Application Control Mode Sprinkler (for 
Storage Use). Examples include large drop sprinklers or listed 
at a minimum operating pressure or density with a specific 
number of operating sprinklers — for example, specific appli- 
cation sprinklers. 

A.3. 6.4.2 Dry Sprinkler. Under certain ambient conditions, 
wet pipe systems having dry-pendent (or upright) sprinklers 
can freeze due to heat loss by conduction. Therefore, due con- 
sideration should be given to the amount of heat maintained 
in the heated space, the length of the nipple in the heated 
space, and other relevant factors. 

Dry sprinklers are intended to extend into an unheated 
area from a wet pipe system or to be used on a dry pipe system. 

A. 3. 7.1 Obstructed Construction. The following are examples 
of obstructed construction. The definitions are provided to assist 
the user in determining the type of construction feature. 

( 1 ) Beam and Girder Construction. The term beam and girder con- 
struction as used in this standard includes noncombustible 
and combustible roof or floor decks supported by wood 
beams of 4 in. (102 mm) or greater nominal thickness or 
concrete or steel beams spaced 3 ft to 7V£ ft (0.9 m to 
2.3 m) on center and either supported on or framed into 
girders. [Where supporting a wood plank deck, this in- 



2002 Edition 



ANNEX A 



13-201 



eludes semi-mill and panel construction, and where sup- 
porting (with steel framing) gypsum plank, steel deck, 
concrete, tile, or similar material, this includes much of 
the so-called noncombustible construction.] 

(2) Concrete Tee Construction. The term concrete tee construction as 
it is used in this standard refers to solid concrete members 
with stems (legs) having a nominal thickness less than the 
nominal height. See Figure A.3.7.1(a) for examples of 
concrete tee construction. 

(3) Composite Wood Joist Construction. The term composite wood 
joist construction refers to wood beams of "I" cross section con- 
structed of wood flanges and solid wood web, supporting a 
floor or roof deck. Composite wood joists can vary in depth 
up to 48 in. (1.2 m), can be spaced up to 48 in. (1.2 m) on 
centers, and can span up to 60 ft (18 m) between supports. 
Joist channels should be firestopped to the full depth of 
the joists with material equivalent to the web construction 
so that individual channel areas do not exceed 300 ft 2 
(27.9 m 2 ) . [See Figure A. 3. 7. 1(b) for an example of composite wood 
joist construction.] 

(4) Panel Construction. The term panel construction as used in 
this standard includes ceiling panels formed by members 
capable of trapping heat to aid the operation of sprinklers 
and limited to a maximum of 300 ft 2 (27.9 m 2 ) in area. 
There should be no unfilled penetrations in the cross sec- 
tional area of the bounding structural members including 
the interface at the roof. Beams spaced more than 7V2 ft 
(2.3 m) apart and framed into girders qualify as panel 
construction, provided the 300-ft 2 (27.9-m 2 ) area limita- 
tion is met. 

(5) Semi-Mill Construction. The term semi-mill construction as 
used in this standard refers to a modified standard mill 
construction, where greater column spacing is used and 
beams rest on girders. 

(6) Wood Joist Construction. The term wood joist construction re- 
fers to solid wood members of rectangular cross section, 
which can vary from 2 in. to 4 in. (51 mm to 102 mm) 
nominal width and can be up to 14 in. (356 mm) nominal 
depth, spaced up to 3 ft (0.9 m) on centers, and can span 
up to 40 ft (12 m) between supports, supporting a floor or 
roof deck. Solid wood members less than 4 in. (102 mm) 
nominal width and up to 14 in. (356 mm) nominal depth, 
spaced more than 3 ft (0.9 m) on centers, are also consid- 
ered as wood joist construction. 

(7) Bar Joist Construction with Fireproofing. In order to meet 
building codes, bar joists are often covered with fireproof- 
ing materials. In such an event, if greater than 30 percent 
of the area of the joist is obstructed, it should be consid- 
ered obstructed construction. 

A.3.7.2 Unobstructed Construction. The following are ex- 
amples of unobstructed construction. The definitions are pro- 
vided to assist the user in determining the type of construction 
feature. 

(1) Bar Joist Construction. The term bar joist construction refers 
to construction employing joists consisting of steel truss- 
shaped members. Wood truss-shaped members, which 
consist of wood top and bottom chord members not ex- 
ceeding 4 in. (102 mm) in depth with steel tube or bar 
webs, are also defined as bar joists. Bar joists include non- 
combustible or combustible roof or floor decks on bar 
joist construction. [See Figure A3. 7.2(a) and Figure 
A3. 7 .2(b) for examples of bar joist construction.] 



■Steel wire mesh 
^Web 

Legs- 



Steel reinforcing 
rods 



Steel wire mesh 
-Web 





r 





1 ■ ■ — v a ■« A f — '■ • " '"'" ■ " • • ^> - • »i:o A-= — '■> ■ ■•• "I 

}■< Legs (tee) ■ 

Steel 

reinforcing 

rods 

FIGURE A.3.7. 1 (a) Typical Concrete Tee Construction. 



Wood 




FIGURE A.3.7. 1(b) Typical Composite Wood Joist Con- 
struction. 



(2) Open-Grid Ceilings. The term open-grid ceilings as used in 
this standard are ceilings in which the openings are V4 in. 
(6.4 mm) or larger in the least dimension, the thickness 
of the ceiling material does not exceed the least dimen- 
sion of the openings, and the openings constitute at least 
70 percent of the ceiling area. 

(3) Smooth Ceiling Construction. The term smooth ceiling construc- 
tion as used in this standard includes the following: 

(a) Flat slab, pan-type reinforced concrete 

(b) Continuous smooth bays formed by wood, concrete, 
or steel beams spaced more than IV2 ft (2.3 m) on 
centers — beams supported by columns, girders, or 
trusses 

(c) Smooth roof or floor decks supported directly on 
girders or trusses spaced more than IV2 ft (2.3 m) on 
center 

(d) Smooth monolithic ceilings of at least % in. (19 mm) 
of plaster on metal lath or a combination of materials 
of equivalent fire-resistive rating attached to the un- 
derside of wood joists, wood trusses, and bar joists 

(e) Open-web-type steel beams, regardless of spacing 



2002 Edition 



13-202 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



(4) 



(5) 



(f) Smooth shell-type roofs, such as folded plates, hyper- 
bolic paraboloids, saddles, domes, and long barrel 
shells 

(g) Suspended ceilings of combustible or noncombus- 
tible construction 

(h) Smooth monolithic ceilings with fire resistance less 
than that specified under item (d) attached to the 
underside of wood joists, wood trusses, and bar joists 

Combustible or noncombustible floor decks are permit- 
ted in the construction specified in A.3.7.2(3) (b) through 
(f). Item (b) would include standard mill construction. 
Standard Mill Construction. The term standard mill construc- 
tion as used in this standard refers to heavy timber con- 
struction as defined in NFPA 220, Standard on Types of 
Building Construction. 

Wood Truss Construction. The term wood truss construction 
refers to parallel or pitched wood chord members con- 
nected by open wood members (webbing) supporting a 
roof or floor deck. Trusses with steel webbing, similar to 
bar joist construction, having top and bottom wood 
chords exceeding 4 in. (102 mm) in depth, should also be 
considered wood truss construction. [See Figure A. 3. 7.2(c).] 




Greater than 4 in. (1 02 mm) 



Floor truss 
\ 






— -|i 

!l = 








33 16 



Continuous 2 times load share bridging 
[minimum size 2 in. x 6 in. (50 mm x 152 mm) #2 spruce pine fir] 




'4 in. (102 mm) or less 
FIGURE A.3.7.2(a) Wood Bar Joist Construction. 




FIGURE A.3.7.2(b) Open-Web Bar Joist Construction. 

A.3.8.1 Private Fire Service Main. See Figure A.3.8.1. 

A.3.9.1.2 Open Array. Fire tests conducted to represent a 
closed array utilized 6-in. (152-mm) longitudinal flues and no 
transverse flues. Fire tests conducted to represent an open 
array utilized 12-in. (305-mm) longitudinal flues. 

A.3.9.2 Available Height for Storage. For new sprinkler instal- 
lations, the maximum height of storage is the height at which 
commodities can be stored above the floor where the mini- 
mum required unobstructed space below sprinklers is main- 
tained. For the evaluation of existing situations, the maximum 



Figure A.3.7.2(c) Examples of Wood Truss Construction. 



height of storage is the maximum existing height, if space 
between the sprinklers and storage is equal to or greater than 
required. 

A.3.9.6 Compartmented. Cartons used in most of the Factory 
Mutual-sponsored plastic tests involved an ordinary 200-lb 
(90.7-kg) test of outside corrugated cartons with five layers of 
vertical pieces of corrugated carton used as dividers on the 
inside. There were also single horizontal pieces of corrugated 
carton between each layer. 

Other tests sponsored by the Society of Plastics Industry, 
Industrial Risk Insurers, Factory Mutual, and Kemper used 
two vertical pieces of carton (not corrugated) to form an "X" 
in the carton for separation of product. This arrangement was 
not considered compartmented, as the pieces of carton used 
for separations were flexible (not rigid), and only two pieces 
were used in each carton. 

A.3.9.7 Container (Shipping, Master, or Outer Container). 

The term container includes items such as cartons and wrap- 
pings. Fi re-re tardant containers or tote boxes do not by them- 
selves create a need for automatic sprinklers unless coated 
with oil or grease. Containers can lose their fire-retardant 
properties if washed. For obvious reasons, they should not be 
exposed to rainfall. 

A.3.9.14 Pile Stability, Stable Piles. Pile stability performance 
has been shown to be a difficult factor to judge prior to a pile 
being subjected to an actual fire. In the test work completed, 
compartmented cartons [see A.3.9.6, Compartmented) have been 
shown to be stable under fire conditions. Tests also indicated 
cartons that were not compartmented tended to be unstable 
under fire conditions. 

Storage on pallets, compartmented storage, and plastic 
components that are held in place by materials that do not 
deform readily under fire conditions are examples of stable 
storage. 



2002 Edition 



ANNEX A 



13-203 



SeeNFPA22 



Post indicator valve 



^4 

Monitor nozzle 



Building- 



/ 



Check valve 



1 V- 



Post indicator valve 

SeeNFPA20 

A ... 




Post 

indicator 

To water spray fixed valve 

system or open \ 

-t- 



sprinkler system 




Check valve 



Public main 



ta 



Control valves 




Water tank 



Fire pump 

Check valve 
j 

Pump discharge valve 
H — O- Hydrant 




From jockey pump 
From fire pump (if needed) 
To fire pump (if needed) 
To jockey pump 



__/ Private property line 



M J End of private fire service main 



Note: The piping (aboveground or buried) shown is specific as to the 
end of the private fire service main and schematic only for illustrative 
purposes beyond. Details of valves and their location requirements are 
covered in the specific standard involved. 

FIGURE A.3.8. 1 Typical Private Fire Service Main. 



A.3.9.15 Pile Stability, Unstable Piles. Leaning stacks, 
crushed bottom cartons, and reliance on combustible bands 
for stability are examples of potential pile instability under a 
fire condition. An increase in pile height tends to increase 
instability. 

A.3.10.1 Aisle Width. See Figure A.3. 10.1. 

A.3.10.4 Conventional Pallets. See Figure A.3. 10.4. 

A.3.10.7 Longitudinal Flue Space. See Figure A. 3. 10. 7. 

A.3.10.8 Rack. Rack storage as referred to in this standard 
contemplates commodities in a rack structure, usually steel. 
Many variations of dimensions are found. Racks can be single- 
row, double-row, or multiple-row, with or without solid shelves. 
The standard commodity used in most of the tests was 42 in. 
(1.07 m) on a side. The types of racks covered in this standard 
are as follows: 



- -o- - 



■— -o- 



Aisle width 




Plan View End View 

FIGURE A.3.10.1 Illustration of Aisle Width. 




Conventional pallet 




Solid flat bottom 
wood pallet (slave pallet) 

FIGURE A.3.10.4 Typical Pallets. 




Conventional 
pallet v. 



— Commodity r 



Floor 



/ 



-D- 



Section View 

Possible transverse flue spaces 



End View 



-C H -M 

-D- 



-n- — 



Longitudinal 
flue space 



Longitudinal 
" flue space 

Rows of storage 



Plan View 

FIGURE A.3.10.7 Typical Double-Row (Back-to-Back) Rack 
Arrangement. 



2002 Edition 



13-204 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



(1) Double-Row Racks. Pallets rest on two beams parallel to the 
aisle. Any number of pallets can be supported by one pair 
of beams. [See Figure A.3. 10.8(a) through Figure A.3. 10.8(d).] 

(2) Automatic Storage-Type Rack. The pallet is supported by two 
rails running perpendicular to the aisle. [See Figure 
A. 3. 10.8(e).] 

(3) Multiple-Row Racks More than Two Pallets Deep, Measured Aisle 
to Aisle. These racks include drive-in racks, drive-through 
racks, flow-through racks, portable racks arranged in the 
same manner, and conventional or automatic racks with 
aisles less than 42 in. (1.07 m) wide. [See Figure A.3. 10.8(f) 
through Figure A.3.10. 8(k).] 

(4) Movable Racks. Movable racks are racks on fixed rails or 
guides. They can be moved back and forth only in a hori- 
zontal, two-dimensional plane. Amoving aisle is created as 
abutting racks are either loaded or unloaded, then moved 
across the aisle to abut other racks. [See Figure A. 3. 10.8(h).] 

(5) Solid Shelving. Conventional pallet racks with plywood 
shelves on the shelf beams [see Figure A.3. 10.8(c) and Figure 
A.3. 10.8(d)]. These racks are used in special cases. (See 
Chapter 12.) 

(6) Cantilever Rack. The load is supported on arms that extend 
horizontally from columns. The load can rest on the arms or 
on shelves supported by the arms. [See Figure A.3. 10. 8(j).] 

Load depth in conventional or automatic racks should be 
considered a nominal 4 ft (1.22 m). [See Figure A.3.10. 8(b).] 

A.3.11.4 Miscellaneous Tire Storage. The limitations on the 
type and size of storage are intended to identify those situa- 
tions where tire storage is present in limited quantities and 
incidental to the main use of the building. Occupancies such 
as aircraft hangars, automobile dealers, repair garages, retail 
storage facilities, automotive and truck assembly plants, and 
mobile home assembly plants are types of facilities where mis- 
cellaneous storage could be present. 







End View 
Double Row 

L Longitudinal flue space 
T Transverse flue space 



Aisle View 




A Load depth 

6 Load width 

£ Storage height 

F Commodity 



G Pallet 

H Rack depth 

L Longitudinal flue space 

7 Transverse flue space 



FIGURE A.3.10.8(b) Double-Row Racks Without Solid or 
Slatted Shelves. 




A Shelf depth 
B Shelf height 
E Storage height 
F Commodity 



H Rack depth 

L Longitudinal flue space 

T Transverse flue space 



FIGURE A.3.10.8(a) Conventional Pallet Rack. 



FIGURE A.3. 10.8(c) Double-Row Racks with Solid Shelves. 



2002 Edition 



ANNEX A 



13-205 




A Shelf depth 
B Shelf height 
E Storage height 
F Commodity 



H Rack depth 

L Longitudinal flue space 

T Transverse flue space 



FIGURE A.3. 1 0.8 (d) Double-Row Racks with Slatted Shelves. 



i 



pnr 



Material 

handling 

device 



USE 



T 



\ 



\ 
\ 
\ 
\ 
\ 



\ 








2 



End View 

A Load depth 

B Load width 

• E Storage height 

F Commodity 



-6-H \*-T 
Aisle View 



G Pallet 

L Longitudinal flue space 

T Transverse flue space 



FIGURE A.3.10.8(e) Automatic Storage-Type Rack. 









'■ ■■ 





End View 



L Longitudinal flue space 



FIGURE A.3.10.8(f) Multiple-Row Rack to Be Served by a 
Reach Truck. 



2002 Edition 



13-206 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 




Aisle 



End View 



T T- 





AisleView 

T Transverse flue space 

FIGURE A.3.10.8(g) Flow-Through Pallet Rack. 



K 



Z 



k 



Zl 



Z 



M, 





End View 



r-H h- 




3^ 



Aisle View 

T Transverse flue space 

FIGURE A.3.10.8(h) Drive-in Rack — Two or More Pallets 
Deep (Fork Truck Drives into the Rack to Deposit and With- 
draw Loads in the Depth of the Rack). 





■ " . M, J nl, ,lnl, , I nl, ,lr 



-ii, - ini i inl, Jniy J^', ,'r- 



Aisle View 




FIGURE A.3. 10.8(i) now-Through Racks (Top) and Portable 
Racks (Bottom). 



I r 
I I 
I \t 



Cantilever racking 



*! < Aisle » r 




Optional 
over-aisle tie 



Optional aisle 
base 



Aisle 



Single arm 



Double arm 



End View 




^^^s 




Aisle View 



FIGURE A.3.10.8(j) Cantilever Rack. 



2002 Edition 



ANNEX A 



13-207 



L 



Movable 
II "Hi pallet 

rack 



Direction of 



movement 



Carriage- 
wheel 



-..-,- -. ,- - - , ,- - - i ( i) i r--i| 



/ 



End View 
Double Row 



Aisle View 



Track 
jjL^in floor 

\ Carriage 
wheel 



T Transverse flue space 
L Longitudinal flue space 

FIGURE A.3. 10.8(k) Movable Rack. 



A.3.11.9 Rubber Tire Rack Illustrations. Figure A.3.11.9(a) 
through Figure A.3.1 1.9(g) do not necessarily cover all pos- 
sible rubber tire storage configurations. 




FIGURE A.3. 11 .9(a) Typical Open Portable Tire Rack Unit. 




FIGURE A.3.1 1.9(b) Typical Palletized Portable Tire Rack 
Units. 



76 in. 
(1.9 m) 
typical 




FIGURE A.3. 11 .9(c) Open Portable Tire Rack. 




A Load depth 
6 Load width 
E Storage height 
F Commodity 



G Pallet 

H Rack depth 

L Longitudinal flue space 

T Transverse flue space 



FIGURE A.3.11.9(d) Double-Row Fixed Tire Rack Storage. 




FIGURE A.3. 1 1 .9 (e) Palletized Portable Tire Rack, On-Side 
Storage Arrangement (Banded or Unbanded). 



2002 Edition 



13-208 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 




FIGURE A.3.11.9(f) 
Banded. 



On-Floor Storage; On-Tread, Normally 




FIGURE A.3. 11 .9(g) Typical Laced Tire Storage. 



A.3.12.1 Baled Cotton. See Table A.3. 12.1. 

A.3.13.1.3 Standard Array (Paper). The occasional presence 
of partially used rolls on top of columns of otherwise uniform 
diameter rolls does not appreciably affect the burning charac- 
teristics. 

A.3. 13.6.3 Wrapped Roll Paper Storage. Rolls that are com- 
pletely protected with a heavyweight kraft wrapper on both 
sides and ends are subject to a reduced degree of fire hazard. 



Standard methods for wrapping and capping rolls are out- 
lined in Figure A.3.13.6.3. 

In some cases, rolls are protected with laminated wrappers, 
using two sheets of heavy kraft with a high-temperature wax 
laminate between the sheets. Where using this method, the 
overall weight of wax-laminated wrappers should be based on 
the basis weight per 1000 ft 2 (92.9 m 2 ) of the outer sheet only, 
rather than on the combined basis weight of the outer and 
inner laminated wrapper sheets. A properly applied wrapper 
can have the effect of changing the class of a given paper to 
essentially that of the wrapper material. The effect of applying 
a wrapper to tissue has not been determined by test. 

A.3.13.7 Roll Paper Storage Height. The size of rolls and limi- 
tations of mechanical handling equipment should be consid- 
ered in determining maximum storage height. 

A.3.14.4 Heat-Sensitive Material. The backbone of the fire 
protection philosophy for U.S. flagged vessels and passenger 
vessels that trade internationally is limiting a fire to the com- 
partment of origin by passive means. Materials that do not 
withstand a 1-hour fire exposure when tested in accordance 
with ASTM E 119, Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Building 
Construction and Materials, are considered "heat sensitive." (See 
Figure A.3.14.4.) 

A.3.14.8 Marine System. Some types of sprinkler systems can 
closely resemble marine systems, such as a system installed on 
a floating structure that has a permanent water supply connec- 
tion to a public main. For these types of systems, judgment 
should be used in determining if certain aspects of Chapter 17 
are applicable. 

A.3.14.9 Marine Thermal Barrier. A marine thermal barrier is 
typically referred to as a B-15 boundary. 

A.5.1 Occupancy examples in the listings as shown in the 
various hazard classifications are intended to represent the 
norm for those occupancy types. Unusual or abnormal fuel 
loadings or combustible characteristics and susceptibility for 
changes in these characteristics, for a particular occupancy, 
are considerations that should be weighed in the selection and 
classification. 

The light hazard classification is intended to encompass 
residential occupancies; however, this is not intended to pre- 
clude the use of listed residential sprinklers in residential oc- 
cupancies or residential portions of other occupancies. 



Table A.3.12.1 Typical Cotton Bale Types and Approximate Sizes 





Dimensions 


Average Weight 
lb kg 


Volume 


Density 


Bale Type 


in. 


mm 


ft 3 


™ 3 
m 


lb/ft 3 


kg/m 3 


Gin, flat 


55 x 45 x 28 


1397x1143x711 


500 


226.8 


40.1 


1.13 


12.5 


201 


Modified gin, flat 


55 x 45 x 24 


1397x1143x610 


500 


226.8 


34.4 


0.97 


14.5 


234 


Compressed, 


57 x 29 x 23 


1448 x 736 x 584 


500 


226.8 


22.0 


0.62 


22.7 


366 


standard 


















Gin, standard 


55x31x21 


1397 x 787 x 533 


500 


226.9 


20.7 


0.58 


24.2 


391 


Compressed, 


58 x 25 x 21 


1475 x 635 x 533 


500 


226.8 


17.6 


0.50 


28.4 


454 


universal 


















Gin, universal 


55 x 26 x 21 


1397 x 660 x 533 


500 


226.8 


17.4 


0.49 


28.7 


463 


Compressed, high 


58 x 22 x 21 


1473 x 559 x 533 


500 


226.8 


15.5 


0.44 


32.2 


515 


density 



















2002 Edition 



ANNEX A 



13-209 



Wrapper 

Exterior wrapper 
Body wrapper 



Body wrap 

Sleeve wrap 
Wrap — do not 
cap 



Heads 

Headers 



Inside heads 



Outside heads 



Edge protectors 

Edge bands 



General term for protective wrapping of sides 
and ends on roll. 



International Shore Connection 



Wrapper placed around circumference of roll. 
No heads or caps needed. 





Overwrap 



Protection applied to the ends of the rolls {A and 
6). Heads do not lap over the end of the roll. 

Protection applied to the ends of the rolls 
next to the roll itself (S). The wrapper of 
the rolls is crimped down over these heads. 

Protection applied to the ends of the rolls on 
the outside (A). This head is applied after 
the wrapper is crimped. 

Refers to extra padding to prevent damage to 
roll edges (C). 

The distance the body wrap or wrapper overlaps 
itself (D). 



Threads to mate hydrants 
and hose at shore facilities 



Threads to mate hydrants 
and hose on ship 




0.75 in. 
(19 mm) 



Ship 

Material: Brass or bronze 
suitable for 150 psi (10.3 bar) 
service (ship) 



0.75 in 
(19 mm) 



Shore 

Material: Any suitable for 1 50 psi 
(10.3 bar) service (shore) 
Flange surface: Flat face 
Gasket material: Any suitable for 
150 psi (10.3 bar) service 
Bolts: Four%-in. (16-mm) minimum 
diameter, 2-in. (51 -mm) long, 
threaded to within 1 in. (25.4 mm) 
of bolt head 
Nuts: Four, to fit bolts 
Washers: Four, to fit bolts 



FIGURE A.3.14.4 International Shore Fire Connection. 




Roll cap A protective cover placed 

over the end of a roll. 
Edges of cap lap over the 
end of the roll and are 
secured to the sides of the 
roll. 



FIGURE A.3. 1 3.6.3 Wrapping and Capping Terms and Methods. 



A.5.2 Light hazard occupancies include occupancies having 
uses and conditions similar to the following: 

Churches 

Clubs 

Eaves and overhangs, if of combustible construction with 
no combustibles beneath 

Educational 

Hospitals 

Institutional 

Libraries, except large stack rooms 

Museums 

Nursing or convalescent homes 

Offices, including data processing 

Residential 

Restaurant seating areas 

Theaters and auditoriums, excluding stages and prosceniums 

Unused attics 



A.5.3.1 Ordinary hazard occupancies (Group 1) include oc- 
cupancies having uses and conditions similar to the following: 

Automobile parking and showrooms 

Bakeries 

Beverage manufacturing 

Canneries 

Dairy products manufacturing and processing 

Electronic plants 

Glass and glass products manufacturing 

Laundries 

Restaurant service areas 

A.5.3.2 Ordinary hazard occupancies (Group 2) include oc- 
cupancies having uses and conditions similar to the following: 

Cereal mills 

Chemical plants — ordinary 

Confectionery products 

Distilleries 

Dry cleaners 

Feed mills 

Horse stables 

Leather goods manufacturing 

Libraries — large stack room areas 

Machine shops 

Metal working 

Mercantile 

Paper and pulp mills 



2002 Edition 



13-210 



INSTALLATION OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 



Paper process plants 

Piers and wharves 

Post offices 

Printing and publishing 

Repair garages 

Resin application area 

Stages 

Textile manufacturing 

Tire manufacturing 

Tobacco products manufacturing 

Wood machining 

Wood product assembly 

A.5.4.1 Extra hazard occupancies (Group 1) include occu- 
pancies having uses and conditions similar to the following: 

Aircraft hangars (except as governed by NFPA 409, Stan- 
dard on Aircraft Hangars) 

Combustible hydraulic fluid use areas 

Die casting 

Metal extruding 

Plywood and particle board manufacturing 

Printing [using inks having flash points below 100°F 
(38°C)] 

Rubber reclaiming, compounding, drying, milling, vulca- 
nizing 

Saw mills 

Textile picking, opening, blending, garnetting, or carding, 
combining of cotton, synthetics, wool shoddy, or burlap 

Upholstering with plastic foams 

A.5.4.2 Extra hazard occupancies (Group 2) include occu- 
pancies having uses and conditions similar to the following: 

Asphalt saturating 

Flammable liquids spraying 

Flow coating 

Manufactured home or modular building assemblies 
(where finished enclosure is present and has combustible in- 
teriors) 

Open oil quenching 

Plastics processing 

Solvent cleaning 

Varnish and paint dipping 

A.5.5 Other NFPA standards contain design criteria for fire 
control or fire suppression (see Section 5.5 and Chapter 2). While 
these can form the basis of design criteria, this standard de- 
scribes the methods of design, installation, fabrication, calcu- 
lation, and evaluation of water supplies that should be used for 
the specific design of the system. 

Other NFPA standards contain sprinkler system design cri- 
teria for fire control or suppression of specific hazards. This 
information has been either referenced or copied into Chap- 
ter 13 using NFPA's extract policy. 

A.5.6 Specification of the type, amount, and arrangement of 
combustibles for any commodity classification is essentially an 
attempt to define the potential fire severity, based on its burn- 
ing characteristics, so the fire can be successfully controlled by 
the prescribed sprinkler protection for the commodity class. 
In actual storage situations, however, many storage arrays do 
not fit precisely into one of the fundamental classifications; 
therefore, the user needs to make judgments after comparing 
each classification to the existing storage conditions. Storage 
arrays consist of thousands of products, which make it impos- 



sible to specify all the acceptable variations for any class. As an 
alternative, a variety of common products are classified in this 
appendix based on judgment, loss experience, and fire test 
results. 

Table A.5.6 provides examples of commodities not ad- 
dressed by the classifications in Section 5.6. 

Table A.5.6. 3 is an alphabetized list of commodities with 
corresponding classifications. 

Table A.5.6.3.1 through Table A.5.6.3.4 and Table A.5.6.4.1 
provide examples of commodities within a specific class. 

Table A.5.6 Examples of Commodities Not Addressed by the 
Classifications in Section 5.6 

Boxes, Crates 

- Empty, wood slatted 
Lighters (butane) 

- Loose in large containers (Level 3 aerosol) 

*Should be treated as idle pallets. 

A.5.6. 1.1 Commodity classification is governed by the types 
and amounts of materials (e.g., metal, paper, wood, plastics) 
that are a part of a product and its primary packaging. How- 
ever, in a storage or warehousing situation, classification is also 
affected by such factors as the primary storage or shipping 
container material, the amount of air space, and the location 
of the more hazardous materials within the container. For ex- 
ample, a Group A plastic product enclosed in a five- or six- 
sided metal container can be considered Class II, while a ce- 
ramic product heavily wrapped in tissue paper and placed in a 
corrugated carton could be Class III. 

A.5.6.3 See Table A.5.6.3. 



Table A.5.6.3 Alphabetized Listing of Commodity Classes 





Commodity 


Commodity 


Class 


Aerosols 




Cartoned or uncartoned 




- Level 1 


Class III 


Alcoholic Beverages 




Cartoned or uncartoned 




- Up to 20 percent alcohol in metal, 


Class I 


glass, or ceramic containers 




- Up to 20 percent alcohol in wood 


Class II 


containers 




Ammunition 




Small arms, shotgun 




- Packaged, cartoned 


Class IV 


Appliances, Major (e.g., stoves, 




refrigerators) 




- Not packaged, no appreciable plastic 


Class I 


exterior trim 




- Corrugated, cartoned (no appreciable 


Class II 


plastic trim) 




Baked Goods 




Cookies, cakes, pies 




- Frozen, packaged in cartons 1 


Class II 


- Packaged, in cartons 


Class III 



2002 Edition 



ANNEX A 



13-211 



TableA.5.6.3 Continued 



Table A.5.6.3 Continued 







Commodity 


Commodity 




Class 


Batteries 






Dry cells (nonlithium or similar 


exotic 




metals) 






- Packaged in cartons 




Class I 


- Blister-packed in cartons 




Class II 


Automobile 






- Filled 2 




Class I 


Truck or larger 






- Empty or filled 2 




Group A plastics 


Beans 






Dried 






- Packaged, cartoned 




Class III 


Bottles, Jars 






Empty, cartoned 






- Glass 




Class I 


- Plastic PET (polyethylene 




Class W 


terephthalate) 






Filled noncombustible powders 






- Plast